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Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21266986

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly from Wuhan (China) across the globe, affecting more than 200 countries by mid-2021, with over 190 M reported cases and around 4 M fatalities. During the first year of the pandemic, affected countries implemented a variety of non-pharmaceutical interventions to control virus transmission. In December 2020, countries started administering several authorised vaccines under a limited supply scenario. In this context, a SEIR-type continuous-time deterministic disease model was developed to explore the effect of vaccination in terms of vaccination rate and efficacy, together with varying non-pharmaceutical protection measures, on disease incidence in the initial phase of vaccination. For this, the model incorporates (i) a protection measure including low (self-protection), medium (mobility limitation), high (closure of indoor facilities) and very high (lockdown) protection levels, (ii) quarantine for confirmed cases, and (iii) vaccination rate and efficacy of four type of vaccines (Pfizer, Moderna, Astra Zeneca or Janssen). The model was verified and evaluated using the response timeline and vaccination strategies and rates in the Basque Country (N. Spain). Once the model performance was validated, different initial phase (when 30% of the population is vaccinated) vaccination scenarios were simulated, including (i) a realistic vaccine limited supply scenario, and (ii) four potential full vaccine supply scenarios where a unique vaccine type is administered. The Pfizer scenario resulted in the lowest prevalence of infection and cumulative mortality, particularly for low- and medium-level protection rates. However, regardless of the administered vaccine, a high-level protection scenario is the most effective to control the virus transmission and disease mortality in the studied initial phase of vaccination. The model here, which is based on this example, could be easily applied to other regions or countries, modifying the strategies implemented and initial conditions.

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