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1.
Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics ; : 0976500X221080225, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1741766

ABSTRACT

Three monoclonal antibodies?natalizumab (NTZ), ocrelizumab (OCR), and alemtuzumab (ALM)?are the mainstays for the treatment of both relapsing and progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, their safety in patients with MS is analyzed and compared for rational use, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. All clinical studies published between 2016 and 2020 with the primary outcome of the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) with the use of NTZ, OCR, and ALM in the treatment of MS were systematically searched in the PubMed database. In this review, the percentage of patients reporting AEs was calculated and compared. The most common AEs associated with the use of NTZ, OCR, and ALM were infection and infestation. The percentage of patients reporting urinary tract infection, upper respiratory tract infection, and herpes was 16% using natalizumab, 7% using natalizumab and ocrelizumab, and 2% with ocrelizumab, respectively. The most common AEs, such as rashes, pyrexia, and influenza, were reported with ocrelizumab and alemtuzumab. Additionally, alemtuzumab was associated with immune thrombocytopenia (2%), respiratory infections (7%), and thyroid dysfunction (43%). All these data outcomes show that of the three monoclonal antibodies, natalizumab and ocrelizumab were associated with a reduced incidence of adverse events, making them a safer choice for MS.

2.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 477(1): 225-240, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469743

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (COVID-19) virus uses Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a gateway for their entry into the human body. The ACE2 with cleaved products have emerged as major contributing factors to multiple physiological functions and pathogenic complications leading to the clinical consequences of the COVID-19 infection Decreased ACE2 expression restricts the viral entry into the human cells and reduces the viral load. COVID-19 infection reduces the ACE2 expression and induces post-COVID-19 complications like pneumonia and lung injury. The modulation of the ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas (AAM) axis is also being explored as a modality to treat post-COVID-19 complications. Evidence indicates that specific food components may modulate the AAM axis. The variations in the susceptibility to COVID-19 infection and the post-COVID its complications are being correlated with varied dietary habits. Some of the food substances have emerged to have supportive roles in treating post-COVID-19 complications and are being considered as adjuvants to the COVID-19 therapy. It is possible that some of their active ingredients may emerge as the direct treatment for the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin I/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diet therapy , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , /metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Dietary Proteins/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Terpenes/pharmacology , Virus Internalization , Vitamins/pharmacology
3.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(3): 423-439, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Protecting intellectual property rights are important and particularly pertinent for inventions that are an outcome of rigorous research and development. While the grant of patents is subject to establishing novelty and inventive step, it further indicates the technological development and is helpful for researchers working in the same technical domain. The aim of the present research work is to map the existing work through an analysis of patent literature in the field of Coronaviruses (CoV), particularly COVID-19 (2019-nCoV). CoV is a large family of viruses known to cause illness in humans and animals, particularly known for causing respiratory infections, as evidenced in earlier times, such as in MERS i.e., Middle East Respiratory Syndrome; and SRS i.e., Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. A recently identified novel-coronavirus, known as COVID-19, has caused pandemic situations across the globe. OBJECTIVE: To expand the analysis of patents related to CoV and 2019-nCoV, an evaluation has been conducted by patenting trends of particular strains of identified CoV diseases by present legal status, main concerned countries via the earliest priority years and its assignee types and inventors of identified relevant patents. The global patent documents were analyzed to check the scope of claims along with focuses and trends of the published patent documents for the entire CoV family, including 2019-nCoV through the present landscape. METHODS: To extract the results, the Derwent Innovation database was used by a combination of different keystrings. Approximately 3800 patents were obtained and further scrutinized and analyzed. The present write-up also discusses the recent progress of patent applications in a period of the year 2010 to 2020 (present) along with the recent developments in India for the treatment options for CoV and 2019-nCoV. RESULTS: Present analysis showed that key areas of the inventions were the vaccines and diagnostic kits apart from the composition for the treatment of CoV. It was also observed that no specific vaccine treatments are available for the treatment of 2019-nCov; however, developing novel chemical or biological drugs and kits for early diagnosis, prevention, and disease management is the primary governing topic among the patented inventions. The present study also indicates potential research opportunities for the future, particularly to combat 2019-nCoV. CONCLUSION: The present paper analyzes the existing patents in the field of Coronaviruses and 2019-nCoV and suggests a way forward for the effective contribution in this upcoming research area. From the trend analysis, an increase in the filing of the overall trend of patent families was observed for a period of 2010 to the current year. This multifaceted analysis of identified patent literature provides an understanding of the focuses on present ongoing research and a grey area in terms of the trends of technological innovations in disease management in patients with CoV and 2019-nCoV. Furthermore, the findings and outcome of the present study offer insights for the proposed research and innovation opportunities and provide actionable information in order to facilitate policymakers, academia, research-driven institutes and also investors to make better decisions regarding programmed steps for research and development for the diagnosis, treatment and taking preventive measures for CoV and 2019-nCoV. The present article also emphasizes the need for future development and the role of academia and collaboration with industry for speedy research with a rationale.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Journal of Health Management ; : 0972063420983076, 2021.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1085202

ABSTRACT

World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the recent outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) a Pandemic and a global public health emergency. The eventual scope and consequences of this outbreak are uncertain at present as the condition is swiftly evolving. The purpose of this article is to cumulate existing published data and researches, identify the challenges with reference to India and develop a comprehensive preventive plan to prevent the spread of this deadly pandemic. The authors explored WHO situation dashboards, the web portal of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India and press reports of different countries, published literature on coronavirus transmission, textbooks, scientific and medical journals and several other sources to identify ongoing challenges in the fight against COVID-19 in India. After an exhaustive literature search, 15 ongoing challenges in the fight against novel COVID-19 especially with reference to India have been identified. After a thorough analysis of all these challenges along with the lessons from the International community, a preventive plan has been established to be devised by different agencies from our personal perspectives to overcome the challenges which may assist decision-makers in the prevention and control of COVID-19 in India.

5.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 476(6): 2345-2364, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083315

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of Serious Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that produces corona virus disease (COVID-19) has challenged the entire mankind by rapidly spreading globally in 210 countries affecting over 25 million people and about 1 million deaths worldwide. It continues to spread, afflicting the health system globally. So far there is no remedy for the ailment and the available antiviral regimens have been unsatisfactory for the clinical outcomes and the mode of treatment has been mainly supportive for the prevention of COVID-19-induced morbidity and mortality. From the time immortal the traditional plant-based ethno-medicines have provided the leads for the treatment of infectious diseases. Phytopharmaceuticals have provided potential and less toxic antiviral drugs as compared to conventional modern therapeutics which are associated with severe toxicities. The ethnopharmacological knowledge about plants has provided food supplements and nutraceuticals as a promise for prevention and treatment of the current pandemic. In this review article, we have attempted to comprehend the information about the edible medicinal plant materials with potential antiviral activity specifically against RNA virus which additionally possess property to improve immunity along with external and internal respiration and exhibit anti-inflammatory properties for the prevention and treatment of the disease. This will open an arena for the development of novel nutraceutical herbal formulations as an alternative therapy that can be used for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Plants, Edible/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/etiology , Ethnopharmacology/methods , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/physiology
6.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 23(1): 98-111, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043364

ABSTRACT

Changes in human lifestyles and environmental deterioration globally cause the emergence of new viruses, posing research challenges. The outburst of COVID-19 (nCoV19) is a recent example, wherein effective management of virus, using the conventional medication and effective diagnostic measures is a challenge. While many ongoing strategies from vaccine development to drug repurposing are currently being investigated, a targeted approach with nanotechnology can be helpful to meet the demand for preventive and diagnostic measures. The significant results of nanotechnology in providing better efficacy of pharmaceutical drugs is expected to combat nCoV19 by using nanotechnology- based solutions, preventive treatment, and diagnosis. This article addresses the dire need for nanotechnology-based solutions in the current pandemic, as well as analyzes the ongoing innovation and existing patents that can be used to provide better solutions. Multiple applications of nanotechnology are considered to be helpful in preventive and diagnostic measures, immune response modulation, and immunity boosters, along with projecting a pathway for industry and academic researchers for addressing such a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Nanotechnology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(3): 365-384, 2020 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-875129

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the host cell-binding site for SAR-CoV-2, poses two-fold drug development problems. First, the role of ACE2 itself is still a matter of investigation, and no specific drugs are available targeting ACE2. Second, as a consequence of SARS-CoV-2 interaction with ACE2, there is an impairment of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) involved in the functioning of vital organs like the heart, kidney, brain, and lungs. In developing antiviral drugs for COVID-19, ACE2, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and the specific enzymes involved in the viral and cellular gene expression have been the primary targets. SARS-CoV-2 being a new virus with unusually high mortality, there has been a need to get medicines in an emergency, and the drug repurposing has been a primary strategy. Considering extensive mortality and morbidity throughout the world, we have made a maiden attempt to discover the drugs interacting with RAS and identify the lead compounds from herbal plants using molecular docking. Both host ACE2 and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and ORF8 appear to be the primary targets for the treatment of COVID-19. While the drug repurposing of currently approved drugs seems to be one strategy for the treatment of COVID-19, purposing phytochemicals may be another essential strategy for discovering lead compounds. Using in silico molecular docking, we have identified a few phytochemicals that may provide insights into designing herbal and synthetic therapeutics to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Res Dev Disabil ; 107: 103790, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-816932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While COVID-19 outbreak has had adverse psychological effects in children with special needs, the mental state and burden on their caregivers during this pandemic has yet to be reported. AIMS: The objectives of this study were to describe the mental health status and the change in perceived strain among caregivers during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Two hundred sixty four caregivers completed an online survey that assessed demographics, use and perspective on tele-rehabilitation, homecare therapy, caregiver's strain and mental health. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: The prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms were found to be 62.5 %, 20.5 % and 36.4 % respectively. A significant difference in caregiver strain (p <  0.001, effect size = 0.93) was observed during the outbreak compared to levels pre-outbreak (pre-outbreak strain was measured retrospectively). Caregivers not using tele-rehabilitation along with a perception of it being a poor medium for rehabilitation were at greater risks for poor mental health whereas a negative perception on homecare therapy were strongly associated with higher psychological symptoms and strain. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: This study identified a high prevalence of depression and significant change in strain displayed by caregivers during the COVID-19 outbreak. We identified several factors associated with poor mental health and perceived strain that can be used to help safeguard caregivers.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19 , Caregiver Burden/psychology , Caregivers/psychology , Depression/psychology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/rehabilitation , Parents/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Telerehabilitation , Age Factors , Anxiety/epidemiology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/physiopathology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/rehabilitation , Attitude to Health , Autism Spectrum Disorder/physiopathology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/rehabilitation , Caregiver Burden/epidemiology , Caregivers/statistics & numerical data , Cerebral Palsy/physiopathology , Cerebral Palsy/rehabilitation , Child , Child, Preschool , Depression/epidemiology , Developmental Disabilities/physiopathology , Developmental Disabilities/rehabilitation , Down Syndrome/physiopathology , Down Syndrome/rehabilitation , Female , Financial Stress , Functional Status , Home Care Services , Humans , Income , India/epidemiology , Learning Disabilities/physiopathology , Learning Disabilities/rehabilitation , Male , Mental Health , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/physiopathology , Prevalence , Spinal Dysraphism/physiopathology , Spinal Dysraphism/rehabilitation , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Teleworking , Workload
9.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 167: 108349, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714955

ABSTRACT

AIM: While there are rampant deaths reported worldwide due to novel corona virus (COVID-19) on one side, hypertension, diabetes and renal failure are emerging comorbidities with mortality risk due to respiratory failure on the other side. The link of these morbidities with renin angiotensin system (RAS) and angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) as the site of the multiplication of COVID-19 has widely been accepted. The objective of this research report was to delineate the clinical characteristics with COVID-19 infection with RAS and to consider its significance not just for the search of novel antiviral drugs, but for the management and prevention of death of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: It was a retrospective case series analysis of demographic and clinical data with associated comorbidities of 206 deaths reported in India up to 10th April 2020. The data were available from the official release from Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Government of India. This was followed by a literature search to correlate the available evidence for their possible relationship with RAS. RESULTS: The demographic data were consistent with those reported from other countries. The death (53.4%) was more common in patients with age above 60 years and men (69.3%) were more susceptible as compared to women (30.68%).We found that 50.5% of the deceased patients had pre-existing comorbidities. Diabetes and hypertension were the major comorbidities in 27.8% and 22.1% of the deceased cases respectively. Although respiratory and cardiac problems were prevalent at the time of death, the pre-existing pulmonary disease was comparatively less prevalent. Only 13.6% of the deceased were having pre-existing respiratory problems and 6.2% had cardiac ailments. We could correlate the reports that RAS plays a significant role in the prognosis of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and hypertension are at greater risk for developing COVID-19 infection. There may be massive derangement of the entire RAS after the attack of COVID-19 and hence, patients with these pre-existing comorbidities and on ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers should be monitored carefully considering the role of RAS in the prognosis of COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Renin-Angiotensin System , Adult , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Female , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/metabolism , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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