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1.
J Pers Med ; 12(4)2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785791

ABSTRACT

Due to the increasing number of COVID-19-infected and vaccinated individuals, radiologists continue to see patients with COVID-19 pneumonitis and recall pneumonitis, which could result in additional workups and false-positive results. Moreover, cancer patients undergoing immunotherapy may show therapy-related pneumonitis during imaging management. This is otherwise known as immune checkpoint inhibitor-related pneumonitis. Following on from this background, radiologists should seek to know their patients' COVID-19 infection and vaccination history. Knowing the imaging features related to COVID-19 infection and vaccination is critical to avoiding misleading results and alarmism in patients and clinicians.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320098

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE. To assess the use of a structured report system in the Chest Computed Tomography (CT) reporting of patients with suspicious viral pneumonia by COVID-19 and the evaluation of the main CT patterns. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This study included 134 patients (43 women and 91 men;68.8 years of mean age, range 29-93 years) with suspicious COVID-19 viral infection evaluated by reverse transcription real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. All patients underwent CT examinations at the time of admission. CT images were reviewed by two radiologists who identified COVID-19 CT patterns using a structured reports. RESULTS. Temporal difference mean value between RT-PCRs and CT scan was 0.18 days ±2.0 days. CT findings were positive for viral pneumonia in 94.0% patients while COVID-19 was diagnosed at RT-PCR in 77.6% patients. Mean value of time for radiologist to complete the structured report was 8.5 min±2.4 min. The disease on chest CT predominantly affected multiple lobes and the main CT feature was GGOs with or without consolidation (96.8%). GGOs was predominantly bilateral (89.3%), peripheral (80.3%), multifocal/patching (70.5%). Consolidation disease was predominantly bilateral (83.9%) with prevalent peripheral (87.1%) and segmental (47.3%) distribution. Additional CT signs were the crazy-paving pattern in 75.4% of patients, the septal thickening in 37.3% of patients, the air bronchogram sign in 39.7% and the “reversed halo” sign in 23.8%. Less frequent characteristics at CT regard discrete pulmonary nodules, increased trunk diameter of the pulmonary artery, pleural effusion and pericardium effusion (7.9%, 6.3%, 14.3% and 16.7%, respectively). Barotrauma sign was absent in all the patients. High percentage (54.8%) of the patients had mediastinal lymphadenopathy. CONCLUSION. Using a Chest CT structured report, with a standardized language, we identified that the cardinal hallmarks of COVID-19 infection were bilateral, peripheral and multifocal/patching ground-glass opacities and bilateral consolidations with peripheral and segmental distribution.

3.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(12)2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580887

ABSTRACT

The primary aim of this observational survey study was to assess patients' attitudes toward clinical dental practice during the COVID-19 pandemic; the secondary aim was to evaluate patients' attitudes towards oral health by maintaining an appropriate lifestyle and oral hygiene at home. The questionnaire was developed using Google Forms. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: Part A-geographic, demographic, and personal data; Part B-patients' attitude toward oral health selfcare and lifestyle; Part C-patients' attitude toward dental practice. This survey, conducted during the months of November and December 2020, enrolled 1135 subjects throughout Italy. All data were statistically analyzed. COVID-19 has changed patients' approach to dental procedures. Most of the people interviewed lived in families, and their greatest fear was infecting a family member. Restrictive measures forced people to stay at home, which led to an increased consumption of various types of food, including cariogenic foods. People said they felt safe when they went to the dentist, but they also paid special attention to measures to prevent contagion. Among the measures that should be introduced in similar situations in the future, people wanted telemedicine, a phone recall, and the possible use of video clips for home oral care instructions.

4.
J Pers Med ; 11(11)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488657

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate two commercial software and their efficacy in the assessment of chest CT sequelae in patients affected by COVID-19 pneumonia, comparing the consistency of tools. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Included in the study group were 120 COVID-19 patients (56 women and 104 men; 61 years of median age; range: 21-93 years) who underwent chest CT examinations at discharge between 5 March 2020 and 15 March 2021 and again at a follow-up time (3 months; range 30-237 days). A qualitative assessment by expert radiologists in the infectious disease field (experience of at least 5 years) was performed, and a quantitative evaluation using thoracic VCAR software (GE Healthcare, Chicago, Illinois, United States) and a pneumonia module of ANKE ASG-340 CT workstation (HTS Med & Anke, Naples, Italy) was performed. The qualitative evaluation included the presence of ground glass opacities (GGOs) consolidation, interlobular septal thickening, fibrotic-like changes (reticular pattern and/or honeycombing), bronchiectasis, air bronchogram, bronchial wall thickening, pulmonary nodules surrounded by GGOs, pleural and pericardial effusion, lymphadenopathy, and emphysema. A quantitative evaluation included the measurements of GGOs, consolidations, emphysema, residual healthy parenchyma, and total lung volumes for the right and left lung. A chi-square test and non-parametric test were utilized to verify the differences between groups. Correlation coefficients were used to analyze the correlation and variability among quantitative measurements by different computer tools. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. RESULTS: The correlation coefficients showed great variability among the quantitative measurements by different tools when calculated on baseline CT scans and considering all patients. Instead, a good correlation (≥0.6) was obtained for the quantitative GGO, as well as the consolidation volumes obtained by two tools when calculated on baseline CT scans, considering the control group. An excellent correlation (≥0.75) was obtained for the quantitative residual healthy lung parenchyma volume, GGO, consolidation volumes obtained by two tools when calculated on follow-up CT scans, and for residual healthy lung parenchyma and GGO quantification when the percentage change of these volumes were calculated between a baseline and follow-up scan. The highest value of accuracy to identify patients with RT-PCR positive compared to the control group was obtained by a GGO total volume quantification by thoracic VCAR (accuracy = 0.75). CONCLUSIONS: Computer aided quantification could be an easy and feasible way to assess chest CT sequelae due to COVID-19 pneumonia; however, a great variability among measurements provided by different tools should be considered.

5.
J Pers Med ; 11(10)2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444254

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report an overview and update on Artificial Intelligence (AI) and COVID-19 using chest Computed Tomography (CT) scan and chest X-ray images (CXR). Machine Learning and Deep Learning Approaches for Diagnosis and Treatment were identified. METHODS: Several electronic datasets were analyzed. The search covered the years from January 2019 to June 2021. The inclusion criteria were studied evaluating the use of AI methods in COVID-19 disease reporting performance results in terms of accuracy or precision or area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). RESULTS: Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria: 13 papers were based on AI in CXR and 10 based on AI in CT. The summarized mean value of the accuracy and precision of CXR in COVID-19 disease were 93.7% ± 10.0% of standard deviation (range 68.4-99.9%) and 95.7% ± 7.1% of standard deviation (range 83.0-100.0%), respectively. The summarized mean value of the accuracy and specificity of CT in COVID-19 disease were 89.1% ± 7.3% of standard deviation (range 78.0-99.9%) and 94.5 ± 6.4% of standard deviation (range 86.0-100.0%), respectively. No statistically significant difference in summarized accuracy mean value between CXR and CT was observed using the Chi square test (p value > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Summarized accuracy of the selected papers is high but there was an important variability; however, less in CT studies compared to CXR studies. Nonetheless, AI approaches could be used in the identification of disease clusters, monitoring of cases, prediction of the future outbreaks, mortality risk, COVID-19 diagnosis, and disease management.

6.
J Pers Med ; 11(7)2021 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302361

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: the purpose of this study was to assess the evolution of computed tomography (CT) findings and lung residue in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, via quantified evaluation of the disease, using a computer aided tool. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we retrospectively evaluated 341 CT examinations of 140 patients (68 years of median age) infected with COVID-19 (confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)), who were hospitalized, and who received clinical and CT examinations. All CTs were evaluated by two expert radiologists, in consensus, at the same reading session, using a computer-aided tool for quantification of the pulmonary disease. The parameters obtained using the computer tool included the healthy residual parenchyma, ground glass opacity, consolidation, and total lung volume. RESULTS: statistically significant differences (p value ≤ 0.05) were found among quantified volumes of healthy residual parenchyma, ground glass opacity (GGO), consolidation, and total lung volume, considering different clinical conditions (stable, improved, and worsened). Statistically significant differences were found among quantified volumes for healthy residual parenchyma, GGO, and consolidation (p value ≤ 0.05) between dead patients and discharged patients. CT was not performed on cadavers; the death was an outcome, which was retrospectively included to differentiate findings of patients who survived vs. patients who died during hospitalization. Among discharged patients, complete disease resolutions on CT scans were observed in 62/129 patients with lung disease involvement ≤5%; lung disease involvement from 5% to 15% was found in 40/129 patients, while 27/129 patients had lung disease involvement between 16 and 30%. Moreover, 8-21 days (after hospital admission) was an "advanced period" with the most severe lung disease involvement. After the extent of involvement started to decrease-particularly after 21 days-the absorption was more obvious. CONCLUSIONS: a complete disease resolution on chest CT scans was observed in 48.1% of discharged patients using a computer-aided tool to quantify the GGO and consolidation volumes; after 16 days of hospital admission, the abnormalities identified by chest CT began to improve; in particular, the absorption was more obvious after 21 days.

7.
J Pers Med ; 11(5)2021 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 public health emergency, our breast cancer screening activities have been interrupted. In June 2020, they resumed, calling for mandatory safe procedures to properly manage patients and staff. METHODS: A protocol supporting medical activities in breast cancer screening was created, based on six relevant articles published in the literature and in the following National and International guidelines for COVID-19 prevention. The patient population, consisting of both screening and breast ambulatory patients, was classified into one of four categories: 1. Non-COVID-19 patient; 2. Confirmed COVID-19 in an asymptomatic screening patient; 3. suspected COVID-19 in symptomatic or confirmed breast cancer; 4. Confirmed COVID-19 in symptomatic or confirmed breast cancer. The day before the radiological exam, patients are screened for COVID-19 infection through a telephone questionnaire. At a subsequent in person appointment, the body temperature is checked and depending on the clinical scenario at stake, the scenario-specific procedures for medical and paramedical staff are adopted. RESULTS: In total, 203 mammograms, 76 breast ultrasound exams, 4 core needle biopsies, and 6 vacuum-assisted breast biopsies were performed in one month. Neither medical nor paramedical staff were infected on any of these occasions. CONCLUSION: Our department organization model can represent a case of implementation of National and International guidelines applied in a breast cancer screening program, assisting hospital personnel into COVID-19 infection prevention.

8.
J Pers Med ; 11(4)2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178321

ABSTRACT

Globally, at the time of writing (20 March 2021), 121.759.109 confirmed COVID-19 cases have been reported to the WHO, including 2.690.731 deaths. Globally, on 18 March 2021, a total of 364.184.603 vaccine doses have been administered. In Italy, 3.306.711 confirmed COVID-19 cases with 103.855 deaths have been reported to WHO. In Italy, on 9 March 2021, a total of 6.634.450 vaccine doses have been administered. On 15 March 2021, Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA) decided to temporarily suspend the use of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine throughout the country as a precaution, pending the rulings of the European Medicines Agency (EMA). This decision was taken in line with similar measures adopted by other European countries due to the death of vaccinated people. On 18 March 2021, EMA's safety committee concluded its preliminary review about thromboembolic events in people vaccinated with COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca at its extraordinary meeting, confirming the benefits of the vaccine continue to outweigh the risk of side effects, however, the vaccine may be associated with very rare cases of blood clots associated with thrombocytopenia, i.e., low levels of blood platelets with or without bleeding, including rare cases of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). We report the case of a 54-year-old woman who developed disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with multi-district thrombosis 12 days after the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine administration. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan showed multiple subacute intra-axial hemorrhages in atypical locations, including the right frontal and the temporal lobes. A plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA) of the right coronary artery was performed, without stent implantation, with restoration of distal flow, but with persistence of extensive thrombosis of the vessel. A successive thorax angio-CT added the findings of multiple contrast filling defects with multi-vessel involvement: at the level of the left upper lobe segmental branches, of left interlobar artery, of the right middle lobe segmental branches and of the right interlobar artery. A brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the same day showed the presence of an acute basilar thrombosis associated with the superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. An abdomen angio-CT showed filling defects at the level of left portal branch and at the level of right suprahepatic vein. Bilaterally, it was adrenal hemorrhage and blood in the pelvis. An evaluation of coagulation factors did not show genetic alterations so as the nasopharyngeal swab ruled out a COVID-19 infection. The patient died after 5 days of hospitalization in intensive care.

9.
Front Psychol ; 12: 568839, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170113

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is having a devastating psychological impact on patients, especially patients with cancer. This work aims to evaluate mood disorders of cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy during COVID-19 in comparison with cancer patients who underwent radiation therapy in 2019. Materials and Methods: We included all the patients undergoing radiation therapy at our department in two-time points (once a week for a month in May 2019) and during the COVID-19 outbreak (in April 2020). All the patients were asked to fulfill a validated questionnaire (STAI-Y1, State trait anxiety inventory scale), the Symptom Distress thermometer (SDT) (from 0 to 10 score), and the Beck Depression Inventory v.2 (BDI-2). We took into account the COVID-19 outbreak and also sex, age, week of radiation treatment, and disease. Results: We included 458 patients (220 males and 238 females), with a median age of 64 years. STAI-Y1 median score was 40 (mean 41,3, range 19-79), whereas the median score of SDT was five and BDI-2 median score was 11. STAI-Y1, SDT, and BDI-2 were significantly correlated with the COVID-19 outbreak (p < 0,001 for all the tests), sex (p: 0,016 for STAI-Y1, p < 0.001 for SDT, p:0.013 for BDI-2), week of treatment (p: 0.012 for STAI-Y1 and p: 0.031 for SDT), and disease (p:0.015 for STAI-Y1, p < 0.001 for SDT and p:0.020 for BDI-2). Conclusions: The prevalence of mood disorders in patients undergoing radiation therapy is higher than expected and even higher during the COVID-19 outbreak. These measurements could be useful as a baseline to start medical humanities programs to decrease these scores.

10.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125047

ABSTRACT

During a spontaneous and autonomous study, we assessed the ultrasound finding of lymphadenopathy after BNT162b2 Pfizer vaccine. We enrolled 18 patients with 58 lymphadenopathies: in 10 patients, they were in the laterocervical side, while in 8 patients in the axillar site. The largest diameter was 16 mm with a range from 7 to 16 mm (median value = 10 mm). In the same patient, we found different ultrasound nodal findings. A total of 25 nodes showed eccentric cortical thickening with wide echogenic hilum and oval shape. In total, 19 nodes showed asymmetric eccentric cortical thickening with wide echogenic hilum and oval shape. Overall, 10 nodes showed concentric cortical thickening with reduction in the width of the echogenic hilum and oval shape. A total of four nodes showed huge reduction and displacement of the echogenic hilum and round or oval shape. No anomaly was found at the Doppler echocolor study. In conclusion, eccentric cortical thickening with wide echogenic hilum and oval shape, asymmetric eccentric cortical thickening with wide echogenic hilum and oval shape, concentric cortical thickening with reduction in the width of the echogenic hilum and oval shape, and a huge reduction and displacement of the echogenic hilum and round shape are the features that we found in post BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine lymphadenopathies.

11.
Radiol Oncol ; 55(2): 121-129, 2021 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection is particularly aggressive in frail patients, as cancer patients. Therefore, the more suitable management of the oncological patient requires a multidisciplinary assessment, to identify which patients should be treated, as inpatients or outpatients, and which treatments can be procrastinated. CONCLUSIONS: The role of radiologist is crucial, and, all cancer patients who need an imaging evaluation will need to be studied, using the most appropriate imaging tools related to the clinical question and paying a special attention to preserve public health. Guidelines are necessary in the correct organization of a radiology unit to manage patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection, and whenever possible, a satellite radiography center with dedicated equipment should be used to decrease the transmission risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Protocols , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Radiology Department, Hospital/organization & administration , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Humans , Incidental Findings , Neoplasms/therapy , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Patient Isolation , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage
12.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(2)2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045466

ABSTRACT

To assess the performance of the second reading of chest compute tomography (CT) examinations by expert radiologists in patients with discordance between the reverse transcription real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for COVID-19 viral pneumonia and the CT report. Three hundred and seventy-eight patients were included in this retrospective study (121 women and 257 men; 71 years median age, with a range of 29-93 years) and subjected to RT-PCR tests for suspicious COVID-19 infection. All patients were subjected to CT examination in order to evaluate the pulmonary disease involvement by COVID-19. CT images were reviewed first by two radiologists who identified COVID-19 typical CT patterns and then reanalyzed by another two radiologists using a CT structured report for COVID-19 diagnosis. Weighted к values were used to evaluate the inter-reader agreement. The median temporal window between RT-PCRs execution and CT scan was zero days with a range of (-9,11) days. The RT-PCR test was positive in 328/378 (86.8%). Discordance between RT-PCR and CT findings for viral pneumonia was revealed in 60 cases. The second reading changed the CT diagnosis in 16/60 (26.7%) cases contributing to an increase the concordance with the RT-PCR. Among these 60 cases, eight were false negative with positive RT-PCR, and 36 were false positive with negative RT-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of CT were respectively of 97.3%, 53.8%, 89.0%, and 88.4%. Double reading of CT scans and expert second readers could increase the diagnostic confidence of radiological interpretation in COVID-19 patients.

14.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 17(18):6914, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-783872

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To compare different commercial software in the quantification of Pneumonia Lesions in COVID-19 infection and to stratify the patients based on the disease severity using on chest computed tomography (CT) images. Materials and methods: We retrospectively examined 162 patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. All cases were evaluated separately by radiologists (visually) and by using three computer software programs: (1) Thoracic VCAR software, GE Healthcare, United States;(2) Myrian, Intrasense, France;(3) InferRead, InferVision Europe, Wiesbaden, Germany. The degree of lesions was visually scored by the radiologist using a score on 5 levels (none, mild, moderate, severe, and critic). The parameters obtained using the computer tools included healthy residual lung parenchyma, ground-glass opacity area, and consolidation volume. Intraclass coefficient (ICC), Spearman correlation analysis, and non-parametric tests were performed. Results: Thoracic VCAR software was not able to perform volumes segmentation in 26/162 (16.0%) cases, Myrian software in 12/162 (7.4%) patients while InferRead software in 61/162 (37.7%) patients. A great variability (ICC ranged for 0.17 to 0.51) was detected among the quantitative measurements of the residual healthy lung parenchyma volume, GGO, and consolidations volumes calculated by different computer tools. The overall radiological severity score was moderately correlated with the residual healthy lung parenchyma volume obtained by ThoracicVCAR or Myrian software, with the GGO area obtained by the ThoracicVCAR tool and with consolidation volume obtained by Myrian software. Quantified volumes by InferRead software had a low correlation with the overall radiological severity score. Conclusions: Computer-aided pneumonia quantification could be an easy and feasible way to stratify COVID-19 cases according to severity;however, a great variability among quantitative measurements provided by computer tools should be considered.

15.
Radiol Med ; 125(5): 500-504, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-165232

ABSTRACT

The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has already assumed pandemic proportions, affecting over 100 countries in few weeks. A global response is needed to prepare health systems worldwide. Covid-19 can be diagnosed both on chest X-ray and on computed tomography (CT). Asymptomatic patients may also have lung lesions on imaging. CT investigation in patients with suspicion Covid-19 pneumonia involves the use of the high-resolution technique (HRCT). Artificial intelligence (AI) software has been employed to facilitate CT diagnosis. AI software must be useful categorizing the disease into different severities, integrating the structured report, prepared according to subjective considerations, with quantitative, objective assessments of the extent of the lesions. In this communication, we present an example of a good tool for the radiologist (Thoracic VCAR software, GE Healthcare, Italy) in Covid-19 diagnosis (Pan et al. in Radiology, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020200370). Thoracic VCAR offers quantitative measurements of the lung involvement. Thoracic VCAR can generate a clear, fast and concise report that communicates vital medical information to referring physicians. In the post-processing phase, software, thanks to the help of a colorimetric map, recognizes the ground glass and differentiates it from consolidation and quantifies them as a percentage with respect to the healthy parenchyma. AI software therefore allows to accurately calculate the volume of each of these areas. Therefore, keeping in mind that CT has high diagnostic sensitivity in identifying lesions, but not specific for Covid-19 and similar to other infectious viral diseases, it is mandatory to have an AI software that expresses objective evaluations of the percentage of ventilated lung parenchyma compared to the affected one.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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