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2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(13): 495-502, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771891

ABSTRACT

CDC recommends that all persons aged ≥18 years receive a single COVID-19 vaccine booster dose ≥2 months after receipt of an Ad.26.COV2.S (Janssen [Johnson & Johnson]) adenovirus vector-based primary series vaccine; a heterologous COVID-19 mRNA vaccine is preferred over a homologous (matching) Janssen vaccine for booster vaccination. This recommendation was made in light of the risks for rare but serious adverse events following receipt of a Janssen vaccine, including thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome and Guillain-Barré syndrome† (1), and clinical trial data indicating similar or higher neutralizing antibody response following heterologous boosting compared with homologous boosting (2). Data on real-world vaccine effectiveness (VE) of different booster strategies following a primary Janssen vaccine dose are limited, particularly during the period of Omicron variant predominance. The VISION Network§ determined real-world VE of 1 Janssen vaccine dose and 2 alternative booster dose strategies: 1) a homologous booster (i.e., 2 Janssen doses) and 2) a heterologous mRNA booster (i.e., 1 Janssen dose/1 mRNA dose). In addition, VE of these booster strategies was compared with VE of a homologous booster following mRNA primary series vaccination (i.e., 3 mRNA doses). The study examined 80,287 emergency department/urgent care (ED/UC) visits¶ and 25,244 hospitalizations across 10 states during December 16, 2021-March 7, 2022, when Omicron was the predominant circulating variant.** VE against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated ED/UC encounters was 24% after 1 Janssen dose, 54% after 2 Janssen doses, 79% after 1 Janssen/1 mRNA dose, and 83% after 3 mRNA doses. VE for the same vaccination strategies against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalizations were 31%, 67%, 78%, and 90%, respectively. All booster strategies provided higher protection than a single Janssen dose against ED/UC visits and hospitalizations during Omicron variant predominance. Vaccination with 1 Janssen/1 mRNA dose provided higher protection than did 2 Janssen doses against COVID-19-associated ED/UC visits and was comparable to protection provided by 3 mRNA doses during the first 120 days after a booster dose. However, 3 mRNA doses provided higher protection against COVID-19-associated hospitalizations than did other booster strategies during the same time interval since booster dose. All adults who have received mRNA vaccines for their COVID-19 primary series vaccination should receive an mRNA booster dose when eligible. Adults who received a primary Janssen vaccine dose should preferentially receive a heterologous mRNA vaccine booster dose ≥2 months later, or a homologous Janssen vaccine booster dose if mRNA vaccine is contraindicated or unavailable. Further investigation of the durability of protection afforded by different booster strategies is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(9): 352-358, 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727017

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 exceeded 90% in clinical trials that included children and adolescents aged 5-11, 12-15, and 16-17 years (1-3). Limited real-world data on 2-dose mRNA vaccine effectiveness (VE) in persons aged 12-17 years (referred to as adolescents in this report) have also indicated high levels of protection against SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) infection and COVID-19-associated hospitalization (4-6); however, data on VE against the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant and duration of protection are limited. Pfizer-BioNTech VE data are not available for children aged 5-11 years. In partnership with CDC, the VISION Network* examined 39,217 emergency department (ED) and urgent care (UC) encounters and 1,699 hospitalizations† among persons aged 5-17 years with COVID-19-like illness across 10 states during April 9, 2021-January 29, 2022,§ to estimate VE using a case-control test-negative design. Among children aged 5-11 years, VE against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated ED and UC encounters 14-67 days after dose 2 (the longest interval after dose 2 in this age group) was 46%. Among adolescents aged 12-15 and 16-17 years, VE 14-149 days after dose 2 was 83% and 76%, respectively; VE ≥150 days after dose 2 was 38% and 46%, respectively. Among adolescents aged 16-17 years, VE increased to 86% ≥7 days after dose 3 (booster dose). VE against COVID-19-associated ED and UC encounters was substantially lower during the Omicron predominant period than the B.1.617.2 (Delta) predominant period among adolescents aged 12-17 years, with no significant protection ≥150 days after dose 2 during Omicron predominance. However, in adolescents aged 16-17 years, VE during the Omicron predominant period increased to 81% ≥7 days after a third booster dose. During the full study period, including pre-Delta, Delta, and Omicron predominant periods, VE against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalization among children aged 5-11 years was 74% 14-67 days after dose 2, with wide CIs that included zero. Among adolescents aged 12-15 and 16-17 years, VE 14-149 days after dose 2 was 92% and 94%, respectively; VE ≥150 days after dose 2 was 73% and 88%, respectively. All eligible children and adolescents should remain up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations, including a booster dose for those aged 12-17 years.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Male , United States
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(7): 255-263, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689713

ABSTRACT

CDC recommends that all persons aged ≥12 years receive a booster dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine ≥5 months after completion of a primary mRNA vaccination series and that immunocompromised persons receive a third primary dose.* Waning of vaccine protection after 2 doses of mRNA vaccine has been observed during the period of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant predominance† (1-5), but little is known about durability of protection after 3 doses during periods of Delta or SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant predominance. A test-negative case-control study design using data from eight VISION Network sites§ examined vaccine effectiveness (VE) against COVID-19 emergency department/urgent care (ED/UC) visits and hospitalizations among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years at various time points after receipt of a second or third vaccine dose during two periods: Delta variant predominance and Omicron variant predominance (i.e., periods when each variant accounted for ≥50% of sequenced isolates).¶ Persons categorized as having received 3 doses included those who received a third dose in a primary series or a booster dose after a 2 dose primary series (including the reduced-dosage Moderna booster). The VISION Network analyzed 241,204 ED/UC encounters** and 93,408 hospitalizations across 10 states during August 26, 2021-January 22, 2022. VE after receipt of both 2 and 3 doses was lower during the Omicron-predominant than during the Delta-predominant period at all time points evaluated. During both periods, VE after receipt of a third dose was higher than that after a second dose; however, VE waned with increasing time since vaccination. During the Omicron period, VE against ED/UC visits was 87% during the first 2 months after a third dose and decreased to 66% among those vaccinated 4-5 months earlier; VE against hospitalizations was 91% during the first 2 months following a third dose and decreased to 78% ≥4 months after a third dose. For both Delta- and Omicron-predominant periods, VE was generally higher for protection against hospitalizations than against ED/UC visits. All eligible persons should remain up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations to best protect against COVID-19-associated hospitalizations and ED/UC visits.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , United States , Young Adult
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(44): 1553-1559, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502903

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised persons, defined as those with suppressed humoral or cellular immunity resulting from health conditions or medications, account for approximately 3% of the U.S. adult population (1). Immunocompromised adults are at increased risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes (2) and might not acquire the same level of protection from COVID-19 mRNA vaccines as do immunocompetent adults (3,4). To evaluate vaccine effectiveness (VE) among immunocompromised adults, data from the VISION Network* on hospitalizations among persons aged ≥18 years with COVID-19-like illness from 187 hospitals in nine states during January 17-September 5, 2021 were analyzed. Using selected discharge diagnoses,† VE against COVID-19-associated hospitalization conferred by completing a 2-dose series of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine ≥14 days before the index hospitalization date§ (i.e., being fully vaccinated) was evaluated using a test-negative design comparing 20,101 immunocompromised adults (10,564 [53%] of whom were fully vaccinated) and 69,116 immunocompetent adults (29,456 [43%] of whom were fully vaccinated). VE of 2 doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine against COVID-19-associated hospitalization was lower among immunocompromised patients (77%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 74%-80%) than among immunocompetent patients (90%; 95% CI = 89%-91%). This difference persisted irrespective of mRNA vaccine product, age group, and timing of hospitalization relative to SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant predominance in the state of hospitalization. VE varied across immunocompromising condition subgroups, ranging from 59% (organ or stem cell transplant recipients) to 81% (persons with a rheumatologic or inflammatory disorder). Immunocompromised persons benefit from mRNA COVID-19 vaccination but are less protected from severe COVID-19 outcomes than are immunocompetent persons, and VE varies among immunocompromised subgroups. Immunocompromised persons receiving mRNA COVID-19 vaccines should receive 3 doses and a booster, consistent with CDC recommendations (5), practice nonpharmaceutical interventions, and, if infected, be monitored closely and considered early for proven therapies that can prevent severe outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Young Adult
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(44): 1539-1544, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502901

ABSTRACT

Previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) or COVID-19 vaccination can provide immunity and protection from subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection and illness. CDC used data from the VISION Network* to examine hospitalizations in adults with COVID-19-like illness and compared the odds of receiving a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, and thus having laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, between unvaccinated patients with a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection occurring 90-179 days before COVID-19-like illness hospitalization, and patients who were fully vaccinated with an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine 90-179 days before hospitalization with no previous documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hospitalized adults aged ≥18 years with COVID-19-like illness were included if they had received testing at least twice: once associated with a COVID-19-like illness hospitalization during January-September 2021 and at least once earlier (since February 1, 2020, and ≥14 days before that hospitalization). Among COVID-19-like illness hospitalizations in persons whose previous infection or vaccination occurred 90-179 days earlier, the odds of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (adjusted for sociodemographic and health characteristics) among unvaccinated, previously infected adults were higher than the odds among fully vaccinated recipients of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine with no previous documented infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.75-10.99). These findings suggest that among hospitalized adults with COVID-19-like illness whose previous infection or vaccination occurred 90-179 days earlier, vaccine-induced immunity was more protective than infection-induced immunity against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. All eligible persons should be vaccinated against COVID-19 as soon as possible, including unvaccinated persons previously infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(37): 1291-1293, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441399

ABSTRACT

Data on COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (VE) since the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, became the predominant circulating strain in the United States are limited (1-3). CDC used the VISION Network* to examine medical encounters (32,867) from 187 hospitals and 221 emergency departments (EDs) and urgent care (UC) clinics across nine states during June-August 2021, beginning on the date the Delta variant accounted for >50% of sequenced isolates in each medical facility's state. VISION Network methods have been published (4).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Ambulatory Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(7): e28812, 2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334873

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed public health policies and human and community behaviors through lockdowns and mandates. Governments are rapidly evolving policies to increase hospital capacity and supply personal protective equipment and other equipment to mitigate disease spread in affected regions. Current models that predict COVID-19 case counts and spread are complex by nature and offer limited explainability and generalizability. This has highlighted the need for accurate and robust outbreak prediction models that balance model parsimony and performance. OBJECTIVE: We sought to leverage readily accessible data sets extracted from multiple states to train and evaluate a parsimonious predictive model capable of identifying county-level risk of COVID-19 outbreaks on a day-to-day basis. METHODS: Our modeling approach leveraged the following data inputs: COVID-19 case counts per county per day and county populations. We developed an outbreak gold standard across California, Indiana, and Iowa. The model utilized a per capita running 7-day sum of the case counts per county per day and the mean cumulative case count to develop baseline values. The model was trained with data recorded between March 1 and August 31, 2020, and tested on data recorded between September 1 and October 31, 2020. RESULTS: The model reported sensitivities of 81%, 92%, and 90% for California, Indiana, and Iowa, respectively. The precision in each state was above 85% while specificity and accuracy scores were generally >95%. CONCLUSIONS: Our parsimonious model provides a generalizable and simple alternative approach to outbreak prediction. This methodology can be applied to diverse regions to help state officials and hospitals with resource allocation and to guide risk management, community education, and mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Computer Simulation , Datasets as Topic , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Forecasting/methods , Heuristics , Public Sector , COVID-19/prevention & control , California/epidemiology , Humans , Indiana/epidemiology , Iowa/epidemiology , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2
10.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255063, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323016

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early studies on COVID-19 identified unequal patterns in hospitalization and mortality in urban environments for racial and ethnic minorities. These studies were primarily single center observational studies conducted within the first few weeks or months of the pandemic. We sought to examine trends in COVID-19 morbidity, hospitalization, and mortality over time for minority and rural populations, especially during the U.S. fall surge. METHODS: Data were extracted from a statewide cohort of all adult residents in Indiana tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 1 and December 31, 2020, linked to electronic health records. Primary measures were per capita rates of infection, hospitalization, and death. Age adjusted rates were calculated for multiple time periods corresponding to public health mitigation efforts. Comparisons across time within groups were compared using ANOVA. RESULTS: Morbidity and mortality increased over time with notable differences among sub-populations. Initially, hospitalization rates among racial minorities were 3-4 times higher than whites, and mortality rates among urban residents were twice those of rural residents. By fall 2020, hospitalization and mortality rates in rural areas surpassed those of urban areas, and gaps between black/brown and white populations narrowed. Changes across time among demographic groups was significant for morbidity and hospitalization. Cumulative morbidity and mortality were highest among minority groups and in rural communities. CONCLUSIONS: The synchronicity of disparities in COVID-19 by race and geography suggests that health officials should explicitly measure disparities and adjust mitigation as well as vaccination strategies to protect those sub-populations with greater disease burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Hospitalization , Minority Groups , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Indiana/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Morbidity
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(5): e24742, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying new COVID-19 cases is challenging. Not every suspected case undergoes testing, because testing kits and other equipment are limited in many parts of the world. Yet populations increasingly use the internet to manage both home and work life during the pandemic, giving researchers mediated connections to millions of people sheltering in place. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of using an online news platform to recruit volunteers willing to report COVID-19-like symptoms and behaviors. METHODS: An online epidemiologic survey captured COVID-19-related symptoms and behaviors from individuals recruited through banner ads offered through Microsoft News. Respondents indicated whether they were experiencing symptoms, whether they received COVID-19 testing, and whether they traveled outside of their local area. RESULTS: A total of 87,322 respondents completed the survey across a 3-week span at the end of April 2020, with 54.3% of the responses from the United States and 32.0% from Japan. Of the total respondents, 19,631 (22.3%) reported at least one symptom associated with COVID-19. Nearly two-fifths of these respondents (39.1%) reported more than one COVID-19-like symptom. Individuals who reported being tested for COVID-19 were significantly more likely to report symptoms (47.7% vs 21.5%; P<.001). Symptom reporting rates positively correlated with per capita COVID-19 testing rates (R2=0.26; P<.001). Respondents were geographically diverse, with all states and most ZIP Codes represented. More than half of the respondents from both countries were older than 50 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: News platforms can be used to quickly recruit study participants, enabling collection of infectious disease symptoms at scale and with populations that are older than those found through social media platforms. Such platforms could enable epidemiologists and researchers to quickly assess trends in emerging infections potentially before at-risk populations present to clinics and hospitals for testing and/or treatment.


Subject(s)
Advertising/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Internet Use/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(7): 1363-1373, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041772

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We sought to support public health surveillance and response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through rapid development and implementation of novel visualization applications for data amalgamated across sectors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed and implemented population-level dashboards that collate information on individuals tested for and infected with COVID-19, in partnership with state and local public health agencies as well as health systems. The dashboards are deployed on top of a statewide health information exchange. One dashboard enables authorized users working in public health agencies to surveil populations in detail, and a public version provides higher-level situational awareness to inform ongoing pandemic response efforts in communities. RESULTS: Both dashboards have proved useful informatics resources. For example, the private dashboard enabled detection of a local community outbreak associated with a meat packing plant. The public dashboard provides recent trend analysis to track disease spread and community-level hospitalizations. Combined, the tools were utilized 133 637 times by 74 317 distinct users between June 21 and August 22, 2020. The tools are frequently cited by journalists and featured on social media. DISCUSSION: Capitalizing on a statewide health information exchange, in partnership with health system and public health leaders, Regenstrief biomedical informatics experts rapidly developed and deployed informatics tools to support surveillance and response to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The application of public health informatics methods and tools in Indiana holds promise for other states and nations. Yet, development of infrastructure and partnerships will require effort and investment after the current pandemic in preparation for the next public health emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Visualization , Public Health Informatics , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Health Information Exchange , Humans , Indiana/epidemiology , United States
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