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J Intern Med ; 293(2): 246-258, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236678


BACKGROUND: The occurrence and healthcare use trajectory of post COVID-19 condition (PCC) is poorly understood. Our aim was to investigate these aspects in SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals with and without a PCC diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study of adults in Stockholm, Sweden, with a verified infection from 1 March 2020 to 31 July 2021, stratified by the severity of the acute infection. The outcome was a PCC diagnosis registered any time 90-360 days after a positive test. We performed Cox regression models to assess baseline characteristics associated with the PCC diagnosis. Individuals diagnosed with PCC were then propensity-score matched to individuals without a diagnosis to assess healthcare use beyond the acute infection. RESULTS: Among 204,805 SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals, the proportion receiving a PCC diagnosis was 1% among individuals not hospitalized for their COVID-19 infection, 6% among hospitalized, and 32% among intensive care unit (ICU)-treated individuals. The most common new-onset symptom diagnosis codes among individuals with a PCC diagnosis were fatigue (29%) among nonhospitalized and dyspnea among both hospitalized (25%) and ICU-treated (41%) individuals. Female sex was associated with a PCC diagnosis among nonhospitalized and hospitalized individuals, with interactions between age and sex. Previous mental health disorders and asthma were associated with a PCC diagnosis among nonhospitalized and hospitalized individuals. Among individuals with a PCC diagnosis, the monthly proportion with outpatient care was substantially elevated up to 1 year after acute infection compared to before, with substantial proportions of this care attributed to PCC-related care. CONCLUSION: The differential association of age, sex, comorbidities, and healthcare use with the severity of the acute infection indicates different trajectories and phenotypes of PCC, with incomplete resolution 1 year after infection.

COVID-19 , Female , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Delivery of Health Care
Vaccine ; 40(20): 2823-2827, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764023


Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 started in Region Stockholm, Sweden in December 2020 with those in long-term care facilities or receiving home care vaccinated first followed by those aged over 80 years. In this population-based, retrospective cohort study, we performed a Poisson regression to model the expected incidence of infections and deaths which we compared to the observed incidence and compared this to an unvaccinated control group of those aged 18-79 years. The aim of this study was to measure the early impact of the vaccination programme in Region Stockholm. Infections and deaths reduced substantially amongst the first two groups targeted for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination with an estimated total 3112 infections prevented, and 854 deaths prevented in these two groups from 4 weeks after the introduction of vaccination through to 2nd May 2021.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Sweden/epidemiology , Vaccination
Thorax ; 77(2): 154-163, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297983


BACKGROUND: An understanding of differences in clinical phenotypes and outcomes COVID-19 compared with other respiratory viral infections is important to optimise the management of patients and plan healthcare. Herein we sought to investigate such differences in patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and other respiratory viruses. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of hospitalised adults and children (≤15 years) who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, influenza virus A/B, RSV, rhinovirus, enterovirus, parainfluenza viruses, metapneumovirus, seasonal coronaviruses, adenovirus or bocavirus in a respiratory sample at admission between 2011 and 2020. RESULTS: A total of 6321 adult (1721 SARS-CoV-2) and 6379 paediatric (101 SARS-CoV-2) healthcare episodes were included in the study. In adults, SARS-CoV-2 positivity was independently associated with younger age, male sex, overweight/obesity, diabetes and hypertension, tachypnoea as well as better haemodynamic measurements, white cell count, platelet count and creatinine values. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 was associated with higher 30-day mortality as compared with influenza (adjusted HR (aHR) 4.43, 95% CI 3.51 to 5.59), RSV (aHR 3.81, 95% CI 2.72 to 5.34) and other respiratory viruses (aHR 3.46, 95% CI 2.61 to 4.60), as well as higher 90-day mortality, ICU admission, ICU mortality and pulmonary embolism in adults. In children, patients with SARS-CoV-2 were older and had lower prevalence of chronic cardiac and respiratory diseases compared with other viruses. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 is associated with more severe outcomes compared with other respiratory viruses, and although associated with specific patient and clinical characteristics at admission, a substantial overlap precludes discrimination based on these characteristics.

COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Child , Hospitals , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2