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1.
Frontiers in psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1918664

ABSTRACT

Background Mental health-related symptoms can persist over time beyond the most common respiratory clinical features of COVID-19. A recent meta-analysis underlined that mental health sequalae may be relevant for COVID-19 survivors and reported the following prevalence rates: 20% for post-traumatic stress disorder, 22% for anxiety, 36% for psychological distress, and 21% for depression. In the context of a multi-disciplinary follow-up project, we already investigated the mid-term (4 months) psychiatric outcomes in a sample of COVID-19 survivors. Patients were re-assessed after 1-year since hospital discharge. Methods Follow-up conducted after 1 year involved 196 individuals recovered from COVID-19. Patients were assessed with a multi-disciplinary approach;including both a clinical interview performed by an experienced psychiatrist, trained in the use of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to assess the presence of anxiety, stress, and depressive symptoms and the following self-administered questionnaires: Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Resilience Scale for Adults, Impact of Event Scale, and COVID-19 Peritraumatic Distress Index (CPDI). Results Anxiety (p < 0.0001) and depressive (p < 0.0003) symptoms registered at the clinical interview showed a significant improvement from the 4 to 12-months follow-up. Logistic regression model showed that female gender (p = 0.006), arterial hypertension (p = 0.01), obesity (0.04), anxiety (p < 0.0001), and depressive (p = 0.02) symptoms at 4-months follow-up were associated with persistence of anxiety symptoms at 12 months. At logistic regression analysis female gender (p = 0.02) and depressive symptoms at 4-months follow-up (p = 0.01) were associated with depressive symptoms after 12 months. Conclusion Severity of the disease in the acute phase, in this study, was not a determining factor in identifying subjects at risk of developing clinically relevant anxiety and depression as a consequence of COVID-19 disease. Findings from the logistic regressions suggest that the factors most affecting depression and anxiety in COVID survivors after 12 months were female gender, the presence of anxiety and depression after 4 months and some physical symptoms, not necessarily COVID-related. Impact of infection and consequent hospitalization for COVID-19 did no longer represent a relevant issue for depressive symptoms, compared to other general factors.

2.
Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim ; 50(Supp1): S34-S41, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911952

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak exposed intensive care unit health care workers to a psychological burden. The aim of the study was to assess burnout, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress symptoms in the intensive care unit staff during the pandemic period and to focus on the factors that contributed to psychological discomfort by using validated psychometric tools. METHODS: This was a monocentric study developed at the end of the first emergency crisis period (May 2020). We used a custom-designed survey using SurveyMonkey. The first part of the online survey included 27 general questions (sociodemographic information, the professional role, and possible changes assigned in job tasks and duties), the second part included validated psychometric tools: Maslach Burnout Inventory, General Health Questionnaire-12 Items, Impact of Event Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Factors indepen- dently associated with reported symptoms of mental health disorders were identified. RESULTS: The response rate was 88%, with 95 respondents. Depressive and mild-moderate anxiety symptoms were reported in 20% and in 12% of health care workers, respectively, and half of the sample experienced moderate or severe post-traumatic stress symptoms. In total, 64% of health care workers reported high levels of burnout. General mental health problems were more frequently reported by women (P =.3), by those who were tested negative for the coronavirus disease 2019 buffer (P < .02), and by those who changed their family habits (P =.02) as a consequence of the pandemic. Being single or divorced (P = .04) was associated with the presence of depressive symptoms; vice versa, cohabiting with a partner or being married was associated with lower levels of depression. Anxious symptoms were reported in health care workers with no previous working experience in the intensive care unit. CONCLUSIONS: Health care workers experience high levels of psychological burden during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Knowing the risk factors can aid to develop strategies of observation and prevention and also strengthen the ability to be resilient to stressful situations.

3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 732284, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775865

ABSTRACT

Introduction: As suicide rates increase with age, it is mandatory to carefully assess old age suicidal behaviors. Our aim was to describe the main socio-demographic and clinical features of a sample of suicide attempters aged 65 years and older, and to assess differences within the sample (men vs. women; patients with vs. without a previous history of suicide attempt; patients with vs. without a previous psychiatric history). Methods: Retrospective study conducted at the Maggiore della Carità University Hospital, Novara, Italy. Results: A higher percentage of female patients in our sample were treated by or referred to mental health services, while a greater percentage of male patients required a prolonged clinical observation in the Emergency Room (ER) or in non-psychiatric wards before psychiatric admission. The percentage of patients without previous psychiatric history taking anxiolytic and sedative medications was 25%. Conclusion: It is likely that different clusters and types of suicide attempters exist. Women in our sample appeared more proactive in asking for help, and more likely to be already treated by or referred to a psychiatric service, suggesting the need to facilitate the access to psychiatric services for the male population aged 65 years and older, or to offer support and care for the non-psychiatric reasons (comorbidities, pain, and loss of autonomy) possibly underlying suicidal behavior in this specific group. The use of medications deserves more attention considering the possible critical diagnostic issues in this age group.


Subject(s)
Psychiatry , Suicide, Attempted , Aged , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , Suicide, Attempted/psychology
4.
Eating and Weight Disorders ; 26(8):2443-2452, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1717279

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic restrictions had negative impact on the psychopathology of people with Eating Disorders (EDs). Factors involved in the vulnerability to stressful events have been under-investigated in this population. We aimed to assess which factors contributed to COVID-19-induced worsening in both general and specific psychopathology. Methods: Three-hundred and twelve people with a clinically defined diagnosis of an ED and undergoing a specialist ED treatment in different Italian ED services before the spreading of COVID-19 pandemic filled in an online survey. ED specific and general psychopathology changes after COVID-19 quarantine were retrospectively evaluated. Factors related to COVID-19 concerns (financial condition, fear of contagion, perceived social isolation/support, satisfaction in peer, family or sentimental relationships), illness duration and treatment-related variables (type of treatment provided, type of access to care, satisfaction with therapeutic relationships) were included as predicting factors in a structural equational model, which included latent variables consisting of general and ED psychopathology items as outcomes. Results: A perceived low quality of therapeutic relationships, fear of contagion and increased isolation were positively associated with psychopathology worsening. Reduced satisfaction with family and with friends' relationships and reduced perceived social support were associated with ED and general symptoms deterioration, respectively. No significant effect emerged for intimate relationships, illness duration, economic condition and type of treatment. Conclusions: This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of clinical variables associated with psychopathological changes during the COVID-19 lockdown period highlighting potential risk and resilience factors and, possibly, informing treatment as well as prevention strategies for EDs. Level of evidence IV: Evidence obtained from multiple time series analysis such as case studies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

5.
J Affect Disord ; 302: 435-439, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630756

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Among the most investigated theories explaining suicidal behavior there are the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) by Thomas E. Joiner and the one focused on the construct of psychological pain (or psychache, or mental pain). OBJECTIVE: Since it remains unclear whether these two different theories correlate with each other in the explanation of suicidal risk, we used a network analysis approach to investigate the complex interplay between both IPTS and psychological pain theories and history of suicidal planning and/or suicide attempt (SP/SA). METHODS: A sample of 1,586 university students from various Italian universities was recruited between April 24th, 2020 and February 23rd, 2021, hence during the COVID-19 pandemic. To be included subjects should have been university students and aged between 18 and 35 years old. RESULTS: Within a network that included the core factors from both models (IPTS and psychological pain), higher fearlessness about death (Acquired Capability for Suicide Scale-Fearlessness About Death, ACSS-FAD) and higher psychological pain (Psychache Scale) were the variables most strongly associated with history of SP/SA. CONCLUSIONS: Considering a large number of variables, history of SP/SA was explained in particular by fearlessness about death and psychological pain in university students. Hence these aspects should be targeted in the treatment for suicide prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Pain/psychology , Pandemics , Psychological Theory , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicidal Ideation , Young Adult
6.
Front Physiol ; 12: 707587, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605128

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims: It is widely known that the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS)/antioxidants and mitochondrial function could play a pivotal role in aging and in the physiopathology of viral infections. Here, we correlated the plasma oxidants/antioxidants levels of the elderly admitted to a long-term care (LTC) unit with clinical data in relation to flu-like disease/COVID-19. Moreover, in vitro we examined the effects of plasma on cell viability, ROS release and mitochondrial function. Materials and Methods: In 60 patients admitted to LTC unit for at least 1 year at moderate or high care load, demographic and clinical variables were taken. Blood samples were collected for the evaluations of oxidants/antioxidants, as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, 8-isoprostanes, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione, and vitamin D. In vitro, human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used to examine the effects of plasma on viability, ROS release and mitochondrial membrane potential. Results: The results obtained showed that the redox state of the elderly was quite balanced; mitochondrial membrane potential of HUVEC was reduced by about 20%, only. Also, the correlation analysis evidenced the association between mitochondrial function and the patients' outcomes. Interestingly, lower levels of mitochondrial membrane potential were found in the elderly who had symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 or with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. Conclusion: The results of this study highlight the importance of mitochondrial function in the tendency to get a flu-like syndrome like COVID-19 in the elderly admitted to LTC unit. This information could have clinical implications for the management of old population.

7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572460

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has tested the performance of hospitals and intensive care units around the world. Health care workers (HCWs) have been used to developmental symptoms, but this was especially true during the COVID-19 pandemic when HCWs have been faced with many other sources of stress and anxiety that can usually be avoided. Moreover, long-term shifts and unprecedented population restrictions have weakened people's ability to cope with stress. The research aims to observe the dynamic interplay between burnout, depression, distress, and anxiety in HCWs working in various settings, with specific a focus on emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a diminished sense of personal achievement in mediating a worse mental health status during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. We performed a mediation analysis, which resulted in a strong correlation among depression, psychological distress, health perception and anxiety, and the impact of job burnout on anxiety, depression, and distress. Gender seemed to have a strong correlation with burnout, anxiety, and distress; the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Quality of Life seemed to affect anxiety and depression; the possible changes in job tasks and duties (intended as a change in work area or location and role change)influenced depression and job burnout. Encouraging supportive and educational strategies would be recommended to policymakers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Minerva Med ; 113(1): 158-171, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552034

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the newly discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We have plenty of data about the clinical features of the disease's acute phase, while little is known about the long-term consequences on survivors. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We aimed to review systematically emerging evidence about clinical and functional consequences of COVID-19 pneumonia months after hospital discharge. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Current evidence supports the idea that a high proportion of COVID-19 survivors complain of symptoms months after the acute illness phase, being fatigue and reduced tolerance to physical effort the most frequently reported symptom. The strongest association for these symptoms is with the female gender, while disease severity seems less relevant. Respiratory symptoms are associated with a decline in respiratory function and, conversely, seem to be more frequent in those who experienced a more severe acute pneumonia. Current evidence highlighted a persistent motor impairment which is, again, more prevalent among those survivors who experienced a more severe acute phase of the disease. Additionally, the persistence of symptoms is a primary determinant of mental health outcome, with anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, and post-traumatic stress symptoms being commonly reported in COVID-19 survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Current literature highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to Coronavirus Disease 19 since the sequelae appear to involve different organs and systems. Given the pandemic outbreak's size, this is a critical public health issue: a better insight on this topic should inform clinical decisions about the modalities of follow-up for COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22666, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528025

ABSTRACT

Many coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) survivors show symptoms months after acute illness. The aim of this work is to describe the clinical evolution of Covid-19, one year after discharge. We performed a prospective cohort study on 238 patients previously hospitalized for Covid-19 pneumonia in 2020 who already underwent clinical follow-up 4 months post-Covid-19. 200 consented to participate to a 12-months clinical assessment, including: pulmonary function tests with diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO); post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms evaluation by the Impact of Event Scale (IES); motor function evaluation (by Short Physical Performance Battery and 2 min walking test); chest Computed Tomography (CT). After 366 [363-369] days, 79 patients (39.5%) reported at least one symptom. A DLCO < 80% was observed in 96 patients (49.0%). Severe DLCO impairment (< 60%) was reported in 20 patients (10.2%), related to extent of CT scan abnormalities. Some degree of motor impairment was observed in 25.8% of subjects. 37/200 patients (18.5%) showed moderate-to-severe PTS symptoms. In the time elapsed from 4 to 12 months after hospital discharge, motor function improves, while respiratory function does not, being accompanied by evidence of lung structural damage. Symptoms remain highly prevalent one year after acute illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Monoxide/metabolism , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Motor Activity , Patient Acuity , Patient Discharge , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity , Respiratory Function Tests , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Survivors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Walk Test
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 667379, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389257

ABSTRACT

The 2019-nCOVID pandemic as a public health emergency has faced healthcare systems with unprecedented challenges. Our study aimed to focus on the mental health impact of the 2019-nCOVID pandemic on healthcare workers (HCWs) from North-Eastern Piedmont, Italy. For this purpose, we performed an online survey which was e-mailed to HCWs at the end of the first peak of the pandemic. We involved both frontline and not-frontline HCWs, employed in the hospital or in healthcare services outside the hospital. The primary outcome of our research was the assessment of burnout, while secondary outcomes included the investigation of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress symptoms. We observed higher levels of burnout (especially in the Depersonalization and Personal Accomplishment dimensions), in females, in HCWs aged <30 years, in those exposed to changes in their daily and family habits, in those who had to change their duties at work and in residents in training. In our HCWs sample we found lower levels of anxiety and depression than those reported in the literature. The problematic levels of burnout and adverse psychological outcomes observed during the pandemic cannot be underestimated. Given the recurrence in autumn 2020 of a new pandemic peak, which has once again put a strain on the health system and HCWs, it is supported the importance of a careful assessment of HCWs' mental health, and of the possible risk and protective factors both in the work environment and in the extra-work one.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 667385, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285349

ABSTRACT

Background: Although the usual primary clinical manifestation of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is respiratory, several non-respiratory symptoms have been described, including neuropsychiatric ones. The aim of this study was to investigate the mid-term mental health outcomes in patients recovered from COVID-19, 3-4 months after discharge from the University Hospital Maggiore della Carità, Novara, Italy. Furthermore, we investigated the possible association of the mid-term mental health consequences of the COVID-19 infection with patients' clinical current status, persistent physical impairment and severity of acute phase of the disease. Methods: Prospective study involving 238 individuals recovered from COVID-19. In the context of a multi-disciplinary approach, patients' assessment included both a clinical interview performed by an experienced psychiatrist, trained in the use of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview to assess the presence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and self-administered questionnaires: Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), Impact of Event Scale (IES). Results: At the psychiatric assessment 32.9 and 29.5% of participants showed anxiety and depressive symptoms, respectively. Changes in appetite and sleep patterns emerged for 15.6 and 31.2% of patients. According to the self-administered questionnaires, 7.1% of participants had moderate-severe anxiety levels (BAI), while 10.5% had mild to severe depression (BDI-II). Twenty-six (11%) participants were referred to further psychiatric consultation. Psychiatric symptoms showed no correlation with acute COVID-19 severity; in our sample patients with depressive symptoms at the clinical interview, as well as those with mild to severe levels of depression according to BDI-II scores, had lower forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) values than those without and greater odds for persistent, poor tolerance for physical efforts. Conclusions: As could be expected, an approach including both a psychiatric interview and the use of self-administered questionnaires is likely to capture the psychiatric outcome of patients recovered from COVID-19 better than questionnaires alone. Anxiety and depressive symptoms at follow-up had no correlation with the severity of COVID acute manifestations, but rather with ongoing and persistent physical symptoms. Further studies and longer follow-up duration will allow a better understanding of the complex relationship between residual physical symptoms, quality of life and psychological health.

12.
J Affect Disord ; 285: 77-83, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on specific Eating Disorder (ED) and general psychopathology in people with an ED diagnosis during the lockdown period and after the end of the related containment measures. METHODS: People with clinically defined diagnosis and undergoing treatment for an ED completed an online survey, which included adapted questions from standardized psychometric scales. Data relative to three different time periods (before, during and after the end of lockdown) were collected. Psychopathological changes over these periods were investigated and compared through one-way analysis of variance or covariance with repeated measures. RESULTS: Three hundred twelve people completed the survey (57.4% diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) or atypical AN, 20.2% with Bulimia Nervosa, 15.4% with Binge Eating Disorder, 7.05% with Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders). The severity of both specific and general psychopathology increased during the lockdown and the rise of general symptoms persisted in the following re-opening phase, except for suicide ideation. Almost all of these findings were not affected by ED diagnosis, participants' age and illness duration. LIMITATIONS: The retrospective nature of data collection is the main limitation of the study. CONCLUSIONS: People with EDs showed a COVID-19 emergency-induced worsening of both general and specific psychopathology. The effect on general psychopathology persisted in the re-opening period. These findings suggest a high stress vulnerability of ED individuals with important effects on internalizing symptoms, which are worth of attention by clinicians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Communicable Disease Control , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Psychopathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2036142, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049543

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although plenty of data exist regarding clinical manifestations, course, case fatality rate, and risk factors associated with mortality in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), long-term respiratory and functional sequelae in survivors of COVID-19 are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of lung function anomalies, exercise function impairment, and psychological sequelae among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 4 months after discharge. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study at an academic hospital in Northern Italy was conducted among a consecutive series of patients aged 18 years and older (or their caregivers) who had received a confirmed diagnosis of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection severe enough to require hospital admission from March 1 to June 29, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing, bronchial swab, serological testing, or suggestive computed tomography results. Exposure: Severe COVID-19 requiring hospitalization. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome of the study was to describe the proportion of patients with a diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide (Dlco) less than 80% of expected value. Secondary outcomes included proportion of patients with severe lung function impairment (defined as Dlco <60% expected value); proportion of patients with posttraumatic stress symptoms (measured using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised total score); proportion of patients with functional impairment (assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery [SPPB] score and 2-minute walking test); and identification of factors associated with Dlco reduction and psychological or functional sequelae. Results: Among 767 patients hospitalized for severe COVID-19, 494 (64.4%) refused to participate, and 35 (4.6%) died during follow-up. A total of 238 patients (31.0%) (median [interquartile range] age, 61 [50-71] years; 142 [59.7%] men; median [interquartile range] comorbidities, 2 [1-3]) consented to participate to the study. Of these, 219 patients were able to complete both pulmonary function tests and Dlco measurement. Dlco was reduced to less than 80% of the estimated value in 113 patients (51.6%) and less than 60% in 34 patients (15.5%). The SPPB score was suggested limited mobility (score <11) in 53 patients (22.3%). Patients with SPPB scores within reference range underwent a 2-minute walk test, which was outside reference ranges of expected performance for age and sex in 75 patients (40.5%); thus, a total of 128 patients (53.8%) had functional impairment. Posttraumatic stress symptoms were reported in a total of 41 patients (17.2%). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that at 4 months after discharge, respiratory, physical, and psychological sequelae were common among patients who had been hospitalized for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Respiration Disorders/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Physical Functional Performance , Respiration Disorders/virology , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/virology , Time Factors
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