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J Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455314


BACKGROUND: Evaluate pre-vaccine pandemic period COVID-19 death risk factors among nursing home (NH) residents. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study covering Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries ages ≥65 residing in U.S. NHs. We estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regressions. RESULTS: Among 608,251 elderly NH residents, 57,398 (9.4%) died of COVID-related illness April 1 to December 22, 2020. About 46.9% (26,893) of these COVID-19 deaths occurred without prior COVID-19 hospitalizations. We observed a consistently increasing age trend for COVID-19 deaths. Racial/ethnic minorities generally shared a similarly high risk of NH COVID-19 deaths with Whites. NH facility characteristics including for-profit ownership and low health inspection ratings were associated with higher death risk. Resident characteristics, including male (HR 1.69), end-stage renal disease (HR 1.42), cognitive impairment (HR 1.34), and immunocompromised status (HR 1.20) were important death risk factors. Other individual-level characteristics were less predictive of death than they were in community-dwelling population. CONCLUSIONS: Low NH health inspection ratings and private ownership contributed to COVID-19 death risks. Nearly half of NH COVID-19 deaths occurred without prior COVID-19 hospitalization and older residents were less likely to get hospitalized with COVID-19. No substantial differences were observed by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status for NH COVID-19 deaths.

J Gen Intern Med ; 36(12): 3802-3809, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446213


BACKGROUND: There are theoretical concerns that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) could increase the risk of severe Covid-19. OBJECTIVE: To determine if ACEIs and ARBs are associated with an increased risk of Covid-19 hospitalization overall, or hospitalization involving intensive care unit (ICU) admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death. DESIGN: Observational case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥ 66 years with hypertension, treated with ACEIs, ARBs, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), or thiazide diuretics. MAIN MEASURES: Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the outcomes of Covid-19 hospitalization, or hospitalization involving ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death. RESULTS: A total of 35,300 cases of hospitalized Covid-19 were matched to 228,228 controls on calendar date and neighborhood of residence. The median age of cases was 79 years, 57.4% were female, and the median duration of hospitalization was 8 days (interquartile range 5-12). ACEIs and ARBs were associated with a slight reduction in Covid-19 hospitalization risk compared with treatment with other first-line antihypertensives (OR for ACEIs 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98; OR for ARBs 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.97). Similar results were obtained for hospitalizations involving ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death. There were no meaningful differences in risk for ACEIs compared with ARBs. In an analysis restricted to monotherapy with a first-line agent, CCBs were associated with a small increased risk of Covid-19 hospitalization compared with ACEIs (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04-1.14), ARBs (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.05-1.15), or thiazide diuretics (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.19). CONCLUSIONS: ACEIs and ARBs were not associated with an increased risk of Covid-19 hospitalization or with hospitalization involving ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death. The finding of a small increased risk of Covid-19 hospitalization with CCBs was unexpected and could be due to residual confounding.

Hand (N Y) ; : 15589447211028918, 2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325295


BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a dramatic impact on individual and societal behaviors, as well as on health care systems. It confers a unique opportunity to examine the relationship among disease, policies, and patterns of activity, as well as their impacts on surgical unit functionality. This study aims to compare the distribution and patterns of injury at a tertiary hand surgery trauma center before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patients presenting to the Royal North Shore Hospital hand surgery service in the 5-week period from March 16 to April 21 in 2019 and 2020 was undertaken, forming 2 cohorts for comparison. Demographic, injury, and operative data were collected and compared descriptively using comparative statistics. RESULTS: There were 114 primary operative presentations during the 5-week period in 2020, representing a 27.4% decrease from the 157 presentations during the equivalent period in 2019. There was an increase in the proportion of emergency presentations from 73.9% in 2019 to 85.1% in 2020 (P = .03), with a corresponding decrease in elective presentations during 2020. The incidence of sporting injuries and motor vehicle accidents decreased in 2020, whereas falls and accidents involving knives and tools remained relatively constant. Operating times decreased in 2020, whereas the length of hospital stay remained constant. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic and consequent restrictions of activity have had substantial impacts on the patterns of hand trauma and its management. These insights have implications for staff and resource management during times of social disruption in the future.

J Infect Dis ; 223(6): 945-956, 2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155781


BACKGROUND: The current study was performed to evaluate risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries during the pandemic's early phase. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study covering Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries, we separated out elderly residents in nursing homes (NHs) and those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from the primary study population of individuals age ≥65 years. Outcomes included COVID-19 hospital encounters and COVID-19-associated deaths. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) using logistic regression. RESULTS: We analyzed 25 333 329 elderly non-NH beneficiaries without ESRD, 653 966 elderly NH residents, and 292 302 patients with ESRD. COVID-related death rates (per 10 000) were much higher among elderly NH residents (275.7) and patients with ESRD (60.8) than in the primary study population (5.0). Regression-adjusted clinical predictors of death among the primary population included immunocompromised status (OR, 1.43), frailty index conditions such as cognitive impairment (3.16), and other comorbid conditions, including congestive heart failure (1.30). Demographic-related risk factors included male sex (OR, 1.77), older age (3.09 for 80- vs 65-year-olds), Medicaid dual-eligibility status (2.17), and racial/ethnic minority. Compared with whites, ORs were higher for blacks (2.47), Hispanics (3.11), and Native Americans (5.82). Results for COVID-19 hospital encounters were consistent. CONCLUSIONS: Frailty, comorbid conditions, and race/ethnicity were strong risk factors for COVID-19 hospitalization and death among the US elderly.

COVID-19/mortality , Medicare/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Minority Groups , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology