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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(23): 613-620, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243279

ABSTRACT

Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established in 1988, the number of wild poliovirus (WPV) cases has declined by >99.9%, and WPV serotypes 2 and 3 have been declared eradicated (1). By the end of 2022, WPV type 1 (WPV1) transmission remained endemic only in Afghanistan and Pakistan (2,3). However, during 2021-2022, Malawi and Mozambique reported nine WPV1 cases that were genetically linked to Pakistan (4,5), and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks were detected in 42 countries (6). cVDPVs are oral poliovirus vaccine-derived viruses that can emerge after prolonged circulation in populations with low immunity allowing reversion to neurovirulence and can cause paralysis. Polioviruses are detected primarily through surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), and poliovirus is confirmed through stool specimen testing. Environmental surveillance, the systematic sampling of sewage and testing for the presence of poliovirus, supplements AFP surveillance. Both surveillance systems were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic's effects on public health activities during 2020 (7,8) but improved in 2021 (9). This report updates previous reports (7,9) to describe surveillance performance during 2021-2022 in 34 priority countries.* In 2022, a total of 26 (76.5%) priority countries met the two key AFP surveillance performance indicator targets nationally compared with 24 (70.6%) countries in 2021; however, substantial gaps remain in subnational areas. Environmental surveillance expanded to 725 sites in priority countries, a 31.1% increase from the 553 sites reported in 2021. High-quality surveillance is critical to rapidly detect poliovirus transmission and enable prompt poliovirus outbreak response to stop circulation. Frequent monitoring of surveillance guides improvements to achieve progress toward polio eradication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Humans , Pandemics , alpha-Fetoproteins , Disease Eradication , Population Surveillance , Global Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliomyelitis/diagnosis , Poliovirus/genetics , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Immunization Programs
2.
Vaccine ; 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281965

ABSTRACT

Concurrent outbreaks of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus serotypes 1 and 2 (cVDPV1, cVDPV2) were confirmed in the Republic of the Philippines in September 2019 and were subsequently confirmed in Malaysia by early 2020. There is continuous population subgroup movement in specific geographies between the two countries. Outbreak response efforts focused on sequential supplemental immunization activities with monovalent Sabin strain oral poliovirus vaccine type 2 (mOPV2) and bivalent oral poliovirus vaccines (bOPV, containing Sabin strain types 1 and 3) as well as activities to enhance poliovirus surveillance sensitivity to detect virus circulation. A total of six cVDPV1 cases, 13 cVDPV2 cases, and one immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 case were detected, and there were 35 cVDPV1 and 31 cVDPV2 isolates from environmental surveillance sewage collection sites. No further cVDPV1 or cVDPV2 have been detected in either country since March 2020. Response efforts in both countries encountered challenges, particularly those caused by the global COVID-19 pandemic. Important lessons were identified and could be useful for other countries that experience outbreaks of concurrent cVDPV serotypes.

3.
Pathogens ; 10(3)2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148308

ABSTRACT

The introduction of the rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix, into the Fiji National Immunisation Program in 2012 has reduced the burden of rotavirus disease and hospitalisations in children less than 5 years of age. The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of rotavirus genotype diversity from 2005 to 2018; to investigate changes following the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in Fiji. Faecal samples from children less than 5 years with acute diarrhoea between 2005 to 2018 were analysed at the WHO Rotavirus Regional Reference Laboratory at the Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia, and positive samples were serotyped by EIA (2005-2006) or genotyped by heminested RT-PCR (2007 onwards). We observed a transient increase in the zoonotic strain equine-like G3P[8] in the initial period following vaccine introduction. G1P[8] and G2P[4], dominant genotypes prior to vaccine introduction, have not been detected since 2015 and 2014, respectively. A decrease in rotavirus genotypes G2P[8], G3P[6], G8P[8] and G9P[8] was also observed following vaccine introduction. Monitoring the rotavirus genotypes that cause diarrhoeal disease in children in Fiji is important to ensure that the rotavirus vaccine will continue to be protective and to enable early detection of new vaccine escape strains if this occurs.

4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(37): 1330-1333, 2020 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782535

ABSTRACT

Since 1988, when World Health Organization (WHO) Member States and partners launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, the number of wild poliovirus (WPV) cases has declined from 350,000 in 125 countries to 176 in only two countries in 2019 (1). The Global Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (GCC) declared two of the three WPV types, type 2 (WPV2) and type 3 (WPV3), eradicated globally in 2015 and 2019, respectively (1). Wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) remains endemic in Afghanistan and Pakistan (1). Containment under strict biorisk management measures is vital to prevent reintroduction of eradicated polioviruses into communities from poliovirus facilities. In 2015, Member States committed to contain type 2 polioviruses (PV2) in poliovirus-essential facilities (PEFs) certified in accordance with a global standard (2). Member states agreed to report national PV2 inventories annually, destroy unneeded PV2 materials, and, if retaining PV2 materials, establish national authorities for containment (NACs) and a PEF auditing process. Since declaration of WPV3 eradication in October 2019, these activities are also required with WPV3 materials. Despite challenges faced during 2019-2020, including the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the global poliovirus containment program continues to work toward important milestones. To maintain progress, all WHO Member States are urged to adhere to the agreed containment resolutions, including officially establishing legally empowered NACs and submission of PEF Certificates of Participation.


Subject(s)
Disease Eradication , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Humans , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral/administration & dosage
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