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1.
Advanced Healthcare Materials ; 11(3):2270017, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1664337

ABSTRACT

Sars-CoV-2 Vaccines In article number 2102089 by Bernd H. A. Rehm and co-workers, an ambient temperature-stable, scalable COVID-19 polymer particle vaccines are developed by engineering endotoxinfree bacterial cell factories to self-assemble biopolymer particles coated with immunogenic SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Polymer particle vaccines induce protective immunity in a hamster SARS-CoV-2 infection model reducing virus titers up to viral clearance in lungs post infection.

2.
mBio ; : e0378921, 2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633140

ABSTRACT

With the recent licensure of mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 in the 5- to 11-year-old age group, the public health impact of a childhood immunization campaign is of interest. Using a mathematical epidemiological model, we project that childhood vaccination carries minimal risk and yields modest public health benefits. These include large relative reductions in child morbidity and mortality, although the absolute reduction is small because these events are rare. Furthermore, the model predicts "altruistic" absolute reductions in adult cases, hospitalizations, and mortality. However, vaccinating children to benefit adults should be considered from an ethical as well as a public health perspective. From a global health perspective, an additional ethical consideration is the justice of giving priority to children in high-income settings at low risk of severe disease while vaccines have not been made available to vulnerable adults in low-income settings. IMPORTANCE Countries have recently begun implementation of childhood vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 with the Pfizer/BioNTech mRNA vaccine in children 5 to 11 years of age. Because SARS-CoV-2 disease severity is remarkably age dependent, vaccinating children may have modest public health benefits, relative to the unequivocal benefit of vaccinating vulnerable older adults. Furthermore, vaccinating children to "altruistically" increase herd immunity should be considered from an ethical as well as a public health perspective. An additional question is related to global social justice: should priority be given to vaccinating children in high-income settings while older adult populations in low-resource settings have limited access to vaccine? To address the risks and benefits of childhood vaccination, we provide a balanced commentary, supported by a mathematical epidemiological model, using Australia and Alberta, Canada, as case studies. We give highlights of the modeling findings in the commentary and include details in the supplemental materials for interested readers.

3.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 11(3): e2102089, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487433

ABSTRACT

There is an unmet need for safe and effective severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines that are stable and can be cost-effectively produced at large scale. Here, a biopolymer particle (BP) vaccine technology that can be quickly adapted to new and emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 is used. Coronavirus antigen-coated BPs are described as vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. The spike protein subunit S1 or epitopes from S and M proteins (SM) plus/minus the nucleocapsid protein (N) are selected as antigens to either coat BPs during assembly inside engineered Escherichia coli or BPs are engineered to specifically ligate glycosylated spike protein (S1-ICC) produced by using baculovirus expression in insect cell culture (ICC). BP vaccines are safe and immunogenic in mice. BP vaccines, SM-BP-N and S1-ICC-BP induced protective immunity in the hamster SARS-CoV-2 infection model as shown by reduction of virus titers up to viral clearance in lungs post infection. The BP platform offers the possibility for rapid design and cost-effective large-scale manufacture of ambient temperature stable and globally available vaccines to combat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Cricetinae , Humans , Mice , Polymers , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature
4.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(3): e1260, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120050

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A major COVID-19 vaccine strategy is to induce antibodies that prevent interaction between the Spike protein's receptor-binding domain (RBD) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). These vaccines will also induce T-cell responses. However, concerns were raised that aberrant vaccine-induced immune responses may exacerbate disease. We aimed to identify minimal epitopes on the RBD that would induce antibody responses that block the interaction of the RBD and ACE2 as a strategy leading to an effective vaccine with reduced risk of inducing immunopathology. METHODS: We procured a series of overlapping 20-amino acid peptides spanning the RBD and asked which were recognised by plasma from COVID-19 convalescent patients. Identified epitopes were conjugated to diphtheria-toxoid and used to vaccinate mice. Immune sera were tested for binding to the RBD and for their ability to block the interaction of the RBD and ACE2. RESULTS: Seven putative vaccine epitopes were identified. Memory B-cells (MBCs) specific for one of the epitopes were identified in the blood of convalescent patients. When used to vaccinate mice, six induced antibodies that bound recRBD and three induced antibodies that could partially block the interaction of the RBD and ACE2. However, when the sera were combined in pairs, we observed significantly enhanced inhibition of binding of RBD to ACE2. Two of the peptides were located in the main regions of the RBD known to contact ACE2. Of significant importance to vaccine development, two of the peptides were in regions that are invariant in the UK and South African strains. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 convalescent patients have SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies and MBCs, the specificities of which can be defined with short peptides. Epitope-specific antibodies synergistically block RBD-ACE2 interaction.

5.
mBio ; 11(5)2020 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887427

ABSTRACT

The existence and nature of immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are currently unknown; however, neutralizing antibodies are thought to play the major role and data from studying other coronaviruses suggest that partial clinical immunity lasting up to 1 year will occur postinfection. We show how immunity, depending on its durability, may work with current social practices to limit the spread of the virus. We further show that a vaccine that is 50% effective and taken by 50% of the population will prevent further loss of life, providing that social distancing is still practiced and that immunity does not wane quickly.IMPORTANCE The ability of our society to function effectively moving forward will depend on how the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is contained. Immunity to the virus will be critical to this equation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Forecasting , Humans , Immunity , Models, Theoretical , Mortality/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
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