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1.
Cell Rep ; 38(6): 110348, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712500

ABSTRACT

The increasing prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants with the ability to escape existing humoral protection conferred by previous infection and/or immunization necessitates the discovery of broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). Utilizing mRNA display, we identify a set of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) proteins and characterize the structures of nAbs that recognize epitopes in the S1 subunit of the S glycoprotein. These structural studies reveal distinct binding modes for several antibodies, including the targeting of rare cryptic epitopes in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of S that interact with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to initiate infection, as well as the S1 subdomain 1. Further, we engineer a potent ACE2-blocking nAb to sustain binding to S RBD with the E484K and L452R substitutions found in multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants. We demonstrate that mRNA display is an approach for the rapid identification of nAbs that can be used in combination to combat emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322858

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) posted a devastating global health crisis for almost a year already. Very little is known about this virus that scientists, physicians and the medical community struggled to find treatments of this novel virus. The vaccine that can potentially combat this virus is still an unknown reality hence, the repurposing of existing medical treatments such as chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) could be a possible treatment and is being widely utilized. CPM is a safe and effective antihistamine with potent antiviral activity against various strains of influenza A/B, thus highlighting its great antiviral potential. We tested the virucidal potential of chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) in a nasal spray composition currently in development as an anti-allergy medication. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a droplet mode transmission with a notably high viral load in the upper respiratory tract, especially the nose. Several studies had already postulated that the nose is possibly the primary route of entry of SARS-CoV-2 owing to the high expression of Angiotensin 2 converting enzyme receptors. We hypothesize that utilizing (CPM) nasal spray as an adjunct treatment to COVID-19 positive patients and reduce their clinical course and hasten their time to negativization via RT-PCR via nasopharyngeal swab. We present a series of four symptomatic patients with mild-moderate risks. CPM nasal spray was added to their current supportive treatment. All four patients showed rapid improvement of their clinical symptoms with a shorter than average time to negativization on repeat nasopharyngeal swab via RT-PCR. No safety issues were encountered during the course of treatment. Given its years of excellent safety profile with remarkable clinical results as shown in this case series, we conclude that CPM nasal spray may be a potential adjunct treatment option in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 symptoms.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321857

ABSTRACT

This study aims to assess anakinra's safety and efficacy for treating severe coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19). PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus, medRxiv, and bioRxiv were searched. Three retrospective studies and five case series involving 3,274 adult patients with severe COVID-19 were included, 621 treated with anakinra (whether administered alone or in combination with other drugs) and 1,565 in the control group arm. All-cause mortality of severe COVID-19 patients among the anakinra group was 20% (16/81), which was lower than that in the control group (65%;39/60). The difference was statistically significant [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06–0.29, I2= 0%]. The mechanical ventilation requirement with OR 0.57 (0.11-2.84, I2=87%) was not significantly better compared to the control group. For the safety of anakinra, we evaluated thromboembolism risk and liver enzyme elevation. Thromboembolism risk with OR: 1.48 (0.55- 3.99, I2=0%) and elevation in liver transaminases with OR 0.67 (0.11-3.93, I2=66%) were not statistically significant over the control group. However, these non-significant differences between the anakinra and control groups may have been the result of baseline characteristics of the intervention group, and further studies are essential in evaluating anakinra's safety profile.

4.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294219

ABSTRACT

The global respiratory outbreak in the form of COVID-19 has underlined the necessity to devise more effective and reproducible intranasal drug delivery modalities, that would also be user-friendly for adoption compliance. In this study, we have collected evaluation feedback from a cohort of 13 healthy volunteers, who assessed two different nasal spray administration techniques, namely the vertical placement protocol (or, VP), wherein the nozzle is held vertically upright at a shallow insertion depth of 0.5 cm inside the nasal vestibule;and the shallow angle protocol (or, SA), wherein the spray axis is angled at 45° to the vertical, with a vestibular insertion depth of 1.5 cm. The SA protocol is derived from published findings on alternate spray orientations that have been shown to enhance targeted delivery at posterior infection sites, e.g., the ostiomeatal complex and the nasopharynx. All study participants reported that the SA protocol offered a more gentle and soothing delivery experience, with less impact pressure. Additionally, 60% participants opined that the VP technique caused painful irritation. We also tracked the drug transport processes for the two spray techniques in a computed tomography-based nasal reconstruction;the SA protocol marked a distinct improvement in therapeutic penetration when compared to the VP protocol.

5.
Blood Adv ; 6(3): 774-784, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542101

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have shown a suboptimal humoral response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines in patients diagnosed with hematologic malignancies; however, data about cellular immunogenicity are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate both the humoral and cellular immunogenicity 1 month after the second dose of the mRNA-1273 vaccine. Antibody titers were measured by using the Elecsys and LIAISON anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assays, and T-cell response was assessed by using interferon-γ release immunoassay technology. Overall, 76.3% (184 of 241) of patients developed humoral immunity, and the cellular response rate was 79% (184 of 233). Hypogammaglobulinemia, lymphopenia, active hematologic treatment, and anti-CD20 therapy during the previous 6 months were associated with an inferior humoral response. Conversely, age >65 years, active disease, lymphopenia, and immunosuppressive treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were associated with an impaired cellular response. A significant dissociation between the humoral and cellular responses was observed in patients treated with anti-CD20 therapy (the humoral response was 17.5%, whereas the cellular response was 71.1%). In these patients, B-cell aplasia was confirmed while T-cell counts were preserved. In contrast, humoral response was observed in 77.3% of patients undergoing immunosuppressive treatment of GVHD, whereas only 52.4% had a cellular response. The cellular and humoral responses to the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 vaccine in patients with hematologic malignancies are highly influenced by the presence of treatments such as anti-CD20 therapy and immunosuppressive agents. This observation has implications for the further management of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Journal of Management Information and Decision Sciences ; 24:1-7, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1489466

ABSTRACT

The study aims to know the relationship between perceived value and consumer loyalty to healthy products. A cross-sectional correlational study was carried out through the questionnaire applied to 417 consumers, the results show that there is a significant relationship between the study variables;Likewise, it was identified that the consumers of the company under study present the highest percentage of perceived value at a medium level, followed by the low level and finally the lowest percentage shows a high level of perceived value;Likewise, according to the type of customers, the highest percentage are promoters and the lowest corresponds to detractor consumers. In this sense, it is recommended to strengthen the functions of marketing.

8.
Infect Chemother ; 53(2): 221-237, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285415

ABSTRACT

This study aims to assess anakinra's safety and efficacy for treating severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Numerous electronic databases were searched and finally 15 studies with a total of 3,530 patients, 757 in the anakinra arm, 1,685 in the control arm were included. The pooled adjusted odds ratio (OR) for mortality in the treatment arm was 0.34 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21 - 0.54, I² = 48%), indicating a significant association between anakinra and mortality. A significant association was found regarding mechanical ventilation requirements in anakinra group compared to the control group OR, 0.68 (95% CI, 0.49 - 0.95, I² = 50%). For the safety of anakinra, we evaluated thromboembolism risk and liver transaminases elevation. Thromboembolism risk was OR, 1.59 (95% CI, 0.65 - 3.91, I² = 0%) and elevation in liver transaminases with OR was 1.35 (95% CI, 0.61 - 3.03, I² = 76%). Both were not statistically significant over the control group. Anakinra is beneficial in lowering mortality in COVID-19 patients. However, these non-significant differences in the safety profile between the anakinra and control groups may have been the result of baseline characteristics of the intervention group, and further studies are essential in evaluating anakinra's safety profile.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12740, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275953

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 variants replacing the first wave strain pose an increased threat by their potential ability to escape pre-existing humoral protection. An angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) decoy that competes with endogenous ACE2 for binding of the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain (S RBD) and inhibits infection may offer a therapeutic option with sustained efficacy against variants. Here, we used Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation to predict ACE2 sequence substitutions that might increase its affinity for S RBD and screened candidate ACE2 decoys in vitro. The lead ACE2(T27Y/H34A)-IgG1FC fusion protein with enhanced S RBD affinity shows greater live SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralization capability than wild type ACE2. MD simulation was used to predict the effects of S RBD variant mutations on decoy affinity that was then confirmed by testing of an ACE2 Triple Decoy that included an additional enzyme activity-deactivating H374N substitution against mutated S RBD. The ACE2 Triple Decoy maintains high affinity for mutated S RBD, displays enhanced affinity for S RBD N501Y or L452R, and has the highest affinity for S RBD with both E484K and N501Y mutations, making it a viable therapeutic option for the prevention or treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection with a high likelihood of efficacy against variants.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , Drug Discovery/methods , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mutation , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Domains/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
10.
J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis ; 24: 100249, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253158

ABSTRACT

The BCG vaccine is known to impart nonspecific immunological benefits alongside conferring protection to tuberculosis in endemic regions. It is also known to protect against bladder cancer and other respiratory tract infections. During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the BCG vaccine has gained attention due to its role in conferring protective immunity. We demonstrate the potential immunological protective mechanisms that play a role against COVID-19. We conduct a global assessment of the countries that have the highest and lowest mortality rates determined by an a priori methodology. Lastly, we discuss the potential limitations of incorporating BCG vaccines as potential strategies against COVID-19 and provide recommendations regarding their use in ongoing and future epidemics.

11.
Front Physiol ; 12: 667024, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247901

ABSTRACT

The kidnapping of the lipid metabolism of the host's cells by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) allows the virus to transform the cells into optimal machines for its assembly and replication. Here we evaluated changes in the fatty acid (FA) profile and the participation of the activity of the desaturases, in plasma of patients with severe pneumonia by SARS-CoV-2. We found that SARS-CoV-2 alters the FA metabolism in the cells of the host. Changes are characterized by variations in the desaturases that lead to a decrease in total fatty acid (TFA), phospholipids (PL) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs). These alterations include a decrease in palmitic and stearic acids (p ≤ 0.009) which could be used for the formation of the viral membranes and for the reparation of the host's own membrane. There is also an increase in oleic acid (OA; p = 0.001) which could modulate the inflammatory process, the cytokine release, apoptosis, necrosis, oxidative stress (OS). An increase in linoleic acid (LA) in TFA (p = 0.03) and a decreased in PL (p = 0.001) was also present. They result from damage of the internal mitochondrial membrane. The arachidonic acid (AA) percentage was elevated (p = 0.02) in the TFA and this can be participated in the inflammatory process. EPA was decreased (p = 0.001) and this may decrease of pro-resolving mediators with increase in the inflammatory process. The total of NEFAs (p = 0.03), PL (p = 0.001), cholesterol, HDL and LDL were decreased, and triglycerides were increased in plasma of the COVID-19 patients. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 alters the FA metabolism, the changes are characterized by alterations in the desaturases that lead to variations in the TFA, PL, and NEFAs profiles. These changes may favor the replication of the virus but, at the same time, they are part of the defense system provided by the host cell metabolism in its eagerness to repair damage caused by the virus to cell membranes.

12.
Discoveries (Craiova) ; 9(1): e126, 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244377

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 disease is associated with an increase in pro-inflammatory markers, such as IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis alpha, less CD4 interferon-gamma expression, and fewer CD4 and CD8 cells, which increase the susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections. One such opportunistic fungal infection is mucormycosis. Initially, it was debated whether a person taking immunosuppressants, such as corticosteroids, and monoclonal antibodies will be at higher risk for COVID-19 or whether the immunosuppresive state would cause a more severe COVID-19 disease. However, immunosuppressants are currently continued unless the patients are at greater risk of severe COVID-19 infection or are on high-dose corticosteroids therapy. As understood so far, COVID-19 infection may induce significant and persistent lymphopenia, which in turn increases the risk of opportunistic infections. It is also noted that 85% of the COVID-19 patients' laboratory findings showed lymphopenia. This means that patients with severe COVID-19 have markedly lower absolute number of T lymphocytes, CD4+T and CD8+ T cells and, since the lymphocytes play a major role in maintaining the immune homeostasis, the patients with COVID-19 are highly susceptible to fungal co-infections. This report is intended to raise awareness of the importance of early detection and treatment of mucormycosis and other fungal diseases, such as candidiasis, SARS-CoV-2-associated pulmonary aspergillosis, pneumocystis pneumonia and cryptococcal disease, in COVID-19 patients, to reduce the risk of mortality.

13.
Infect Chemother ; 53(1): 1-12, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200181

ABSTRACT

Hyperinflammation and cytokine storm has been noted as a poor prognostic factor in patients with severe pneumonia related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In COVID-19, pathogenic myeloid cell overactivation is found to be a vital mediator of damage to tissues, hypercoagulability, and the cytokine storm. These cytokines unselectively infiltrate various tissues, such as the lungs and heart, and nervous system. This cytokine storm can hence cause multi-organ dysfunction and life-threatening complications. Mavrilimumab is a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that may be helpful in some cases with COVID-19. During an inflammation, Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) release is crucial to driving both innate and adaptive immune responses. The GM-CSF immune response is triggered when an antigen attaches to the host cell and induces the signaling pathway. Mavrilimumab antagonizes the action of GM-CSF and decreases the hyperinflammation associated with pneumonia in COVID-19, therefore strengthening the rationale that mavrilimumab when added to the standard protocol of treatment could improve the clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients, specifically those patients with pneumonia. With this review paper, we aim to demonstrate the inhibitory effect of mavrilimumab on cytokine storms in patients with COVID-19 by reviewing published clinical trials and emphasize the importance of extensive future trials.

14.
Turk J Emerg Med ; 21(2): 43-50, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first cases of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were reported in Wuhan, China. No antiviral treatment options are currently available with proven clinical efficacy. However, preliminary findings from phase III trials suggest that remdesivir is an effective and safe treatment option for COVID-19 patients with both moderate and severe disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate whether remdesivir was effective for treating COVID-19 including reduced in-hospital adverse events, oxygen support, and mortality rates. METHODS: According to the PRISMA reporting guidelines, a review was conducted from January 1, 2020, until August 25, 2020, with MeSH terms including COVID-19, COVID, coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, remdesivir, adenosine nucleoside triphosphate analog, and Veklury using MEDLINE, Scopus, and CINAHL Plus. A modified Delphi process was utilized to include the studies and ensure that the objectives were addressed. Using dichotomous data for select values, the unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated applying Mantel-Haenszel random-effects method in Review Manager 5.4. RESULTS: Randomized controlled trials pooled in 3013 participants with 46.3% (n = 1395) in the remdesivir group and 53.7% (n = 1618) in the placebo group. The placebo group had a higher risk of mortality as compared to the intervention group with significant OR (0.61) (95% confidence interval of 0.45-0.82; P = 0.001). There was minimal heterogeneity among the studies (I 2 = 0%). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that remdesivir extends clinical benefits by reducing mortality, adverse events, and oxygen support in moderate to severely ill COVID-19 patients. Concerted efforts and further randomized placebo-controlled trials are warranted to examine the potency of antiviral drugs and immunopathological host responses contributing to the severity of COVID-19.

15.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211002929, 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153885

ABSTRACT

Although the recent advent of a vaccine and other therapeutic aids in our fight against COVID-19 has brought us a step closer to controlling the pandemic, our fight is far from over. Handwashing, masks, and social distancing practices are considered reasonable measures to control the spread of the disease have been well accepted by government officials and public health officials despite scarce and conflicting scientific evidence. Taking into consideration the aforementioned measures, there is an additional perhaps overlooked practice that warrants our attention-nasal disinfection and hygiene.

16.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 19: 1379-1390, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103817

ABSTRACT

The type 2 coronavirus causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) and produces pneumonia with pulmonary alveolar collapse. In some cases it also causes sepsis and septic shock. There is no specific treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Vitamin C (Vit C), Vitamin E (Vit E), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and Melatonin (MT) increase the intracellular content of GSH, kidnap free radicals and protect DNA, proteins in the cytosol and lipids in cell membranes. Pentoxifylline (Px) has anti-inflammatory activities. Here we evaluate the effect of Vit C, Vit E, NAC, and MT plus Px in COVID-19 patients with moderate and severe pneumonia. 110 patients of either sex were included. They were divided into five groups with 22 patients each. Group 1 received Vit C + Px, group 2 Vit E + Px, group 3 NAC + Px, group 4 MT + Px, and group 5 only Px. Oxidative stress (OS) markers such as lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and nitrites (NO2 -) were evaluated in plasma. The antioxidant therapy improved the survival scores including the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), the Acute Physiology and chronic Health Evaluation II (Apache II), the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II), the Critical Illness Risk Score, Launched during COVID-19 crisis (COVIDGRAM) and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). We found that LPO (p≤0.04) and inflammation markers such as interleukin-6 (IL-6, p≤ 0.01), C reactive protein (CRP, p ≤ 0.01) and procalcitonin (PCT, p ≤ 0.05) were elevated. TAC (p ≤ 0.03) and NO2 - (p ≤ 0.04) found themselves diminished in diminished in COVID-19 patients upon admission to the hospital. The different antioxidants reversed this alteration at the end of the treatment. The treatment with antioxidant supplements such as Vit C, E, NAC, and MT plus Px could decelerate the aggressive and lethal development of COVID-19. Antioxidant therapy can be effective in this pandemia since it improves the survival scores including SOFA, Apache II, SAPS II, COVIDGRAM, GCS by lowering the LPO, IL-6, CRP, PCT and increasing systemic TAC and NO2 -.

17.
Cureus ; 12(11): e11315, 2020 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918859

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has created an unprecedented impact on healthcare globally. Being a novel virus, several treatments have been explored against COVID-19. During the early stages of the disease, treatment is mainly supportive. While several studies have suggested different treatment modalities, there is still no definitive treatment against COVID-19. Re-purposing already established medications, with excellent safety profiles, is a possible approach for treating the disease in its early stage. Having a mode of transmission as a droplet mode, several studies have supported how the nose can contain the primary route of entry of SARS-CoV-2. Hence, we postulated that re-purposing a commercially available nasal spray containing xylitol and grapefruit seed extract (GSE), namely Xlear Nasal Spray® (Xlear, Inc., American Fork, USA) could be used as an adjunct treatment of COVID-19. With a well-established safety profile, the components of this nasal spray have been studied and have been shown to have potential efficacy against viral pathogens, including coronavirus, and may potentially regulate pathways important in the initial entry of infection, replication, and systemic response to SARS-CoV-2. We present a series of three mild-moderate risks, symptomatic, COVID-19 patients, treated with the intranasal combination, as an adjuvant to their ongoing treatment, with rapid clinical improvement and shorten time to negativization on repeat intranasal swab test via PCR. No safety issues were noted during the course of treatment. Xlear nasal spray, containing xylitol plus GSE, given its established safety profile and compelling clinical results described here, could be a potential adjunct treatment option in mild-moderate COVID-19 cases.

18.
Infect Chemother ; 52(3): 335-344, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918284

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the coronavirus responsible for our recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, is driving a lung immunopathology that strongly resembles a severe form of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). A review of recent Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2 medical reports, as well as described characteristics of HP, lead us to postulate a theory for SARS-CoV-2 severe disease. We propose that the novel SARS-CoV-2 can act as a trigger and substrate of an HP-like severe immune reaction especially in genetically vulnerable individuals in addition to those with immune senescence and dysregulation. Accordingly, the purpose of our letter is to shift the emphasis of concern surrounding immune activity from viral infection to an HP-like severe immune reaction. We review similarities in disease presentation between infection and allergy, relevant immunopathology, and outline phases of SARS-CoV-2 disease with perspectives on therapy and critical care. Altogether, the favored course is to begin treatments that address the disease at the earliest phase before immune dysregulation leading to uncontrolled pulmonary inflammation.

19.
Surf Coat Technol ; 399: 126163, 2020 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-629190

ABSTRACT

Recently, medical applications for 3D printing are expanding rapidly and are expected to revolutionize health care, specifically, manufacturing surgical guides and protective face mask against coronavirus (COVID-19). These instruments come in contact with the human tissues, being necessary 3D printed materials free of pathogenic microbes or other contaminants. Therefore, they must be sterilized to avoid that bacteria can attach to the surface and produce biofilm. With the aim of avoiding bacterial biofilm formation and minimize the health risks, acrylic acid (AcAc) coatings applied by plasma-polymerization have been deposited on 3D printed polylactic acid (PLA) Petri dishes. Six antimicrobial-resistant clinical and two susceptible control strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus species were analyzed. AcAc coatings provide the surface with greater hydrophilicity and, consequently, the formation of a hydration layer, whose thickness is related to the surface roughness. This hydration layer could explain the reduction of bacterial attachment and, consequently, the biofilm formation. Antibiofilm coatings are more successful against P. aeruginosa strains than against S. aureus ones; due to some coatings presents a smaller topography scale than the P. aeruginosa length, reducting the contact area between the bacteria and the coating, and causing a potential rupture of the cellular membrane. AcAc coatings with less number of plasma passes were more effective, and showed up to a 50% relative biofilm reduction (in six of the eight strains studied) compared with the untreated plates.

20.
Infection & chemotherapy ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-601211

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the coronavirus responsible for our recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, is driving a lung immunopathology that strongly resembles a severe form of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). A review of recent Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2 medical reports, as well as described characteristics of HP, lead us to postulate a theory for SARS-CoV-2 severe disease. We propose that the novel SARS-CoV-2 can act as a trigger and substrate of an HP-like severe immune reaction especially in genetically vulnerable individuals in addition to those with immune senescence and dysregulation. Accordingly, the purpose of our letter is to shift the emphasis of concern surrounding immune activity from viral infection to an HP-like severe immune reaction. We review similarities in disease presentation between infection and allergy, relevant immunopathology, and outline phases of SARS-CoV-2 disease with perspectives on therapy and critical care. Altogether, the favored course is to begin treatments that address the disease at the earliest phase before immune dysregulation leading to uncontrolled pulmonary inflammation.

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