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1.
Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig ; 43(3): 337-344, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770795

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The cut off values for serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), ferritin, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and plasma D-dimer could be of profound help in detecting COVID-19 patients at risk of adverse outcomes. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to determine the cut off values of the serum hsCRP, ferritin, IL-6 and plasma D-dimer in predicting mortality in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Four hundred RT-PCR confirmed cases of COVID-19 were sub divided into two groups based on their outcome during hospitalisation. Group I consisted of survivors and Group II consisted of non-survivors. The survivors were further divided into three sub-groups: mild, moderate and severe based on the severity of infection. The laboratory data of serum hsCRP, ferritin, IL-6 and plasma D-dimer for all these patients was retrieved from the Medical Record Section of the Hospital. RESULTS: Mean serum hsCRP, ferritin, IL-6 and plasma D-dimer levels were significantly higher in non-survivors as compared to survivors of COVID-19. The levels of these biomarkers correlated with the severity of COVID-19 illness. ROC curve analysis revealed that plasma D-dimer is having a better predictive value as compared to other parameters in predicting mortality in COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The serum hsCRP, ferritin, IL-6 and plasma D-dimer levels could be used in risk stratification of COVID-19 patients. The optimum cut off given by the current study could be considered in predicting adverse outcome in these patients. Amongst the many studied biomarkers, plasma D-dimer might be the best early biomarker to predict mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Ferritins , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Receptors, Immunologic , Retrospective Studies
2.
Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig ; 42(4): 435-443, 2021 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334805

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global emergency with over 10 million cases and over 500, 000 deaths worldwide. The SARS CoV-2 is a RNA virus belonging to the family coronaviridae. It has high infectivity. The manifestations of the disease range from asymptomatic or mild symptoms to severe pneumonia and ARDS. The CT scan of lung shows consolidation and "Ground Glass Opacities". The persons with other comorbidities are considered to be at a higher rate of acquiring the infection. Asthma and other allergies have not been identified as major risk factors for COVID-19 as the number of asthmatic patients having COVID-19 is not high enough for it to be considered so. The occurrence of COVID-19 in COPD patients can be related with smoking. The ACE-2 expression in such patients was considerably high. The relation between COVID-19 and Tuberculosis can also be reflected in terms of the stigma associated with diagnosis and treatment of such diseases in some communities, eventually increasing the chances of people's reluctance to seek medical help. Cancer patients are usually more susceptible to infections. Lung cancer is no different. Additionally, lung cancer also has strong association with smoking further increasing the risk. The risk of getting infection and its severity is high for autoimmune disorders as well as fungal infections. Currently there is no definite treatment of COVID-19. However, some of the currently used modalities are hydroxychloroquine and antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diagnostic Imaging , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Public Health Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Symptom Assessment
3.
Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig ; 42(1): 69-75, 2021 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094095

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by SARS CoV2 (The novel corona virus) has already taken lives of many people across the globe even more than anyone could have imagined. This outbreak occurred in China and since then it is expanding its devastating effects by leaps and bounds. Initially it appeared to be an outbreak of pneumonia but soon it was found to be much more than that and the infectivity was found to be very high. This is the reason that it has taken whole globe in its trap and become a pandemic in such a short span of time. Death is occurring because it is a new virus and human body has no specific antibodies for it. Presently there is no approved vaccine so everyone is susceptible but people with co-morbidities appear to be in more risk and the best way for protection is social distancing and increasing one's natural immunity by taking healthy diet and exercise. When a person is infected the clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic to severe ARDS, sudden onset of anosmia, headache, cough may be the initial symptoms. This review is focused on immunopathology and effect of COVID-19 on neurological disorders and also the neurological manifestations and the treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases , Pandemics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Humans , Immune System/physiology , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Neuroimmunomodulation/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig ; 42(1): 63-68, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088785

ABSTRACT

After the global outbreak of coronaviruses caused diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), an outbreak due to these viruses occurred in December, 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China and led to a worldwide spread. Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) has emerged as a serious global health emergency and spread from a person to another who has the virus. But the scope of an intermediate host is not known. Population at higher risk includes individuals in higher age group (>60 years) or with comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and weaker immune system. Many unknown and underestimate risk factors could be responsible for adverse outcomes in COVID-19. These risk factors should be appropriately identified, addressed and necessary actions should be taken to mitigate the effect of COVID-19 pandemic. Bhopal gas tragedy was one of the world's worst industrial chemical leak disaster. The survivors of this incident still suffer from the various complications such as increased rate of cancers, chronic illness like tuberculosis, respiratory diseases, birth defects, nerve injury, growth retardations, gynecological illness and many more. The survivors of Bhopal gas tragedy are at higher risk of developing COVID-19 related adverse outcome. One of the possible explanations can be long term effect of methyl isocyanate (MIC). MIC exposure can lead to possible toxic effect on genetic, epigenetic and non-genetic factors. In this review, we aim to establish the scientific basis for adverse outcome in COVID-19 patients who are also victims of Bhopal gas tragedy.


Subject(s)
Bhopal Accidental Release , COVID-19 , Disaster Victims , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Survivors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Disaster Victims/rehabilitation , Disaster Victims/statistics & numerical data , Disasters , Humans , India/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survivors/statistics & numerical data
5.
Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig ; 42(1): 77-85, 2021 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067449

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has resulted in an ongoing global pandemic, which spread largely among people who have had close contact with the infected person. The immunopathology of the SARS-CoV-2 virus includes the production of an excess amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines "a cytokine-storm". The respiratory system (main), cardiovascular system and the gastrointestinal tract are the most affected body systems during viral infection. It has been found that most of the patients who require admission to hospital are elderly or have chronic underlying diseases. Higher cases of malnutrition and co-morbidities like diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases are reported in elderly patients due to which, the immune system weakens and hence, the response to the virus is diminished in magnitude. A deficiency of micronutrients results in impaired immune responses leading to improper secretion of cytokines, alterations in secretory antibody response and antibody affinity which increases susceptibility to viral infection. The deficiency of various micronutrients in COVID-19 patient can be treated by appropriate nutritional supplements, prescribed after evaluating the patients' nutritional status. Here we aim to highlight the role of a few particular nutrients namely Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Omega-3 fatty acids, Zinc and Magnesium along with the synergistic roles they play in enhancing immunity and thus, maintaining homeostasis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Ascorbic Acid/physiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/physiology , Humans , Immune System/physiology , Magnesium/physiology , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/immunology , Malnutrition/therapy , Micronutrients/physiology , Nutritional Status/physiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vitamin D/physiology , Zinc/physiology
6.
Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig ; 42(1): 87-98, 2021 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067448

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has not only led to a worldwide socio-economic depression, but has also had the highest health impact on the geriatric population. Elderly population, due to various reasons such as low immunity, pre-existing co-morbidities such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases or diabetes, are obviously predisposed to develop severe infections and exhibit a high mortality rate. This is because of many reasons which include the atypical presentation in the geriatric population which might have led to diagnostic delay. As per the WHO guidelines to perform RT-PCR only on the symptomatic individuals, a very small portion of individuals were tested, leaving a fraction of population undiagnosed. Therefore, there remained a chance that many asymptomatic individuals such caregivers, healthcare professionals, family members were undiagnosed and might have carried this virus to the geriatric patients. Also, many countries were not prepared to handle the burden on their healthcare system which included sudden increased demand of ICU beds, mechanical ventilation etc. As a result, they had to make decision on who to be admitted. Atypical presentation in geriatric population may include afebrile or low-grade fever, absence of cough, malaise, muscle pains, dyspnoea etc. Geriatric population shows a more severe type of pneumonia, significantly higher number of neutrophils and C-reactive protein, less lymphocytes and a higher proportion of multiple lobe involvement. Extreme social suppression during COVID-19 pandemic has increased the risk of mental and physical adverse effects that has made older adults more vulnerable to depression and anxiety.


Subject(s)
Aging/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Delayed Diagnosis , Geriatrics , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig ; 42(1): 99-104, 2021 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067447

ABSTRACT

The uncontrolled spread of the COVID-19 pandemic which originated in China created a global turmoil. While the world is still busy figuring out a cure for the deadly disease, scientists worked out on many theories and conducted several studies to establish a relationship between the infection and other known diseases. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are one of the major complications of this infection after the respiratory manifestations. Individuals with cardiovascular complication are said to be more susceptible to acquiring the infection because the novel coronavirus uses the ACE2 receptor for its entry inside the cell and there is a high level of ACE2 expression in individuals with cardiovascular complications because of the enzyme's anti-hypertrophic, anti-fibrotic and anti-hypertensive effects on the heart. Individuals who belong to the older age group are also more susceptible. Knowing the above information, it might seem that using ACE2 inhibitors would help to slow or prevent the entry of the novel coronavirus but it would also at the same time prove to have deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system as the protective functions of ACE2 would be lost. While the search for a cure still continues it has been stated many a times that the conditions might worsen with time and the only way to keep ourselves and our family safe would be to follow the appropriate social distancing methods and get a COVID test if we experience any of the major symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Comorbidity , Disease Susceptibility/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects
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