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3.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(6): 1585-1588, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202119

ABSTRACT

Vaccine administration is under way worldwide to combat the current COVID-19 pandemic. The newly developed vaccines are highly effective with minimal adverse effects. Recently, the AstraZeneca ChadOx1 nCov-19 vaccine has raised public alarm with concerns regarding the rare, but serious, development of thrombotic events, now known as vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). These thrombotic events appear similar to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, both clinically and pathologically. In this manuscript, the ISTH SSC Subcommittee on Platelet Immunology outlines guidelines on how to recognize, diagnose and manage patients with VITT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Communication , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(5): 1194-1200.e1, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We studied 2 unrelated patients with immune thrombocytopenia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia in the setting of acute infections. One patient developed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children in the setting of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify the mechanisms underlying the development of infection-driven autoimmune cytopenias. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was performed on both patients, and the impact of the identified variants was validated by functional assays using the patients' PBMCs. RESULTS: Each patient was found to have a unique heterozygous truncation variant in suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1). SOCS1 is an essential negative regulator of type I and type II IFN signaling. The patients' PBMCs showed increased levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 phosphorylation and a transcriptional signature characterized by increased expression of type I and type II IFN-stimulated genes and proapoptotic genes. The enhanced IFN signature exhibited by the patients' unstimulated PBMCs parallels the hyperinflammatory state associated with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, suggesting the contributions of SOCS1 in regulating the inflammatory response characteristic of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. CONCLUSIONS: Heterozygous loss-of-function SOCS1 mutations are associated with enhanced IFN signaling and increased immune cell activation, thereby predisposing to infection-associated autoimmune cytopenias.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/immunology , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Thrombocytopenia/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/virology , Adolescent , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/genetics , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Haploinsufficiency , Humans , Male , Mutation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 Protein/genetics , Thrombocytopenia/genetics
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