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1.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390788

ABSTRACT

3D-printed alternatives to standard flocked swabs were rapidly developed to provide a response to the unprecedented and sudden need for an exponentially growing amount of diagnostic tools to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. In light of the anticipated shortage, a hospital-based 3D-printing platform was implemented in our institution for the production of swabs for nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal sampling based on the freely available, open-source design provided to the community by University of South Florida's Health Radiology and Northwell Health System teams as a replacement for locally used commercial swabs. Validation of our 3D-printed swabs was performed with a head-to-head diagnostic accuracy study of the 3D-printed "Northwell model" with the cobas PCR Media® swab sample kit. We observed an excellent concordance (total agreement 96.8%, Kappa 0.936) in results obtained with the 3D-printed and flocked swabs, indicating that the in-house 3D-printed swab could be used reliably in the context of a shortage of flocked swabs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on autonomous hospital-based production and clinical validation of 3D-printed swabs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , Disease Management , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Printing, Three-Dimensional , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods
2.
Trends Microbiol ; 29(10): 871-873, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331264

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) evolution is expected, given the nature of virus replication. Selection and establishment of variants in the human population depend on viral fitness and on molecular and immunological selection pressures. Here we discuss how mechanisms of replication and recombination may contribute to the emergence of current and future variants of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Genome, Viral , Humans , Recombination, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication
3.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0245031, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314324

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causing the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been responsible for more than 2.8 million deaths and nearly 125 million infections worldwide as of March 2021. In March 2020, the World Health Organization determined that the COVID-19 outbreak is a global pandemic. The urgency and magnitude of this pandemic demanded immediate action and coordination between local, regional, national, and international actors. In that mission, researchers require access to high-quality biological materials and data from SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected patients, covering the spectrum of disease manifestations. The "Biobanque québécoise de la COVID-19" (BQC19) is a pan-provincial initiative undertaken in Québec, Canada to enable the collection, storage and sharing of samples and data related to the COVID-19 crisis. As a disease-oriented biobank based on high-quality biosamples and clinical data of hospitalized and non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive and negative individuals. The BQC19 follows a legal and ethical management framework approved by local health authorities. The biosamples include plasma, serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and DNA and RNA isolated from whole blood. In addition to the clinical variables, BQC19 will provide in-depth analytical data derived from the biosamples including whole genome and transcriptome sequencing, proteome and metabolome analyses, multiplex measurements of key circulating markers as well as anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. BQC19 will provide the scientific and medical communities access to data and samples to better understand, manage and ultimately limit, the impact of COVID-19. In this paper we present BQC19, describe the process according to which it is governed and organized, and address opportunities for future research collaborations. BQC19 aims to be a part of a global communal effort addressing the challenges of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks/organization & administration , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253022, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308177

ABSTRACT

Influenza and RSV are human viruses responsible for outbreaks in hospitals, long-term care facilities and nursing homes. The present study assessed an air treatment using ozone at two relative humidity conditions (RHs) in order to reduce the infectivity of airborne influenza. Bovine pulmonary surfactant (BPS) and synthetic tracheal mucus (STM) were used as aerosols protectants to better reflect the human aerosol composition. Residual ozone concentration inside the aerosol chamber was also measured. RSV's sensitivity resulted in testing its resistance to aerosolization and sampling processes instead of ozone exposure. The results showed that without supplement and with STM, a reduction in influenza A infectivity of four orders of magnitude was obtained with an exposure to 1.70 ± 0.19 ppm of ozone at 76% RH for 80 min. Consequently, ozone could be considered as a virucidal disinfectant for airborne influenza A. RSV did not withstand the aerosolization and sampling processes required for the use of the experimental setup. Therefore, ozone exposure could not be performed for this virus. Nonetheless, this study provides great insight for the efficacy of ozone as an air treatment for the control of nosocomial influenza A outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/drug effects , Ozone/pharmacology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Aerosols , Air Microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Ozone/administration & dosage , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control
5.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0245031, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234580

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causing the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been responsible for more than 2.8 million deaths and nearly 125 million infections worldwide as of March 2021. In March 2020, the World Health Organization determined that the COVID-19 outbreak is a global pandemic. The urgency and magnitude of this pandemic demanded immediate action and coordination between local, regional, national, and international actors. In that mission, researchers require access to high-quality biological materials and data from SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected patients, covering the spectrum of disease manifestations. The "Biobanque québécoise de la COVID-19" (BQC19) is a pan-provincial initiative undertaken in Québec, Canada to enable the collection, storage and sharing of samples and data related to the COVID-19 crisis. As a disease-oriented biobank based on high-quality biosamples and clinical data of hospitalized and non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive and negative individuals. The BQC19 follows a legal and ethical management framework approved by local health authorities. The biosamples include plasma, serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and DNA and RNA isolated from whole blood. In addition to the clinical variables, BQC19 will provide in-depth analytical data derived from the biosamples including whole genome and transcriptome sequencing, proteome and metabolome analyses, multiplex measurements of key circulating markers as well as anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. BQC19 will provide the scientific and medical communities access to data and samples to better understand, manage and ultimately limit, the impact of COVID-19. In this paper we present BQC19, describe the process according to which it is governed and organized, and address opportunities for future research collaborations. BQC19 aims to be a part of a global communal effort addressing the challenges of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks/organization & administration , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
Elife ; 92020 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916539

ABSTRACT

Pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus 19 disease (COVID-19) which presents a large spectrum of manifestations with fatal outcomes in vulnerable people over 70-years-old and with hypertension, diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, COPD, and smoking status. Knowledge of the entry receptor is key to understand SARS-CoV-2 tropism, transmission and pathogenesis. Early evidence pointed to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor. Here, we provide a critical summary of the current knowledge highlighting the limitations and remaining gaps that need to be addressed to fully characterize ACE2 function in SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated pathogenesis. We also discuss ACE2 expression and potential role in the context of comorbidities associated with poor COVID-19 outcomes. Finally, we discuss the potential co-receptors/attachment factors such as neuropilins, heparan sulfate and sialic acids and the putative alternative receptors, such as CD147 and GRP78.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Virus Attachment , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Basigin/physiology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Heparitin Sulfate/physiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Neuropilin-1/physiology , Oligopeptides/physiology , Organ Specificity , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Protein Binding , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Receptors, Virus , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Respiratory System/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sialic Acids/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Virus Internalization
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