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1.
J Virol Methods ; 300: 114411, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560621

ABSTRACT

Presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in serum (viremia) of COVID-19 patients has been related to poor prognosis and death. The aim of this study was to evaluate both the ability to detect viremia in COVID-19 patients of two commercial reverse real-time-PCR (rRT-PCR) tests, Cobas® and TaqPath™, comparing them with a gold standard method, and their implementation in microbiology laboratories. This retrospective cohort study included 303 adult patients (203 diagnosed with COVID-19 and 100 non-COVID-19 patients) admitted to a tertiary hospital, with at least one serum sample collected within the first 48 h from admission. A total of 365 serum samples were included: 100 from non-COVID patients (pre-pandemic and pandemic control groups) and 265 from COVID-19 patients. Serum samples were considered positive when at least one target was detected. All patients in control groups showed negative viremia. Cobas® and TaqPath™ tests showed specificity and Positive Predictive Value over 96%. Nevertheless, sensitivity (53.72 and 73.63, respectively) and Negative Predictive Value (64.78 and 75) were lower. Viremia difference between ICU and non-ICU patients was significant (p ≤ 0.001) for both techniques. Consequently, SARS-CoV-2 viremia detection by both rRT-PCR tests should be considered a good tool to stratify COVID-19 patients and could be implemented in microbiology laboratories.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292275

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is a life-threatening infectious disease, especially for elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. Despite enormous efforts to understand its underlying etiopathogenic mechanisms, most of them remain elusive. In this study, we compared differential plasma miRNAs and cytokines profiles between COVID-19 and other community-acquired pneumonias (CAP). A first screening and subsequent validation assays in an independent cohort of patients revealed a signature of 15 dysregulated miRNAs between COVID-19 and CAP patients. Additionally, multivariate analysis displayed a combination of 4 miRNAs (miR-106b-5p, miR-221-3p, miR-25-3p and miR-30a-5p) that significantly discriminated between both pathologies. Search for targets of these miRNAs, combined with plasma protein measurements, identified a differential cytokine signature between COVID-19 and CAP that included EGFR, CXCL12 and IL-10. Significant differences were also detected in plasma levels of CXCL12, IL-17, TIMP-2 and IL-21R between mild and severe COVID-19 patients. These findings provide new insights into the etiopathological mechanisms underlying COVID-19.

3.
JAMA ; 326(6): 499-518, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413703

ABSTRACT

Importance: Clinical trials assessing the efficacy of IL-6 antagonists in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 have variously reported benefit, no effect, and harm. Objective: To estimate the association between administration of IL-6 antagonists compared with usual care or placebo and 28-day all-cause mortality and other outcomes. Data Sources: Trials were identified through systematic searches of electronic databases between October 2020 and January 2021. Searches were not restricted by trial status or language. Additional trials were identified through contact with experts. Study Selection: Eligible trials randomly assigned patients hospitalized for COVID-19 to a group in whom IL-6 antagonists were administered and to a group in whom neither IL-6 antagonists nor any other immunomodulators except corticosteroids were administered. Among 72 potentially eligible trials, 27 (37.5%) met study selection criteria. Data Extraction and Synthesis: In this prospective meta-analysis, risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Inconsistency among trial results was assessed using the I2 statistic. The primary analysis was an inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analysis of odds ratios (ORs) for 28-day all-cause mortality. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality at 28 days after randomization. There were 9 secondary outcomes including progression to invasive mechanical ventilation or death and risk of secondary infection by 28 days. Results: A total of 10 930 patients (median age, 61 years [range of medians, 52-68 years]; 3560 [33%] were women) participating in 27 trials were included. By 28 days, there were 1407 deaths among 6449 patients randomized to IL-6 antagonists and 1158 deaths among 4481 patients randomized to usual care or placebo (summary OR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.79-0.95]; P = .003 based on a fixed-effects meta-analysis). This corresponds to an absolute mortality risk of 22% for IL-6 antagonists compared with an assumed mortality risk of 25% for usual care or placebo. The corresponding summary ORs were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.74-0.92; P < .001) for tocilizumab and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.86-1.36; P = .52) for sarilumab. The summary ORs for the association with mortality compared with usual care or placebo in those receiving corticosteroids were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.68-0.87) for tocilizumab and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.61-1.38) for sarilumab. The ORs for the association with progression to invasive mechanical ventilation or death, compared with usual care or placebo, were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.70-0.85) for all IL-6 antagonists, 0.74 (95% CI, 0.66-0.82) for tocilizumab, and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.74-1.34) for sarilumab. Secondary infections by 28 days occurred in 21.9% of patients treated with IL-6 antagonists vs 17.6% of patients treated with usual care or placebo (OR accounting for trial sample sizes, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.85-1.16). Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospective meta-analysis of clinical trials of patients hospitalized for COVID-19, administration of IL-6 antagonists, compared with usual care or placebo, was associated with lower 28-day all-cause mortality. Trial Registration: PROSPERO Identifier: CRD42021230155.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cause of Death , Coinfection , Disease Progression , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13134, 2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281735

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has overloaded national health services worldwide. Thus, early identification of patients at risk of poor outcomes is critical. Our objective was to analyse SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in serum as a severity biomarker in COVID-19. Retrospective observational study including 193 patients admitted for COVID-19. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in serum (viremia) was performed with samples collected at 48-72 h of admission by two techniques from Roche and Thermo Fischer Scientific (TFS). Main outcome variables were mortality and need for ICU admission during hospitalization for COVID-19. Viremia was detected in 50-60% of patients depending on technique. The correlation of Ct in serum between both techniques was good (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.612; p < 0.001). Patients with viremia were older (p = 0.006), had poorer baseline oxygenation (PaO2/FiO2; p < 0.001), more severe lymphopenia (p < 0.001) and higher LDH (p < 0.001), IL-6 (p = 0.021), C-reactive protein (CRP; p = 0.022) and procalcitonin (p = 0.002) serum levels. We defined "relevant viremia" when detection Ct was < 34 with Roche and < 31 for TFS. These thresholds had 95% sensitivity and 35% specificity. Relevant viremia predicted death during hospitalization (OR 9.2 [3.8-22.6] for Roche, OR 10.3 [3.6-29.3] for TFS; p < 0.001). Cox regression models, adjusted by age, sex and Charlson index, identified increased LDH serum levels and relevant viremia (HR = 9.87 [4.13-23.57] for TFS viremia and HR = 7.09 [3.3-14.82] for Roche viremia) as the best markers to predict mortality. Viremia assessment at admission is the most useful biomarker for predicting mortality in COVID-19 patients. Viremia is highly reproducible with two different techniques (TFS and Roche), has a good consistency with other severity biomarkers for COVID-19 and better predictive accuracy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viremia/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Critical Care , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spain , Viremia/virology
5.
J Clin Invest ; 130(12): 6290-6300, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962340

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the development of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in infected individuals, who can either exhibit mild symptoms or progress toward a life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Exacerbated inflammation and dysregulated immune responses involving T and myeloid cells occur in COVID-19 patients with severe clinical progression. However, the differential contribution of specific subsets of dendritic cells and monocytes to ARDS is still poorly understood. In addition, the role of CD8+ T cells present in the lung of COVID-19 patients and relevant for viral control has not been characterized. Here, we have studied the frequencies and activation profiles of dendritic cells and monocytes present in the blood and lung of COVID-19 patients with different clinical severity in comparison with healthy individuals. Furthermore, these subpopulations and their association with antiviral effector CD8+ T cell subsets were also characterized in lung infiltrates from critical COVID-19 patients. Our results indicate that inflammatory transitional and nonclassical monocytes and CD1c+ conventional dendritic cells preferentially migrate from blood to lungs in patients with severe COVID-19. Thus, this study increases the knowledge of specific myeloid subsets involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease and could be useful for the design of therapeutic strategies for fighting SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD1/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Movement/immunology , Glycoproteins/immunology , Lung/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/pathology , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/classification , Monocytes/pathology , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(3): 634-647, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950362

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes an abrupt response by the host immune system, which is largely responsible for the outcome of COVID-19. We investigated whether the specific immune responses in the peripheral blood of 276 patients were associated with the severity and progression of COVID-19. At admission, dramatic lymphopenia of T, B, and NK cells is associated with severity. Conversely, the proportion of B cells, plasmablasts, circulating follicular helper T cells (cTfh) and CD56- CD16+ NK-cells increased. Regarding humoral immunity, levels of IgM, IgA, and IgG were unaffected, but when degrees of severity were considered, IgG was lower in severe patients. Compared to healthy donors, complement C3 and C4 protein levels were higher in mild and moderate, but not in severe patients, while the activation peptide of C5 (C5a) increased from the admission in every patient, regardless of their severity. Moreover, total IgG, the IgG1 and IgG3 isotypes, and C4 decreased from day 0 to day 10 in patients who were hospitalized for more than two weeks, but not in patients who were discharged earlier. Our study provides important clues to understand the immune response observed in COVID-19 patients, associating severity with an imbalanced humoral response, and identifying new targets for therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Immunoglobulins/blood , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Complement C3/analysis , Complement C4/analysis , Complement C5/analysis , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology
7.
J Immunol ; 205(11): 3130-3140, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910337

ABSTRACT

Currently, there is a need for reliable tests that allow identification of individuals that have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 even if the infection was asymptomatic. To date, the vast majority of the serological tests for SARS-CoV-2-specific Abs are based on serum detection of Abs to either the viral spike glycoprotein (the major target for neutralizing Abs) or the viral nucleocapsid protein that is known to be highly immunogenic in other coronaviruses. Conceivably, exposure of Ags released from infected cells could stimulate Ab responses that might correlate with tissue damage and, hence, they may have some value as a prognostic indicator. We addressed whether other nonstructural viral proteins, not incorporated into the infectious viral particle, specifically the viral cysteine-like protease, might also be potent immunogens. Using ELISA tests, coating several SARS-CoV-2 proteins produced in vitro, we describe that COVID-19 patients make high titer IgG, IgM, and IgA Ab responses to the Cys-like protease from SARS-CoV-2, also known as 3CLpro or Mpro, and it can be used to identify individuals with positive serology against the coronavirus. Higher Ab titers in these assays associated with more-severe disease, and no cross-reactive Abs against prior betacoronavirus were found. Remarkably, IgG Abs specific for Mpro and other SARS-CoV-2 Ags can also be detected in saliva. In conclusion, Mpro is a potent Ag in infected patients that can be used in serological tests, and its detection in saliva could be the basis for a rapid, noninvasive test for COVID-19 seropositivity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Cysteine Proteases/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Saliva/metabolism , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(1): 72-80.e8, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-812090

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disaese 2019 (COVID-19) can develop a cytokine release syndrome that eventually leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Because IL-6 is a relevant cytokine in acute respiratory distress syndrome, the blockade of its receptor with tocilizumab (TCZ) could reduce mortality and/or morbidity in severe COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether baseline IL-6 serum levels can predict the need for IMV and the response to TCZ. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed in hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Clinical information and laboratory findings, including IL-6 levels, were collected approximately 3 and 9 days after admission to be matched with preadministration and postadministration of TCZ. Multivariable logistic and linear regressions and survival analysis were performed depending on outcomes: need for IMV, evolution of arterial oxygen tension/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio, or mortality. RESULTS: One hundred forty-six patients were studied, predominantly males (66%); median age was 63 years. Forty-four patients (30%) required IMV, and 58 patients (40%) received treatment with TCZ. IL-6 levels greater than 30 pg/mL was the best predictor for IMV (odds ratio, 7.1; P < .001). Early administration of TCZ was associated with improvement in oxygenation (arterial oxygen tension/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio) in patients with high IL-6 (P = .048). Patients with high IL-6 not treated with TCZ showed high mortality (hazard ratio, 4.6; P = .003), as well as those with low IL-6 treated with TCZ (hazard ratio, 3.6; P = .016). No relevant serious adverse events were observed in TCZ-treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline IL-6 greater than 30 pg/mL predicts IMV requirement in patients with COVID-19 and contributes to establish an adequate indication for TCZ administration.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Interleukin-6/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
9.
Trials ; 21(1): 772, 2020 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751162

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The main aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of a single dose of sarilumab, in subcutaneous administration, in hospitalised patients with moderate to early severe COVID-19 infection compared to the current standard of care, to prevent progression to systemic hyperinflammatory status. Our hypothesis is that use of subcutaneous sarilumab in early stages (window of opportunity) of COVID-19 moderate-severe pneumonia can prevent higher oxygenation requirements through non-invasive and invasive mechanical ventilation and decrease in-hospital stays, as well as death rate. The secondary objectives of the study are to evaluate the safety of sarilumab through hospitalisation and up to day 14 after discharge, compared to the control arm as assessed by incidence of serious and non serious adverse events (SAEs). In addition, as an exploratory objective, to compare the baseline clinical and biological parameters, including serum IL-6 levels, of the intervention population against controls of the same pandemic outbreak (using a propensity score) to search for markers that identify the best candidates for the treatment with subcutaneous IL-6R inhibitors and to attempt an approximation in the temporal frame of the "window of opportunity" TRIAL DESIGN: SARCOVID is an investigator-initiated single center randomised proof of concept study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients treated at the Hospital Universitario La Princesa, Madrid, Spain requiring hospitalisation will be consecutively recruited, meeting all inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion criteria Inclusion criteria a. Age >18, <80 years old b. COVID-19 infection documented by a positive RT-PCR test or, in absence of a RT-PCR positive test, case definition of COVID 19 infection/pneumonia as per local protocol and the presence of a positive serologic test (IgM/IgA by ELISA) c. Documented interstitial pneumonia requiring admission and at least two of the following parameters: 1) Fever ≥ 37.8°C (tympanic) 2) IL-6 in serum ≥ 25 pg/mL (in the absence of a previous dose of prednisone or equivalent> 1 mg / kg) or PCR> 5mg/dL 3) Lymphocytes <600 cells/mm3 4) Ferritin> 300 µg/L that doubles in 24 hours 5) Ferritin> 600 µg/L in the first determination and LDH> 250 U/L 6) D-dimer (> 1 mg/L) d. Informed verbal consent or requested under urgent conditions, documented in the electronic medical record. Exclusion criteria a. Patients who require mechanical ventilation at the time of inclusion. b. AST / ALT values > 5 folds the ULN. c. Absolute neutrophil count below 500 cells/mm3 d. Absolute platelet count below 50,000 cells/mm3 e. Documented sepsis or high suspicion of superimposed infection by pathogens other than COVID-19. f. Presence of comorbidities that can likely lead to an unfavourable result according to clinical judgment. g. Complicated diverticulitis or intestinal perforation. h. Current skin infection (eg, uncontrolled dermopiodermitis). i. Immunosuppressive anti-rejection therapy. j. Pregnancy or lactation. k. Previous treatment with tocilizumab or sarilumab. l. Patients participating in another clinical trial for SARS-CoV-2 infection. m. Patients with known hypersensitivity or contraindication to sarilumab or excipients. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: The intervention group, sarilumab plus standard of care, will receive 400 mg single dose treatment with Sarilumab (Kevzara), 2 subcutaneous injections 200mg each in a pre-filled syringe. Treatment with drugs or procedures in routine clinical practice that the clinician responsible for the patient deems necessary is allowed. The control group will receive drugs or procedures in routine clinical practice according to the best standard of care as per local protocol. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary Outcome Measures 1. Mean change in clinical status assessment using the 7-point ordinal scale at day 7 after randomisation compared to baseline (Score ranges 1-7) 1. Death; 2. Hospitalised, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO); 3. Hospitalised, requiring non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen devices; 4. Hospitalised, requiring supplemental oxygen; 5. Hospitalised, not requiring supplemental oxygen - but in need of ongoing medical care (COVID-19 related or otherwise) 6. Hospitalised, not requiring supplemental oxygen - no longer requires ongoing medical care (independent) 7. Not hospitalised 2. Duration of hospitalisation: Days from the date of enrolment to the date of discharge 3. Number of deaths at the end of study RANDOMISATION: Randomisation to treatment arms sarilumab plus standard of care or standard of care in a 2:1 ratio will be performed by the Clinical Research and Clinical Trials Unit (CRCTU) at the Hospital using a table of random numbers, an internet-based randomisation tool. After checking that all inclusion criteria are met and none of the exclusion criteria, CRCTU will communicate the recruiting investigator the assigned treatment. BLINDING (MASKING): This study is unblinded. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): 30 patients treated by COVID-19 infection who require hospitalisation: 20 will receive sarilumab plus Standard of Care and 10 will receive Standard of Care. TRIAL STATUS: The Protocol version number is 2, as of 6th April 2020, with amendment 1, as of 7th May 2020. The recruitment is ongoing. Recruitment started on April 13th 2020 and is anticipated to be completed by November 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was first registered in the European Union Clinical Trials Register on 4 April 2020, EudraCT Number 2020-001634-36 . Then, posted on ClinicalTrials.gov on 22 April 2020, Identifier: NCT04357808 . FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the International Council Harmonization guidelines: https://www.ich.org/page/efficacy-guidelines .


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Patient Admission , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Proof of Concept Study , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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