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Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S22-S23, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746807


Background. Accurately identifying COVID-19 patients at-risk to deteriorate remains challenging. Dysregulated immune responses impact disease progression and development of life-threatening complications. Tools integrating host immune-protein expression have proven useful in determining infection etiology and hold potential for prognosticating disease severity. Methods. Adults with COVID-19 were enrolled at medical centers in Israel, Germany, and the United States (Figure 1). Severe outcome was defined as intensive care unit admission, non-invasive or invasive ventilation, or death. Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), interferon gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured using an analyzer providing values within 15 minutes (MeMed Key®). A signature indicating the likelihood of severe outcome was derived generating a score (0-100). Description of derivation cohort RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results. Between March and November 2020, 518 COVID-19 patients were enrolled, of whom 394 were eligible, 29% meeting a severe outcome. Age ranged between 19-98 (median 61.5), with 59.1% male. Patients meeting severe outcomes exhibited higher levels of CRP and IP-10 and lower levels of TRAIL (Figure 2;p < 0.001). Likelihood of severe outcome increased significantly (p < 0.001) with higher scores. The signature's area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.81-0.91). Performance was not confounded by age, sex, or comorbidities and was superior to IL-6 (AUC 0.77;p = 0.033) and CRP (AUC 0.78;p < 0.001). Clinical deterioration proximal to blood draw was associated with higher signature score. Scores of patients meeting a first outcome over 3 days after blood draw were significantly (p < 0.001) higher than scores of non-severe patients (Figure 3). Moreover, the signature differentiated patients who further deteriorated after meeting a severe outcome from those who improved (p = 0.004) and projected 14-day survival probabilities (p < 0.001;Figure 4). TRAIL, IP-10, CRP and the severity signature score are differentially expressed in severe and non-severe COVID-19 infection Dots represent patients and boxes denote median and interquartile range (IQR) The signature score of patients meeting a severe outcome on or after the day of blood draw is significantly (p < 0.001) higher than the signature score of non-severe patients. Dots represents patients and boxes denote median and IQR Kaplan-Meier survival estimates for signature score bins Conclusion. The derived signature combined with a rapid measurement platform has potential to serve as an accurate predictive tool for early detection of COVID-19 patients at risk for severe outcome, facilitating timely care escalation and de-escalation and appropriate resource allocation.

Aust Vet J ; 100(6): 243-253, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685211


BACKGROUND: Sickness presenteeism in the veterinary profession potentially jeopardises the wellbeing of veterinary team members and endangers quality of patient care. In veterinary team members with influenza-like illness (ILI), sickness presenteeism poses a risk to the health and wellbeing of colleagues and clients, particularly in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to evaluate factors associated with sickness presenteeism in NSW registered veterinarians suffering from ILI, both before and since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Veterinarians registered in NSW were invited to complete an anonymous online mixed-methods survey between 31 March 2021 and 31 June 2021, regarding sickness presenteeism and absenteeism associated with ILI. The questionnaire was distributed through online and print newsletters of the Australian Veterinary Association NSW Branch and the NSW Veterinary Practitioners Board. RESULTS: From a total of 122 participants, 81 veterinarians (66.4%) reported that they would attend work despite displaying symptoms of ILI. Most veterinarians would stay at home with a fever alone (n = 108, 88.5%), however, many would still attend work with a sore throat (n = 121, 99.2%) or a dry cough (n = 91, 74.6%). Sickness presenteeism was significantly associated with lack of staff to cover workers. Although sickness presenteeism remained common, participants reported that they were less likely to attend work with symptoms of ILI since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. DISCUSSION: The data are discussed in relation to sickness presenteeism in healthcare workers. These findings underscore an urgent need for relief staff to decrease sickness presenteeism.

COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Veterinarians , Animals , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , New South Wales/epidemiology , Pandemics , Presenteeism , Surveys and Questionnaires
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(SUPPL 1):S279-S280, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185790


Background: It is estimated that up to 10% of SARS-CoV-2 patients progress from early and pulmonary stages to the most severe stage of illness, which manifests as an extra-pulmonary systemic hyperinflammatory syndrome. Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) is an inflammatory marker that plays a role in the dysregulated host response of COVID-19 infected patients. Clinical monitoring of IP-10 has been restricted in the absence of a rapid diagnostic test. MeMed KeyTM is a novel platform recently cleared to provide IP-10 measurements in 15 minutes. We hypothesized that providing physicians with real time IP-10 measurements would support detection and continuous monitoring of patients with a dysregulated immune response and potentially allow personalized immunomodulation to improve patient outcome. IP-10 levels reflect corticosteroid treatment Methods: From 7th April 2020 to 10th May 2020 blood was routinely collected serially from 52 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients hospitalized at a COVID-19 dedicated medical center. A clinical decision support protocol was in place focused on managing viral response, oxygenation and inflammatory state (NCT04389645). Results: The median age of the 52 patients was 69, 69% were male, 21% were ventilated, 4 died, 2 due to non-COVID-19 related complications. The most common comorbidities were Diabetes 40% and Hypertension 46%. IP-10 >1000 pg/ml correlated with ICU admission (p< 0.05) and increased COVID-19 severity score (p< 0.01). 19 of the 52 patients had IP-10 >1000 pg/ml, of these 12 were treated with corticosteroids. Monitoring IP-10 within the clinical decision support protocol assisted with personalized corticosteroid regimens with the aim of reducing IP-10 < 1000 pg/ml. The 10 patients that survived exhibited IP-10 levels >1000 pg/ml for 2.6 days on average. In contrast, the 2 patients that died of COVID-19 related complications displayed an average of 7.5 days with IP-10 >1000 pg/ml (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Providing physicians with real time measurements of IP-10 in COVID-19 patients proved a useful tool as part of the clinical decision support protocol. Timely identification, monitoring and personalized treatment of COVID-19 patients exhibiting a dysregulated immune response may aid in improving patient outcome. Further studies are warranted.