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Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(10): 2561-2575, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521396


OBJECTIVE: To compare coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acute kidney injury (AKI) to sepsis-AKI (S-AKI). The morphology and transcriptomic and proteomic characteristics of autopsy kidneys were analyzed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Individuals 18 years of age and older who died from COVID-19 and had an autopsy performed at Mayo Clinic between April 2020 to October 2020 were included. Morphological evaluation of the kidneys of 17 individuals with COVID-19 was performed. In a subset of seven COVID-19 cases with postmortem interval of less than or equal to 20 hours, ultrastructural and molecular characteristics (targeted transcriptome and proteomics analyses of tubulointerstitium) were evaluated. Molecular characteristics were compared with archived cases of S-AKI and nonsepsis causes of AKI. RESULTS: The spectrum of COVID-19 renal pathology included macrophage-dominant microvascular inflammation (glomerulitis and peritubular capillaritis), vascular dysfunction (peritubular capillary congestion and endothelial injury), and tubular injury with ultrastructural evidence of mitochondrial damage. Investigation of the spatial architecture using a novel imaging mass cytometry revealed enrichment of CD3+CD4+ T cells in close proximity to antigen-presenting cells, and macrophage-enriched glomerular and interstitial infiltrates, suggesting an innate and adaptive immune tissue response. Coronavirus disease 2019 AKI and S-AKI, as compared to nonseptic AKI, had an enrichment of transcriptional pathways involved in inflammation (apoptosis, autophagy, major histocompatibility complex class I and II, and type 1 T helper cell differentiation). Proteomic pathway analysis showed that COVID-19 AKI and to a lesser extent S-AKI were enriched in necroptosis and sirtuin-signaling pathways, both involved in regulatory response to inflammation. Upregulation of the ceramide-signaling pathway and downregulation of oxidative phosphorylation in COVID-19 AKI were noted. CONCLUSION: This data highlights the similarities between S-AKI and COVID-19 AKI and suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction may play a pivotal role in COVID-19 AKI. This data may allow the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets.

Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Sepsis/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Autopsy , Humans , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Sepsis/virology
Am J Transplant ; 21(8): 2890-2894, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297494


Current guidelines recommend deferring liver transplantation (LT) in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection until clinical improvement occurs and two PCR tests collected at least 24 hours apart are negative. We report a case of an 18-year-old, previously healthy African-American woman diagnosed with COVID-19, who presents with acute liver failure (ALF) requiring urgent LT in the context of SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity. The patient was thought to have acute Wilsonian crisis on the basis of hemolytic anemia, alkaline phosphatase:bilirubin ratio <4, AST:ALT ratio >2.2, elevated serum copper, and low uric acid, although an unusual presentation of COVID-19 causing ALF could not be excluded. After meeting criteria for status 1a listing, the patient underwent successful LT, despite ongoing SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity. Remdesivir was given immediately posttransplant, and mycophenolate mofetil was withheld initially and the SARS-CoV-2 PCR test eventually became negative. Three months following transplantation, the patient has made a near-complete recovery. This case highlights that COVID-19 with SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity may not be an absolute contraindication for transplantation in ALF. Criteria for patient selection and timing of LT amid the COVID-19 pandemic need to be validated in future studies.

COVID-19 , Liver Failure, Acute , Liver Transplantation , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Liver Failure, Acute/etiology , Liver Failure, Acute/surgery , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(48): 7693-7706, 2020 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073508


BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease can frequently affect the liver. Data on hepatic histopathological findings in COVID-19 is scarce. AIM: To characterize hepatic pathological findings in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020192813), following PRISMA guidelines. Eligible trials were those including patients of any age and COVID-19 diagnosis based on a molecular test. Histopathological reports from deceased COVID-19 patients undergoing autopsy or liver biopsy were reviewed. Articles including less than ten patients were excluded. Proportions were pooled using random-effects models. Q statistic and I 2 were used to assess heterogeneity and levels of evidence, respectively. RESULTS: We identified 18 studies from 7 countries; all were case reports and case series from autopsies. All the patients were over 15 years old, and 67.2% were male. We performed a meta-analysis of 5 studies, including 116 patients. Pooled prevalence estimates of liver histopathological findings were hepatic steatosis 55.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 46.2-63.8], congestion of hepatic sinuses 34.7% (95%CI: 7.9-68.4), vascular thrombosis 29.4% (95%CI: 0.4-87.2), fibrosis 20.5% (95%CI: 0.6-57.9), Kupffer cell hyperplasia 13.5% (95%CI: 0.6-54.3), portal inflammation 13.2% (95%CI: 0.1-48.8), and lobular inflammation 11.6% (95%CI: 0.3-35.7). We also identified the presence of venous outflow obstruction, phlebosclerosis of the portal vein, herniated portal vein, periportal abnormal vessels, hemophagocytosis, and necrosis. CONCLUSION: We found a high prevalence of hepatic steatosis and vascular thrombosis as major histological liver features. Other frequent findings included portal and lobular inflammation and Kupffer cell hyperplasia or proliferation. Further studies are needed to establish the mechanisms and implications of these findings.

COVID-19/complications , Fatty Liver/epidemiology , Hepatic Veins/pathology , Liver/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Fatty Liver/etiology , Fatty Liver/pathology , Humans , Kupffer Cells/pathology , Liver/blood supply , Liver/cytology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/pathology