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Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3025, 2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237997


Assessment of the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections is critical for monitoring the course and extent of the COVID-19 epidemic. Here, we report estimated seroprevalence in the French population and the proportion of infected individuals who developed neutralising antibodies at three points throughout the first epidemic wave. Testing 11,000 residual specimens for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and neutralising antibodies, we find nationwide seroprevalence of 0.41% (95% CI: 0.05-0.88) mid-March, 4.14% (95% CI: 3.31-4.99) mid-April and 4.93% (95% CI: 4.02-5.89) mid-May 2020. Approximately 70% of seropositive individuals have detectable neutralising antibodies. Infection fatality rate is 0.84% (95% CI: 0.70-1.03) and increases exponentially with age. These results confirm that the nationwide lockdown substantially curbed transmission and that the vast majority of the French population remained susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 in May 2020. Our study shows the progression of the first epidemic wave and provides a framework to inform the ongoing public health response as viral transmission continues globally.

Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Epidemics , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
Lancet Public Health ; 6(4): e202-e209, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199200


BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 lockdown period from March 17 to May 11, 2020, French authorities in Paris and its suburbs relocated people experiencing recurrent homelessness to emergency shelters, hotels, and large venues. A serological survey was done at some of these locations to assess the COVID-19 exposure prevalence in this group. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional seroprevalence study at food distribution sites, emergency shelters, and workers' residences that were provided medical services by Médecins Sans Frontières in Paris and Seine-Saint-Denis in the Ile-de-France region. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody seropositivity was detected by Luciferase-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Pseudo Neutralization Test. Sociodemographic and exposure related information was collected via a verbal questionnaire to analyse risk factors and associations with various COVID-19 symptoms. FINDINGS: Between June 23 and July 2, 2020, 426 (52%) of 818 individuals recruited tested positive in 14 sites. Seroprevalence varied significantly by type of recruitment site (χ2 p<0·0001), being highest among those living in workers' residences (88·7%, 95% CI 81·8-93·2), followed by emergency shelters (50·5%, 46·3-54·7), and food distribution sites (27·8%, 20·8-35·7). More than two thirds of COVID-19 seropositive individuals (68%, 95% CI 64·2-72·2; 291 of 426) did not report any symptoms during the recall period. COVID-19 seropositivity was strongly associated with overcrowding (medium density: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2·7, 95% CI 1·5-5·1, p=0·0020; high density: aOR 3·4, 1·7-6·9, p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: These results show high exposure to SARS-CoV-2 with important variations between those at different study sites. Living in crowded conditions was the strongest factor associated with exposure level. This study underscores the importance of providing safe, uncrowded accommodation, alongside adequate testing and public health information. FUNDING: Médecins Sans Frontières, Epicentre, Institut Pasteur's URGENCE nouveau coronavirus fund, Total Foundation.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Homeless Persons/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paris/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies
Eur J Immunol ; 51(1): 180-190, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023283


Although the COVID-19 pandemic peaked in March/April 2020 in France, the prevalence of infection is barely known. Using high-throughput methods, we assessed herein the serological response against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) of 1847 participants working in three sites of an institution in Paris conurbation. In May-July 2020, 11% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.7-12.6) of serums were positive for IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 N and S proteins, and 9.5% (95% CI: 8.2-11.0) were neutralizer in pseudo-typed virus assays. The prevalence of seroconversion was 11.6% (95% CI: 10.2-13.2) when considering positivity in at least one assay. In 5% of RT-qPCR positive individuals, no systemic IgGs were detected. Among immune individuals, 21% had been asymptomatic. Anosmia (loss of smell) and ageusia (loss of taste) occurred in 52% of the IgG-positive individuals and in 3% of the negative ones. In contrast, 30% of the anosmia-ageusia cases were seronegative, suggesting that the true prevalence of infection may have reached 16.6%. In sera obtained 4-8 weeks after the first sampling, anti-N and anti-S IgG titers and neutralization activity in pseudo-virus assay declined by 31%, 17%, and 53%, resulting thus in half-life of 35, 87, and 28 days, respectively. The population studied is representative of active workers in Paris. The short lifespan of the serological systemic responses suggests an underestimation of the true prevalence of infection.

Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Pandemics , Paris/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Time Factors