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1.
Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies ; 137:691-712, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2075294

ABSTRACT

In this paper, symptoms, and medical treatment data of 130 COVID-19 patients have been collected from a leading Hospital in Kolkata. After necessary de-identification and data wrangling, a thorough exploratory data analysis has been performed. Further, it has been investigated if the drug Remdesivir affects early discharge. A decision tree-based model was subsequently built to predict the length of stay of a patient, based on demographics and health parameters. It is observed that Remdesivir cannot be concluded to be more effective than alternative treatments. It is observed that diabetes significantly increases the length of stay of a patient. It may be noted that such a study has not been conducted earlier for COVID-19 patients in India. This study will be beneficial for healthcare community and pharmaceutical companies as there is lot of conflicting views and acute dearth of information about the disease and its treatment. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

2.
Journal of Scientometric Research ; 11(1):47-54, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1897066

ABSTRACT

This study aims to analyze the dynamics of the published articles and preprints of Covid-19 related literature from different scientific databases and sharing platforms. The PubMed, ScienceDirect, and ResearchGate (RG) databases were under consideration in this study over a specific time. Analyses were carried out on the number of publications as (a) function of time (day), (b) journals and (c) authors. Doubling time of the number of publications was analyzed for PubMed "all articles" and ScienceDirect published articles. Analyzed databases were (1A) PubMed (01/12/2019-12/06/2020) "all_articles" (16) PubMed Review articles) and (1C) PubMed Clinical Trials (2) ScienceDirect all publications (01/12/2019- 25/05/2020) (3) RG (Article, Pre Print, Technical Report) (15/04/2020 - 30/4/2020). Total publications in the observation period for PubMed, ScienceDirect, and RG were 23000, 5898 and 5393 respectively. The average number of publications/day for PubMed, ScienceDirect and RG were 70.0 +/- 128.6, 77.6 +/- 125.3 and 255.6 +/- 205.8 respectively. PubMed shows an avalanche in the number of publications around May 10, the number of publications jumped from 6.0 +/- 8.4/day to 282.5 +/- 110.3/ day. The average doubling time for PubMed, ScienceDirect, and RG was 10.3 +/- 4 days, 20.6 days, and 2.3 +/- 2.0 days respectively. The average number of publications per author for PubMed, ScienceDirect, and RG was 1.2 +/- 1.4, 1.3 +/- 0.9, and 1.1 +/- 0.4 respectively. Subgroup analysis, PubMed review articles mean review <0 vertical bar 17 +/- 17 vertical bar 77> days: and reducing at a rate of -0.21 days (count)/day. The number of publications related to the COVID-19 until now is huge and growing very fast with time. It is essential to rationalize and limit the publications.

3.
Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research ; 6(SpecialIssue1):27-36, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884824

ABSTRACT

Background: The whole planet is facing one of the scariest pandemic situations in this era. On 11th February, 2020 the World Health Organization announced the name of an unknown disease as COVID-19, which is caused by the ssRNA virus SARS-CoV-2 (formally recognized as a sister of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV). The epicenter of this disease is Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. COVID-19 can affect all age groups, but particularly affects immune compromised and aged persons with co-morbid conditions. It is highly contagious disease that involves mild to severe respiratory symptoms along with breathing difficulties. Objectives: As SARS-CoV-2 is a new strain of β-coronavirus that spreads from animals to humans via an unknown intermediate host, no vaccines have been developed yet and only supportive treatment is given to the infected patients. The review paper highlights the pharmacological therapy as a supportive treatment given to the COVID-19 patients and nonpharmacological therapeutic approaches for the prevention. Methods: Methods: Authors were surveyed and reviewed numerous articles, magazines, news papers, conference proceedings from different search engines and made the review successful. Results: Some drugs of different categories are approved and prescribed to the patients and some others are still under investigation and have gone through clinical trials. Conclusion: As no specific treatment or drugs for this disease have been developed till the date;therefore, social distancing, home quarantine, and proper healthy lifestyle management are the best current short-term options to avoid further spread of this pervasive virus.

4.
Journal of Investigative Medicine ; 70(4):1164-1165, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1868770

ABSTRACT

Purpose of Study Acute appendicitis (AA) is the most common abdominal surgical emergency in pediatrics. There was a precipitous drop in pediatric visits to hospitals, including the emergency department, since the US declared COVID-19 a national emergency. Managing AA during the pandemic remains a challenge as fear of COVID exposure can lead to delays in presentation and surgery, as well as a shift to conservative management. Alvarado score (AS) is a ten-point clinical scoring system to identify AA and the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grading system (I-V) are validated tools for AA diagnosis and severity. There are no studies on prevalence and severity of AA during the COVID- 19 pandemic in an urban multiethnic community. Objective To compare prevalence and severity of AA before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Used This was a retrospective chart review of patients admitted to Flushing Hospital Medical Center and Jamaica Hospital Medical Center with the diagnosis of AA from March 2018 to March 2021. Charts were reviewed for demographics, clinical, imaging and surgical data to determine AS and AAST. AS grouped from 1-6 (less likely to require surgery) and 7-10 (more likely to require surgery). AAST scoring was based on most severe criteria if grading discrepancies were found between pathology, surgical and computed tomography findings. Leukocytosis was defined as white blood cell count >10. G1 identified AA cases March 2018 - February 2020 and G2 March 2020 - March 2021. Data was analyzed using SPSS software, p<0.05 considered significant. Summary of Results Of 239 patients with AA over 3 years, G1 totaled 184 (77%) in 2 years pre-pandemic and G2 had 55 (23%) during first year pandemic. Mean age, gender and ethnicity were similar for G1 and G2. AS and AAST were compared for G1 and G2, table 1. G2 had significantly greater overall AS of >7 (p=0.038) and higher AAST (p=0.016). Only three patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 9 (16%) of G2 were transferred to a tertiary care center. Conclusions Although there was a decline in number of AA evaluated in our emergency department, the severity of AA was heightened during the pandemic. Healthcare providers need to have a high index of suspicion of increased severity with complications of AA. (Table Presented).

5.
Journal of Investigative Medicine ; 70(4):1162, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1868766

ABSTRACT

Purpose of Study Since early 2020, COVID-19 has infected millions worldwide. Within the first year of the pandemic, COVID-19 vaccines were given emergency use authorization (EUA) by Food and Drug Administration. Healthcare workers, including pediatric residents, were among the earliest recipients of the vaccine. However, there was vaccine hesitancy prior to the NYS employment mandate. There are no studies highlighting knowledge (K), attitudes (A), and practices (P) towards the COVID-19 vaccine amongst pediatric residents in NYC. Objective To investigate K, A, and P on COVID-19 vaccine among pediatric residents in NYC. Methods Used Online SurveyMonkey questionnaires were emailed to pediatric residents in NYC from August 2021 to December 2021. The questionnaire included demographics, K according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), A, and P questions. Descriptive statistics were calculated using SurveyMonkey. Summary of Results Invitations were sent to chief residents of pediatric training programs in NYC. Of 93 respondents, three quarters (75%) were female and most just started their training (PGY-1 40%, PGY-2 30%, PGY-3 28% and PGY-4 2%). Most were from non-university based programs (57%). Almost all (99%) were vaccinated with either Pfizer/BioNTech (82%) or Moderna (16%) and the remainder due to unavailability at the work site. Side effects included pain at the injection site (70%), fatigue/malaise (30%) and muscle aches (21%). Most knew which vaccines were available for EUA (83%). Common documented side effects of approved vaccines were correctly identified (64%) except for incorrect side effects of joint pain (52%) and allergic reaction (32%). Majority welcomed the vaccines with happiness (61%) or excitement (56%). Doubt, anxiety, fear and hesitancy were reported in less than half (45%). Primary sources of information were obtained from the CDC (84%) and scientific publications (46%). All participants would recommend the vaccine to their family and friends. After being vaccinated, most would continue wearing masks (94%) and social distancing (70%). Pediatric residents tested COVID positive prior to vaccination in 13% and after vaccination in 4%. Conclusions Pediatric residents in NYC have sufficient K on COVID-19 vaccines and its side effect profile. As healthcare providers, pediatric residents are protected, prepared and are advocates for vaccination.

6.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335743

ABSTRACT

Background To assess the comprehensive dynamics of outcomes during the SARS-CoV2 B.1.617.2 (Delta variant) compared to the Alpha variant outbreak in the United Kingdom. Methods In this observational study of the cases reported by Public Health England for confirmed (sequencing and genotyping), SARS-CoV2 cases Delta variant (n=592,692) and Alpha variant (n=150,934) were used. Outcomes were analyzed by age groups and compared with all reported weekly cases in the UK. Results The Delta variant surge is associated with a significantly lower case fatality rate (0.43% vs 1.07;RR 0.39;95% CI 0.37-0.42;P<0.0001);lower odds of hospitalization (2.1% vs 3.0%;RR 0.70;95% CI 0.68-0.73;P<0.0001) than the Alpha variant. During the Delta variant surge there were significant increased cases (11.3% to 21.1%, RR 1.87;95% CI 1.84-1.89;P<0.0001), hospitalizations (40.2% to 56.5%;RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.3-1.46;P<0.0001) among confirmed Delta variant cases in the ≥50 years age group during the August 3-September 12, 2021 period compared to earlier reported cases. There was also a significant increase in total weekly COVID-19 deaths noted among ≥70 years old age group (71.4% to 75.1%;RR 1.05;95% CI 1.01-1.08;P=0.0028) during August 6-October 8, 2021 compared to June 4-July 30, 2021 period. Conclusions The Delta variant surge is associated with significantly lower mortality and hospitalizations than the Alpha variant. As the Delta variant surge progressed, ≥50 years old had a significant increased percentage of cases, hospitalizations and a significant increased COVID-19 deaths occurred among ≥70 years old age group.

7.
Journal of Renal and Hepatic Disorders ; 6(1):10-16, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1771898

ABSTRACT

There is minimal information on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in developing countries regarding renal transplant recipients (RTRs). This paper aimed to study the clinical profile, immunosuppressive regimen, treatment, and outcomes in an RTR with COVID-19. This retrospective study was conducted in the nephrology department of Sri Aurobindo Medical College & Postgraduate Institute, Indore (MP), India, from April 1, 2020 to December 15, 2020. We studied 15 patients, of which 13 were treated at our hospital and two were treated in OPD. The median age of transplant recipients was 45 (Interquartile range [IQR]: 26–62) years, the majority being males, and recipients presented at a median of 4 (IQR: 0.3–11) years after transplant. The most common comorbidities included hypertension in 14 (94%) and diabetes 3 (20%) patients. The presenting symptoms at presentation were cough (80%), headache (52%), fever (46%), and breathlessness (26%). Clinical severity as per computerized tomography (CT) severity score ranged from mild (20%), moderate (53%), and severe (27%). Strategies to modify immunosuppressants included discontinuation of antimetabolites without changes in calcineurin inhibitors and steroids (100%). Antiviral therapy (Favipiravir and Remdesivir) was associated with better outcomes and reduced hospital stay. Risk factors for mortality included ABO-incompatibility, severity of disease, high Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS) score, allograft dysfunction before COVID-19 infection, acute kidney injury, elevated inflammatory markers, and intensive care unit/ventilator requirement. Overall patient mortality was 13.2%. Risk factor for mortality in COVID-19 positive with RTR appears to be ABO-incompatible transplant, having a previous history of rejection, and patient requiring ventilatory support.

8.
International Journal of Information Management Data Insights ; 1(2), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1763844

ABSTRACT

Journalism has always remained a vital constituent of our society and journalists play a key role in making people aware of the happenings and developments in society. This spread of information enables shaping the ideologies, orientations and thoughts of individuals as well as the society. Contrary to this, the spread of misinformation or fake news leads to detrimental consequences. With the advent of social media, the menace of fake news has become grievous due to the unrestrained propagation of information and difficulty to track several accounts operated by humans or bots. This menace can be mitigated through data science approaches by combining artificial intelligence with statistics and domain-based knowledge. In this paper, a survey of works aimed at characterization, feature extraction and subsequent detection of fake news has been conducted from a data science perspective. Along with it, an analysis of the 8 renowned fake news detection repositories has been presented. Furthermore, through a case study on tweets related to COVID-19 pandemic, the factors behind the spread of misinformation during critical times, distinguishing between factual and emotional tweets and viable approaches to restrain fake news has been enunciated. © 2021 The Authors

9.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-329514

ABSTRACT

S100A8 and S100A9 are members of the Alarmin family;these proteins are abundantly expressed in neutrophils and form a heterodimer complex. Recently, both proteins were identified as novel biomarkers of SARS-CoV-2 infection and were shown to play key roles in inducing an aggressive inflammatory response by mediating the release of large amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines, called the "cytokine storm." Although co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 in people living with HIV-1 may result in an immunocompromised status, the role of the S100A8/A9 complex in HIV-1 replication in primary T cells and macrophages is still unclear. Here, we evaluated the roles of the proteins in HIV replication to elucidate their functions. We found that the complex had no impact on virus replication in both cell types;however, the subunits of S100A8 and S100A9 inhibits HIV in macrophages. These findings provide important insights into the regulation of HIV viral loads in SARS-CoV2 co-infection.

10.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326889

ABSTRACT

OVERVIEW: The ongoing Pandemic because of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused all the educaAonal insAtutes including colleges to be closed for a very long Ame. As a result the students are compelled to remain in their homes for this Ame. Prolonged stay at home along with excess use of social media and other modes to “kill” the Ame are quite famous to cause certain health issues in a person, specially the teenagers and adolescents. Mental wellbegin, being a dimension of health as per WHO should not be ignored at all specially in these situaAons. METHOD OF STUDY: An Online QuesAonnaire is prepared based of the ZUNG Self RaAng Anxiety and Self RaAng Depression Scale (Pre-validated Scales). The Form is circulated digitally among the people and then we have collected the data in excel. Based on the result we have prepared our statistical chart. RESULT: Quite a significant number of candidates were suffering due to the pandemic situation. 17.091% were suffering from mild to moderate anxiety, 1.785% had marked to severe anxiety levels(Constituting approximately 18.9% of the total). On the other hand, 8.673% of the students had mild depression, while 1 candidate (0.255%) had moderate depression and 1 (0.255%) had severe depression, (Constituting approximately 9.20% of the total). We found that candidates in the age group of 23-24 years had the maximum prevalence of depression, it was followed by candidates with age between 21-22 years. We found that the candidates with age between 23 to 24 years were having highest prevalence of significant anxiety levels which is closely followed by candidates having age which lies between 22 years to 23 years.

11.
Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion ; 37(SUPPL 1):S84, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1632780

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2is a highly contagious disease. It is a complex systemic disease primarily involving therespiratory system. Patients usually have mild to moderate illness andpresent with flu like symptoms. However, a small group of patientsmay progress or present in a critical condition necessitating intensivecare. Early identification of risk factors associated with critical illnessmay aid in providing timely supportive care and access to theintensive care unit (ICU) when required.Aims &Objectives: To compare the CBC findings, NeutrophilLymphocyte Ratio (NLR), derived neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (dNLR), Platelet Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR) and Lymphocyte MonocyteRatio (LMR) in mild and severe categories of COVID 19 patients.Materials &Methods: Cases diagnosed as COVID 19 and admittedin the wards and ICU of GTB Hospital, Delhi were included. Sampleswere collected from 27 cases. The cases were divided in severe andmild categories. Blood was collected in EDTA vial and CBC wasdone using Automated Hematology Analyser. Data were entered inSPSS 26 and statistical analysis was done using same software.Result: NLR, dNLR values and TLC were found to be significantlyhigher (P< 0.05) in severe COVID-19 patients compared to mildCOVID-19 patients. Differences in platelet count, PLR and LMRvalues were not significant between the two groups. Using ROCcurve, a cut off value of 10,950 for TLC, 6.19 for NLR and 4.13 fordNLR were determined. Using these values TLC was found to be93.3% sensitive, 91.7% specific;NLR was found to be 73.3% sensitive, 72.7% specific;dNLR was found to be 80% sensitive, 81.8%specific in recognizing severe COVID 19 infections.Conclusions: NLR, d-NLR, PLR &LMR are readily accessiblebiomarker, which can be calculated based on a complete blood count.In our study, TLC, NLR and dNLR were found to be useful indetecting severe COVID 19 infections. TLC was the most sensitiveand specific marker in detecting severe COVID 19 patients followedby dNLR. NLR was less valuable than dNLR.

12.
New England Journal of Medicine ; 385(25):2, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1624343
13.
Applied Industrial Spectroscopy, AIS 2021 - Part of Optical Sensors and Sensing Congress 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1529318

ABSTRACT

We use the femtosecond laser-induced thermal lens spectroscopy for sensitive detection of the liquid-gas phase interface, which can provide an accurate size measure of aerosols. Mapping microscopic aerosol distribution is critical for COVID-19 transmission. © OSA 2021, © 2021 The Author(s)

14.
PLoS ONE ; 16(2), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1410573

ABSTRACT

The restrictive measures implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic have triggered sudden massive changes to travel behaviors of people all around the world. This study examines the individual mobility patterns for all transport modes (walk, bicycle, motorcycle, car driven alone, car driven in company, bus, subway, tram, train, airplane) before and during the restrictions adopted in ten countries on six continents: Australia, Brazil, China, Ghana, India, Iran, Italy, Norway, South Africa and the United States. This cross-country study also aims at understanding the predictors of protective behaviors related to the transport sector and COVID-19. Findings hinge upon an online survey conducted in May 2020 (N = 9,394). The empirical results quantify tremendous disruptions for both commuting and non-commuting travels, highlighting substantial reductions in the frequency of all types of trips and use of all modes. In terms of potential virus spread, airplanes and buses are perceived to be the riskiest transport modes, while avoidance of public transport is consistently found across the countries. According to the Protection Motivation Theory, the study sheds new light on the fact that two indicators, namely income inequality, expressed as Gini index, and the reported number of deaths due to COVID-19 per 100,000 inhabitants, aggravate respondents' perceptions. This research indicates that socio-economic inequality and morbidity are not only related to actual health risks, as well documented in the relevant literature, but also to the perceived risks. These findings document the global impact of the COVID-19 crisis as well as provide guidance for transportation practitioners in developing future strategies.

15.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9):1, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1407344
16.
Journal of the Scientific Society ; 48(2):112-115, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1380025

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of Covid 19 is different from previous ones in the sense that the data science combined with statistical analysis has countless applications in epidemiology of the disease. The final product of data analysis is usually of interest to the readers. However, through this article we bring forth the process of the data collection, movement and management at the ground level. The data generators and collectors are usually the health workers who were also the care givers during the pandemic. The duplication of record maintenance and data flow at multiple places by the burnt-out workers deteriorates the quality of data. Integrated database is the need of hour for quality health management system.

17.
International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences ; 12(3):1850-1860, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1302879

ABSTRACT

The Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, the contamination that prompts sickness19(covid-19), has spread quickly from the initially known cases in china in December 2019 to nations round the globe. On March 10,2020, the world health organization reported that there have been 113,702 afFirmed instances of corona virus-19 round the globe, additionaly to 4,012 passing. Due to this worldwide well being emergency analysts are handling build up a corona virus immunization. Protected and compelling immuniza-tions are going to be a game changer: yet for years to return we should always wearing covers, genuinely separating and staying faraway from swarms. Being inoculated doesn’t imply that we will laugh in the face of any potential risk and put ourselves as well as other people in danger, especially in light of the very fact that it is as yet not satisfactory what proportions the antibodies can ensure against sickness also as against contamination and transmission. Vaccine for corona virus are basic devices for managing the pandemic when joined with compelling testing and existing anticipation measures. The general undertaking to form a secure and effective coronavirus vaccine is proving to be fruitful. A handful of vaccines now are authorized round the globe, may more in development. Antibodies save an excellent many lives per annum.

18.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1277363

ABSTRACT

Rationale: SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID19 has led to a pandemic with over 70 million cases worldwide as well as more than 18 million cases here in the US. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a severe complication of this disease and traditional ventilation strategies using ARDSNet protocol, including low tidal volumes, appear to cause barotrauma in COVID19 patients at a higher rate than non-COVID19 ARDS patients. The purpose of our retrospective chart review is to identify the incidence of barotrauma in COVID19 patients with ARDS requiring mechanical ventilation here at SJMC. Methods: This study was a retrospective chart review of all patients admitted to critical care units at SJMC with COVID19 infection and requiring mechanical ventilation from March 1, 2020-September 30, 2020. The sample included adult patients (over age 18) with ICD 10 Code for COVID19 (U07.1) and patients who were placed on mechanical ventilation for greater than 24 hours, from March 1, 2020 to September 30, 2020. Both ICD 10 codes and a chart search were utilized to determine which ventilated COVID19 patients developed barotrauma. Results: 140 COVID19 patients underwent mechanical ventilation for greater than 24 hours from March 1, 2020 to September 30, 2020 at our facility. 26 COVID19 patients (18.6%) met our inclusion criteria, developing barotrauma during their hospital admission, of which 25 (17.9%) underwent mechanical (invasive and/or non-invasive) ventilation. The 1 non-ventilated patient was found to have incidental pneumothorax on chest x-ray after a thoracentesis was performed. 80% of the patients were on non-invasive mechanical ventilation prior to intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation. The categorical breakdown of barotrauma was as follows: Pneumothorax 65.4%, subcutaneous emphysema 61.5%, pneumomediastinum 34.6% and pneumoperitoneum 7.7%. None of these patients had any previous history of documented barotrauma. At the time of barotrauma, 15.4% of patients were on NMB drips, 96.2% were on corticosteroids, 42.3% were undergoing proning and 92.3% were on sedation. Prior to the time of barotrauma, 17 patients were on volume control, 7 were on pressure control and 1 was not on mechanical ventilation. Of the 17 patients on volume control, only 1 patient was above the ARDSNet guideline of 6-8 mL/kg IBW. The 7 patients on pressure control had a PEEP ranging from 8 to 15 and a PIP ranging from 25 to 46. Conclusions: Patients with COVID19 who underwent mechanical ventilation developed barotrauma at a higher rate than reported in literature for non-COVID19 patients with ARDS.

19.
Indian Journal of Community Health ; 33(1):97-102, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1257679

ABSTRACT

Background: Covid-19 disease is caused by novel coronavirus known as SARS CoV 2. Coronaviruses are known to cause disease in humans which can be a common cold or a serious pneumonia. SARS Cov 2 is a new variant of coronavirus which was never reported in humans before detection of cluster of cases of pneumonia in Wuhan on 31st December, 2019.Objective: The study was conducted with the objective to find out clinico-epidemiological profiles of early Covid-19 patients in state of Haryana, India and to find out knowledge about covid appropriate behaviors among covid 19 patients. Methods: All the covid-19 cases in the five districts of Haryana were enumerated from March 2020 to May 2020. These Covid-19 cases were contacted telephonically and those who gave their consent to participate in the study were asked to fill interview schedule. Observations: There were 356 covid cases reported in five districts attached to PGIMS, Rohtak. Out of total,254 subjects participated in the study, there were 60.6 % males and 39.4% females who participated in the study. Blood groups of all the participants were also enquired and it was observed that B +ve was most common (19.7%) blood group followed by A+ve (16.5%) and O +ve (15.7%). Conclusion: It can be concluded by the study that majority of the subjects were males, overweight and blood group A & B were the most common blood groups. It was observed that 75.2 % participants were aware about the use of mask, social distancing, hand hygiene and cough etiquettes.

20.
2020 IEEE Bombay Section Signature Conference, IBSSC 2020 ; : 135-139, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1105131

ABSTRACT

Maintenance of immutable vaccination records and provision of accessing the records in order to prove immunity has been the need of the hour. The recent spread of Covid19 and related uncertainty over vaccinations and immunity have made the search for a secure trustable system for reporting vaccination data more essential. Multiple digital, as well as paper-based solutions have been tested but none has been reported successful enough. In this paper, a technique has been proposed to solve the problem by introducing blockchain-based solution to maintain records of vaccination and proof of immunity for individuals. The purpose has been to present a safe and efficient solution to the problem and hence the model proposed is based on concepts of smart contracts and built over Ethereum blockchain. The paper goes on to give a detailed study of the technique based on discussions of its various aspects like design, development and feasibility. © 2020 IEEE.

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