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3.
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety ; 31:502-502, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2083726
6.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-720-S-721, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967367

ABSTRACT

Introduction: At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, all patients undergoing endoscopic surveillance for Barrett's Oesophagus (BE) in the UK were indefinitely postponed. As well as the potential for missed progression to dysplasia, the negative impact on patients' quality of life is immeasurable. The Cytosponge® is a minimally invasive cell sampling device which has been researched in screening for BE. We describe the first worldwide use of the Cytosponge® outside of a clinical trial to support the triage of BE patients unable to undergo endoscopic surveillance due to COVID-19. Aims and Methods: Consecutive patients with non-dysplastic BE (NDBE) or those deemed to be low risk after previous treatment for BErelated dysplasia, DBE (more than 18 months after completion of therapy with no visible BE and no intestinal metaplasia/dysplasia at last endoscopy) with no prior history of stenosis who were overdue endoscopy (OGD) were invited to have the Cytosponge®. The sample was analysed for TFF3 (a marker of intestinal metaplasia), cellular atypia and p53. Fisher's test was used to examine the association between the overall cytosponge result and its individual components with follow-up OGD outcomes. Results: To date, 153 patients (mean age 66 years, 126 male) have undergone the Cytosponge® procedure. The median maximal length of BE was 3cm (1-15cm). Three patients were unable to swallow the device and 19 (12%) needed a repeat procedure as no columnar cells were present suggesting that the sponge had not entered the stomach. 87 patients (80%) with NDBE had a either a low-risk result (TFF3 positive only – 62) or required a repeat Cytosponge® routinely (TFF3/atypia/ p53 negative – 25). The remaining 21 patients (20%) needed an OGD within 3 months, 17 of which have since had an OGD. Of these 17 patients, 4 had a new diagnosis of dysplasia (indefinite - 2, low grade dysplasia – 1, intramucosal cancer - 1) and 2 a new diagnosis of cancer. 18/87 patients in the low-risk NDBE cohort have undergone follow-up OGD (NDBE 17/18, high grade dysplasia 1/18). Of the 23 patients in the post-treatment BE cohort, 1 patient had a high-risk result and subsequent OGD confirmed HGD (Table 1). A high-risk cytosponge result and the presence of both p53 and typia were all associated with a positive OGD result. Over-expression of p53 appeared to be the most sensitive marker (Table 2). In treatment naive patients, a low-risk cytosponge result was closely associated with no dysplasia detected at follow-up OGD with a negative predictive value of 94%. Conclusions: Cytosponge® has proved to be a useful non-endoscopic tool for patients with BE under surveillance where OGD is not possible. Preliminary data are promising to help triage patients and may in turn offer a less invasive approach to monitoring patients compared to endoscopy, particuarly for low risk patients. (Table Presented) (Table Presented)

7.
Annals of Behavioral Medicine ; 56(SUPP 1):S132-S132, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848791
8.
Annals of Behavioral Medicine ; 56(SUPP 1):S31-S31, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848639
9.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S389, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746423

ABSTRACT

Background. SARS-CoV-2 the etiology of COVID-19 has caused more than 33 million cases and almost 600,000 deaths in the United States alone. Vaccination is a vital tool in controlling the pandemic. With accelerated infection rates in various parts of the world, the incidence of variants has risen and threatens to set back the long sought after immunity, provided by available vaccines. The objective of this study was to evaluate the breakthrough infection rate after complete vaccination, in Sangamon County, with a rural and urban population of 195,000 in Central Illinois. Methods. Data regarding breakthrough infections collected from the Sangamon County Department of Public Health, included the total number of infections, time after vaccination, age range of those infected and the type of vaccine used. Complete vaccination was defined as 14 days after the single dose of Johnson & Johnson/Janssen or the second dose of Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna Inc. vaccine. Results. (Table Presented) The number of fully vaccinated individuals at the time of writing of this study was 87,086 which corresponded to 44.58 % of the total population. The breakthrough infection percentage was calculated as 0.036%. The mean time after vaccination to infection was 49.13 days with a standard deviation of 23.28. Conclusion. Breakthrough infections among fully vaccinated individuals in our county, have been quite rare, which points to the high efficacy of the vaccines. A complex number of factors likely contribute to this including virus-related factors i.e. variant forms and specific patient-related factors which are not a part of this study. The afore-mentioned high efficacy rate of the vaccines provides further justification, to continue to pursue a persistent vaccination strategy to mitigate the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

10.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 35(3): 393-397, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622388

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: It has been hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2 may play a role in the development of different forms of diabetes mellitus (DM). The Canary Islands have the highest incidence of type 1 DM (T1DM) reported in Spain (30-35/100,000 children under 14 years/year). In 2020-2021 we observed the highest incidence so far on the island of Gran Canaria, as a result of which we decided to evaluate the possible role of COVID-19 in the increased number of onsets. METHODS: We examined the presence of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in children with new onset T1DM between October 2020 and August 2021. We compared recent T1DM incidence with that of the previous 10 years. RESULTS: Forty-two patients were diagnosed with T1DM (48.1/100,000 patients/year), representing a nonsignificant 25.7% increase from the expected incidence. Of the 33 patients who consented to the study, 32 presented negative IgG values, with only one patient reflecting undiagnosed past infection. Forty-four percent of patients presented with ketoacidosis at onset, which was similar to previous years. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that there is no direct relationship between the increased incidence of T1DM and SARS-CoV-2 in the region. The COVID-19 pandemic did not result in an increased severity of T1DM presentation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Autoantibodies/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Islets of Langerhans/immunology , Spain/epidemiology
11.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 764599, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598692

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute myocardial damage is common in severe COVID-19. Post-mortem studies have implicated microvascular thrombosis, with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) demonstrating a high prevalence of myocardial infarction and myocarditis-like scar. The microcirculatory sequelae are incompletely characterized. Perfusion CMR can quantify the stress myocardial blood flow (MBF) and identify its association with infarction and myocarditis. Objectives: To determine the impact of the severe hospitalized COVID-19 on global and regional myocardial perfusion in recovered patients. Methods: A case-control study of previously hospitalized, troponin-positive COVID-19 patients was undertaken. The results were compared with a propensity-matched, pre-COVID chest pain cohort (referred for clinical CMR; angiography subsequently demonstrating unobstructed coronary arteries) and 27 healthy volunteers (HV). The analysis used visual assessment for the regional perfusion defects and AI-based segmentation to derive the global and regional stress and rest MBF. Results: Ninety recovered post-COVID patients {median age 64 [interquartile range (IQR) 54-71] years, 83% male, 44% requiring the intensive care unit (ICU)} underwent adenosine-stress perfusion CMR at a median of 61 (IQR 29-146) days post-discharge. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 67 ± 10%; 10 (11%) with impaired LVEF. Fifty patients (56%) had late gadolinium enhancement (LGE); 15 (17%) had infarct-pattern, 31 (34%) had non-ischemic, and 4 (4.4%) had mixed pattern LGE. Thirty-two patients (36%) had adenosine-induced regional perfusion defects, 26 out of 32 with at least one segment without prior infarction. The global stress MBF in post-COVID patients was similar to the age-, sex- and co-morbidities of the matched controls (2.53 ± 0.77 vs. 2.52 ± 0.79 ml/g/min, p = 0.10), though lower than HV (3.00 ± 0.76 ml/g/min, p< 0.01). Conclusions: After severe hospitalized COVID-19 infection, patients who attended clinical ischemia testing had little evidence of significant microvascular disease at 2 months post-discharge. The high prevalence of regional inducible ischemia and/or infarction (nearly 40%) may suggest that occult coronary disease is an important putative mechanism for troponin elevation in this cohort. This should be considered hypothesis-generating for future studies which combine ischemia and anatomical assessment.

12.
Gut ; 70(SUPPL 4):A136, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1554179

ABSTRACT

Introduction Waiting times for endoscopy are rising rapidly following the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, cancers may be missed as patients are placed on routine waiting lists but not monitored. Some hospitals use the Edinburgh Dysphagia Score to assess and prioritise patients for investigation. This offers a sensitivity of 98.4% and specificity of 9.3% to detect malignancy in patients presenting with dysphagia.4 However, it is not designed for detecting gastric cancer. We aimed to create a more accurate screening questionnaire as an aid to triaging referrals. Methods Patients were recruited as part of the Saliva to Predict rIsk of disease using Transcriptomics and epigenetics (SPIT) study. Patients were recruited from 2 week-wait suspected upper gastrointestinal cancer pathway referrals at 20 hospitals in the United Kingdom. The cohort was further enriched with patients found to have oesophageal adenocarcinoma on emergency hospital admission. They completed over 200 questions about a wide variety of symptoms and risk factors. After data cleaning, 800 patients were available for evaluation. Of these, 80 had upper GI cancer. A machine learning model was developed to identify those at highest risk of having upper GI cancer using a 'cost-based' approach which maximises the chance of detecting cancer. Information gain was followed by correlated feature selection and a multivariable logistic regression curve was created with scores from 0 (cancer very unlikely) to 100 (cancer very likely). The training dataset used 80% of the data and the model was tested with the other 20%. Results 20 features were found to be important and reproducible. They included age, sex, dysphagia, odynophagia, early satiety, weight loss, duration of chest pain and regurgitation, frequency of acid taste in the mouth, a previous history of smoking, cancer or psychological disorders, current anxiety level and frequency of vegetable intake. The area under the receiver operator curve to detect cancer was 0.83. 50% of cancers scored greater than 85 whereas 50% of normals scored less than 25. At a cut-off score of 10, sensitivity was 98.7% with specificity 26.8% to detect cancer (figure). Conclusions We have created a simple, reproducible risk score to identify patients at high and low risk of upper GI cancer. It performs better than previous scores but now needs testing in the real world. It might be usable to both upgrade routine patients to urgent endoscopy and remove patients at very low risk from waiting lists, thereby helping to prioritise patients with a greater clinical need and reducing the endoscopic backlog.

13.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(3): e263-e268, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A qualitative fit test using bitter-tasting aerosols is the commonest way to determine filtering face-piece (FFP) mask leakage. This taste test is subjective and biased by placebo. We propose a cheap, quantitative modification of the taste test by measuring the amount of fluorescein stained filter paper behind the mask using image analysis. METHODS: A bitter-tasting fluorescein solution was aerosolised during mask fit tests, with filter paper placed on masks' inner surfaces. Participants reported whether they could taste bitterness to determine taste test 'pass' or 'fail' results. Filter paper photographs were digitally analysed to quantify total fluorescence (TF). RESULTS: Fifty-six healthcare professionals were fit tested; 32 (57%) 'passed' the taste test. TF between the taste test 'pass' and 'fail' groups was significantly different (p<0.001). A cut-off (TF = 5.0 × 106 units) was determined at precision (78%) and recall (84%), resulting in 5/56 participants (9%) reclassified from 'pass' to 'fail' by the fluorescein test. Seven out of 56 (12%) reclassified from 'fail' to 'pass'. CONCLUSION: Fluorescein is detectable and sensitive at identifying FFP mask leaks. These low-cost adaptations can enhance exiting fit testing to determine 'pass' and 'fail' groups, protecting those who 'passed' the taste test but have high fluorescein leak, and reassuring those who 'failed' the taste test despite having little fluorescein leak.


Subject(s)
Occupational Exposure , Respiratory Protective Devices , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Fluorescein , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems
14.
United European Gastroenterology Journal ; 9(SUPPL 8):302, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1490962

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Waiting times for endoscopy are rising rapidly following the COVID-19 pandemic, leading to significant backlogs.1 Modelling has demonstrated that delays in presentation to health services and delays in completing diagnostic procedures will lead to excess mortality.2 In addition, many cancers are likely to be missed as patients are placed on routine waiting lists but are not regularly monitored. Some hospitals use the Edinburgh Dysphagia Score to risk assess and prioritise patients for investigation.3 This offers a sensitivity of 98.4% and specificity of 9.3% to detect malignancy in patients presenting with dysphagia.4 However, it is primarily not designed for detecting gastric cancer. We aimed to create a more accurate screening questionnaire to risk assess patients and prioritise those who need early endoscopy. Aims & Methods: Patients were recruited as part of the Saliva to Predict rIsk of disease using Transcriptomics and epigenetics (SPIT) study. Ethical approval was gained from the Coventry and Warwickshire Regional Ethics Committee (17/WM/0079). Patients were recruited from 2 week-wait pathway referrals at 20 hospitals in the United Kingdom, which is used by physicians to refer patients who have may suspected cancer for further investigation The cohort was further enriched with patients found to have oesophageal adenocarcinoma on emergency hospital admission. They completed over 200 questions about a wide variety of symptoms and risk factors. After data cleaning, 800 patients were available for evaluation. Of these, 80 had upper GI cancer. A machine learning model was developed to identify those at highest risk of having upper GI cancer using a 'cost-based' approach which maximises the chance of detecting cancer. Information gain was followed by correlated feature selection and a multivariable logistic regression curve was created with scores from 0 (cancer very unlikely) to 100 (cancer very likely). The training dataset used 80% of the data and the model was tested with the other 20%. Results: 20 features were found to be important and reproducible. They included age, sex, dysphagia, odynophagia, early satiety, weight loss, duration of chest pain and regurgitation, frequency of acid taste in the mouth, a previous history of smoking, cancer or psychological disorders, current anxiety level and frequency of vegetable intake. The area under the receiver operator curve to detect cancer was 0.83. 50% of cancers scored greater than 85 whereas 50% of normals scored less than 25. At a cut-off score of 10, sensitivity was 98.7% with specificity 26.8% to detect cancer. Conclusion: We have created a simple, reproducible risk score to identify patients at high and low risk of upper GI cancer. It performs better than previous scores but now needs testing in the real world. It might be usable to both upgrade routine patients to urgent endoscopy and remove patients at very low risk from waiting lists, thereby helping to prioritise patients with a greater clinical need and reducing the endoscopic backlog.

15.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 190(2): 287-293, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404658

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Older cancer survivors required medical care during the COVID-19 pandemic, but there are limited data on medical care in this age group. METHODS: We evaluated care disruptions in a longitudinal cohort of non-metastatic breast cancer survivors aged 60-98 from five US regions (n = 321). Survivors completed a web-based or telephone survey from May 27, 2020 to September 11, 2020. Care disruptions included interruptions in seeing or speaking to doctors, receiving medical treatment or supportive therapies, or filling prescriptions since the pandemic began. Logistic regression models evaluated associations between care disruptions and education, medical, psychosocial, and COVID-19-related factors. Multivariate models included age, county COVID-19 death rates, comorbidity, and post-diagnosis time. RESULTS: There was a high response rate (n = 262, 81.6%). Survivors were 32.2 months post-diagnosis (SD 17.5, range 4-73). Nearly half (48%) reported a medical disruption. The unadjusted odds of care disruptions were higher with each year of education (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.08-1.37, p = < 0.001) and increased depression by CES-D score (OR 1.04, CI 1.003-1.08, p = 0.033) while increased tangible support decreased the odds of disruptions (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.97-0.99, p = 0.012). There was a trend between disruptions and comorbidities (unadjusted OR 1.13 per comorbidity, 95% CI 0.99-1.29, p = 0.07). Adjusting for covariates, higher education years (OR1.23, 95% CI 1.09-1.39, p = 0.001) and tangible social support (OR 0.98 95% CI 0.97-1.00, p = 0.006) remained significantly associated with having care disruptions. CONCLUSION: Older breast cancer survivors reported high rates of medical care disruptions during the COVID-19 pandemic and psychosocial factors were associated with care disruptions. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT03451383.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Cancer Survivors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Eur Heart J ; 42(30): 2953-2954, 2021 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281859
17.
Annals of Behavioral Medicine ; 55:S98-S98, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1250315
18.
Res Sq ; 2021 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200427

ABSTRACT

PurposeOlder cancer survivors required medical care during the COVID-19 pandemic despite infection risks, but there are limited data on medical care in this age group. METHODS: We evaluated care disruptions in a longitudinal cohort of non-metastatic breast cancer survivors ages 60-98 from five US regions (n=321). Survivors completed a web-based or telephone survey from May 27, 2020 to September 11, 2020. Care disruptions included self-reported interruptions in ability to see doctors, receive treatment or supportive therapies, or fill prescriptions. Logistic regression models evaluated bivariate and multivariate associations between care disruptions and education, medical, psychosocial and COVID-19-related factors. Multivariate models included age, county COVID-19 rates, comorbidity and post-diagnosis time. RESULTS: There was a high response rate (n=262, 81.6%). Survivors were 32.2 months post-diagnosis (SD 17.5, range 4-73). Nearly half (48%) reported a medical disruption. The unadjusted odds of care disruptions were significantly higher with more education (OR 1.23 per one-year increase, 95% CI 1.09-1.39, p =0.001) and greater depression (OR 1.04 per one-point increase in CES-D score, CI 1.003-1.08, p=0.033); tangible support decreased the odds of disruptions (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.97-0.99 per one-point increase, p=0.012). There was a trend for associations between disruptions and comorbidity (unadjusted OR 1.13 per 1 added comorbidity, 95% CI 0.99-1.29, p=0.07). Adjusting for covariates, only higher education (p=0.001) and tangible social support (p=0.006) remained significantly associated with having care disruptions. CONCLUSIONS: Older breast cancer survivors reported high rates of medical care disruptions during the COVID-19 pandemic and psychosocial factors were associated with care disruptions.

20.
Eur Heart J ; 42(19): 1866-1878, 2021 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Troponin elevation is common in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, but underlying aetiologies are ill-defined. We used multi-parametric cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to assess myocardial injury in recovered COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred and forty-eight patients (64 ± 12 years, 70% male) with severe COVID-19 infection [all requiring hospital admission, 48 (32%) requiring ventilatory support] and troponin elevation discharged from six hospitals underwent convalescent CMR (including adenosine stress perfusion if indicated) at median 68 days. Left ventricular (LV) function was normal in 89% (ejection fraction 67% ± 11%). Late gadolinium enhancement and/or ischaemia was found in 54% (80/148). This comprised myocarditis-like scar in 26% (39/148), infarction and/or ischaemia in 22% (32/148) and dual pathology in 6% (9/148). Myocarditis-like injury was limited to three or less myocardial segments in 88% (35/40) of cases with no associated LV dysfunction; of these, 30% had active myocarditis. Myocardial infarction was found in 19% (28/148) and inducible ischaemia in 26% (20/76) of those undergoing stress perfusion (including 7 with both infarction and ischaemia). Of patients with ischaemic injury pattern, 66% (27/41) had no past history of coronary disease. There was no evidence of diffuse fibrosis or oedema in the remote myocardium (T1: COVID-19 patients 1033 ± 41 ms vs. matched controls 1028 ± 35 ms; T2: COVID-19 46 ± 3 ms vs. matched controls 47 ± 3 ms). CONCLUSIONS: During convalescence after severe COVID-19 infection with troponin elevation, myocarditis-like injury can be encountered, with limited extent and minimal functional consequence. In a proportion of patients, there is evidence of possible ongoing localized inflammation. A quarter of patients had ischaemic heart disease, of which two-thirds had no previous history. Whether these observed findings represent pre-existing clinically silent disease or de novo COVID-19-related changes remain undetermined. Diffuse oedema or fibrosis was not detected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Contrast Media , Female , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin , Ventricular Function, Left
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