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1.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333545

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Microvascular lesions are common in patients with severe COVID-19. Radiologic-pathologic correlation in one case suggests a combination of microvascular hemorrhagic and ischemic lesions that may reflect an underlying hypoxic mechanism of injury, which requires validation in larger studies. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, distribution, and clinical and histopathologic correlates of microvascular lesions in patients with severe COVID-19. DESIGN: Observational, retrospective cohort study: March to May 2020. SETTING: Single academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive patients (16) admitted to the intensive care unit with severe COVID-19, undergoing brain MRI for evaluation of coma or focal neurologic deficits. EXPOSURES: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: Hypointense microvascular lesions identified by a prototype ultrafast high-resolution susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) MRI sequence, counted by two neuroradiologists and categorized by neuroanatomic location. Clinical and laboratory data (most recent measurements before brain MRI). Brain autopsy and cerebrospinal fluid PCR for SARS-CoV 2 in one patient who died from severe COVID-19. RESULTS: Eleven of 16 patients (69%) had punctate and linear SWI lesions in the subcortical and deep white matter, and eight patients (50%) had >10 SWI lesions. In 4/16 patients (25%), lesions involved the corpus callosum. Brain autopsy in one patient revealed that SWI lesions corresponded to widespread microvascular injury, characterized by perivascular and parenchymal petechial hemorrhages and microscopic ischemic lesions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: SWI lesions are common in patients with neurological manifestations of severe COVID-19 (coma and focal neurologic deficits). The distribution of lesions is similar to that seen in patients with hypoxic respiratory failure, sepsis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Collectively, these radiologic and histopathologic findings suggest that patients with severe COVID-19 are at risk for multifocal microvascular hemorrhagic and ischemic lesions in the subcortical and deep white matter.

2.
J Neurol Sci ; 421: 117308, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033825

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the incidence, distribution, and histopathologic correlates of microvascular brain lesions in patients with severe COVID-19. Sixteen consecutive patients admitted to the intensive care unit with severe COVID-19 undergoing brain MRI for evaluation of coma or neurologic deficits were retrospectively identified. Eleven patients had punctate susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) lesions in the subcortical and deep white matter, eight patients had >10 SWI lesions, and four patients had lesions involving the corpus callosum. The distribution of SWI lesions was similar to that seen in patients with hypoxic respiratory failure, sepsis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Brain autopsy in one patient revealed that SWI lesions corresponded to widespread microvascular injury, characterized by perivascular and parenchymal petechial hemorrhages and microscopic ischemic lesions. Collectively, these radiologic and histopathologic findings add to growing evidence that patients with severe COVID-19 are at risk for multifocal microvascular hemorrhagic and ischemic lesions in the subcortical and deep white matter.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Microvessels/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Brain/blood supply , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain Injuries/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Microvessels/injuries , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
3.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 42(4): 632-638, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016049

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients infected with the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can develop a spectrum of neurological disorders, including a leukoencephalopathy of variable severity. Our aim was to characterize imaging, lab, and clinical correlates of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) leukoencephalopathy, which may provide insight into the SARS-CoV-2 pathophysiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven consecutive patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 who had brain MR imaging following intensive care unit admission were included. Seven (7/27, 26%) developed an unusual pattern of "leukoencephalopathy with reduced diffusivity" on diffusion-weighted MR imaging. The remaining patients did not exhibit this pattern. Clinical and laboratory indices, as well as neuroimaging findings, were compared between groups. RESULTS: The reduced-diffusivity group had a significantly higher body mass index (36 versus 28 kg/m2, P < .01). Patients with reduced diffusivity trended toward more frequent acute renal failure (7/7, 100% versus 9/20, 45%; P = .06) and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate values (49 versus 85 mL/min; P = .06) at the time of MRI. Patients with reduced diffusivity also showed lesser mean values of the lowest hemoglobin levels (8.1 versus 10.2 g/dL, P < .05) and higher serum sodium levels (147 versus 139 mmol/L, P = .04) within 24 hours before MR imaging. The reduced-diffusivity group showed a striking and highly reproducible distribution of confluent, predominantly symmetric, supratentorial, and middle cerebellar peduncular white matter lesions (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight notable correlations between severe COVID-19 leukoencephalopathy with reduced diffusivity and obesity, acute renal failure, mild hypernatremia, anemia, and an unusual brain MR imaging white matter lesion distribution pattern. Together, these observations may shed light on possible SARS-CoV-2 pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with leukoencephalopathy, including borderzone ischemic changes, electrolyte transport disturbances, and silent hypoxia in the setting of the known cytokine storm syndrome that accompanies severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units , Leukoencephalopathies/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Adult , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Humans , Leukoencephalopathies/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , White Matter/diagnostic imaging
4.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 42(1): 37-41, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895283

ABSTRACT

Brain multivoxel MR spectroscopic imaging was performed in 3 consecutive patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These included 1 patient with COVID-19-associated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy, another patient who had a recent pulseless electrical activity cardiac arrest with subtle white matter changes, and a patient without frank encephalopathy or a recent severe hypoxic episode. The MR spectroscopic imaging findings were compared with those of 2 patients with white matter pathology not related to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and a healthy control subject. The NAA reduction, choline elevation, and glutamate/glutamine elevation found in the patient with COVID-19-associated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy and, to a lesser degree, the patient with COVID-19 postcardiac arrest, follow a similar pattern as seen with the patient with delayed posthypoxic leukoencephalopathy. Lactate elevation was most pronounced in the patient with COVID-19 necrotizing leukoencephalopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Humans , Leukoencephalopathies/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , White Matter
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