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1.
Front Physiol ; 12: 769254, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551528

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified as a virally transmitted disease. Three months later, SARS-CoV-2 became one of the largest pandemics in recent times, causing more than 235 million cases globally, and accounting for at least 4.8 million deaths to date. SARS-COV-2 infection was initially classified as a respiratory tract infection, but later was recognized as a multisystemic disease compromising gastrointestinal, hematological, cardiac, and neurological systems. With this Review, we aim to describe the epidemiology, risk factors, mechanisms, and management of cerebrovascular events in patients infected with COVID-19. Neurological manifestations related to thromboembolic cerebrovascular events in patients infected with COVID-19 have been frequent and associated with poor prognosis in the majority of cases. A better understanding of the mechanisms of thrombosis and etiologies of this new disease process are necessary to determine how to prevent and treat patients to reduce their length of stay, morbidity, and mortality.

2.
Sci Adv ; 6(33): eabb7238, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733188

ABSTRACT

Cigarette smoking, the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), has been implicated as a risk factor for severe disease in patients infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here we show that mice with lung epithelial cell-specific loss of function of Miz1, which we identified as a negative regulator of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling, spontaneously develop progressive age-related changes resembling COPD. Furthermore, loss of Miz1 up-regulates the expression of Ace2, the receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Concomitant partial loss of NF-κB/RelA prevented the development of COPD-like phenotype in Miz1-deficient mice. Miz1 protein levels are reduced in the lungs from patients with COPD, and in the lungs of mice exposed to chronic cigarette smoke. Our data suggest that Miz1 down-regulation-induced sustained activation of NF-κB-dependent inflammation in the lung epithelium is sufficient to induce progressive lung and airway destruction that recapitulates features of COPD, with implications for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phenotype , Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT/genetics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Up-Regulation/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gene Knockout Techniques , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT/metabolism , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/genetics , Smoking/adverse effects , Transcription Factor RelA/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism
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