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1.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637152

ABSTRACT

Over 15,000 veterans in 135 VA nursing homes were systematically tested for SARS-CoV-2 and had daily temperatures assessed from March to August, 2020. Lower baseline temperatures, and in SARS-CoV-2+ , lower maximum temperatures were observed with advancing age. Clinicians should be aware of the potential diminished fever response in the elderly with SARS-CoV-2.

2.
Innovation in Aging ; 5(Supplement_1):16-17, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1584882

ABSTRACT

Reports of fatal adverse events following mRNA-based vaccination for COVID-19 in Norwegian nursing home (NH) residents have raised concern regarding vaccine safety in very old and frail persons. A limitation of these reports, however, is the absence of contemporaneous control groups, particularly given the high baseline mortality in this population. Using electronic health records’ data on resident deaths, hospital transfer, vaccination, and daily census from Genesis Healthcare, a large NH provider spanning 24 U.S. states, we compared 7-day mortality and hospitalization rates for vaccinated versus unvaccinated NH residents. Between December 18, 2020 and December 31, 2020, 7006 residents across 118 NHs were vaccinated with the first dose. Mortality and hospital transfer rates within 7 days of vaccination were compared to rates for: (1) unvaccinated residents in the same facility within 7 days of the vaccine clinic (n=4414), and (2) residents in 166 yet-to-be-vaccinated facilities between December 25, 2020 and January 1, 2021 (n=17,076). We excluded residents with a positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test within 20 days prior to their 7-day observation window. Mortality rates per 100,000 residents were lower among vaccinated (587, 95%CI: 431, 798) versus unvaccinated residents within the same facilities (984, 95%CI: 705, 1382), and compared to residents in not-yet-vaccinated facilities (912, 95%CI: 770-1080), with overlapping 95% CIs. Hospital transfers were lower among vaccinated residents than in either comparison group, but with overlapping CIs. Our findings suggest that short term mortality rates appear unrelated to vaccination for COVID-19 in NH residents, and should dispel concerns raised by previous reports.

3.
Innovation in Aging ; 5(Supplement_1):728-729, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1584409

ABSTRACT

In the early months of the pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 infected nursing home residents in explosive and deadly outbreaks. Nursing home residents disproportionately accounted for over 40% of COVID-19 mortality nationally. This national emergency drove scientific and public health experts to develop and implement administrative, clinical, and research programs to limit the pandemic’s impact, especially for high-risk individuals, such as those hospitalized or living in nursing homes. Nursing home policies, prompted by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidance, severely restricted access beginning in March 2020 in an effort to limit disease exposure. In July 2020 we began the process to conduct an investigational SARS-CoV-2 post exposure prophylaxis study of nursing home residents, incorporating FDA guidance developed for conducting investigational drug trials in the context of COVID-19. Our research teams adapted our nursing home engagement, resident consenting and research data collection strategies accordingly. We remotely screened residents living in any of 28 nursing homes for eligibility to participate, ultimately consenting and randomizing individuals in 11 facilities. Of the 2,683 nursing home residents 65 years or older we screened, 48 (1.8%) agreed to consent individually or through proxy, most often a legally authorized representative. We will describe our research methods, with emphasis on how we addressed challenges presented due to performing all research tasks remotely and identify strategies that can qualitatively improve the remote nursing home research experience.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): 2112-2115, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562012

ABSTRACT

After BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccination, antibody levels to spike, receptor-binding domain, and virus neutralization were examined in 149 nursing home residents and 110 healthcare worker controls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-naive nursing home residents' median post-second vaccine dose antibody neutralization titers are one-quarter that of SARS-CoV-2-naive healthcare workers.

5.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(11): 3151-3160, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination has mitigated the burden of COVID-19 among residents of long-term care facilities considerably, despite being excluded from the vaccine trials. Data on reactogenicity (vaccine side effects) in this population are limited. AIMS: To assess reactogenicity among nursing home (NH) residents. To provide a plausible proxy for predicting vaccine response among this population. METHODS: We enrolled and sampled NH residents and community-dwelling healthcare workers who received the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, to assess local or systemic reactogenicity and antibody levels (immunogenicity). RESULTS: NH residents reported reactions at a much lower frequency and lesser severity than the community-dwelling healthcare workers. These reactions were mild and transient with all subjects experiencing more local than systemic reactions. Based on our reactogenicity and immunogenicity data, we developed a linear regression model predicting log-transformed anti-spike, anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD), and neutralizing titers, with a dichotomous variable indicating the presence or absence of reported reactions which revealed a statistically significant effect, with estimated shifts in log-transformed titers ranging from 0.32 to 0.37 (all p < 0.01) indicating greater immunogenicity in subjects with one or more reported reactions of varying severity. DISCUSSION: With a significantly lower incidence of post-vaccination reactions among NH residents as reported in this study, the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine appears to be well-tolerated among this vulnerable population. If validated in larger populations, absence of reactogenicity could help guide clinicians in prioritizing vaccine boosters. CONCLUSIONS: Reactogenicity is significantly mild among nursing home residents and overall, subjects who reported post-vaccination reactions developed higher antibody titers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , Nursing Homes , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, a large nursing home chain implemented a policy to temporarily hold potentially unnecessary medications. We describe rates of held and discontinued medications after a temporary hold policy of potentially unnecessary or nonessential medications. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study uses electronic health record (EHR) data on 3247 residents of 64 nursing homes operated by a multistate long-term care provider. Medications were documented in the electronic medication administration record. Overall medication held and discontinued incidences are reported. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling is used to determine individual probabilities for medication discontinuation within each facility. RESULTS: In total, 3247 residents had 5297 nonessential medications held. Multivitamins were most likely to be held, followed by histamine-2 receptor antagonists, antihistamines, and statins. At the end of the hold policy, 2897 of 5297 (54%) were permanently discontinued, including probiotics (73%), histamine-2 receptor antagonists (66%), antihistamines (64%), and statins (45%). Demographics, cognitive and functional impairment were similar between residents with medications who were discontinued versus continued. For most medications, more than 50% of the variance in whether medications were discontinued was explained by facility rather than resident-level factors. CONCLUSION: A temporary medication hold policy implemented during the CoVID-19 pandemic led to the deprescribing of a plurality of 'nonessential' medications. This type of organization-wide initiative may be an effective mechanism for altering future prescribing behaviors to reduce the use of unnecessary medications.

7.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(11): 3151-3160, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination has mitigated the burden of COVID-19 among residents of long-term care facilities considerably, despite being excluded from the vaccine trials. Data on reactogenicity (vaccine side effects) in this population are limited. AIMS: To assess reactogenicity among nursing home (NH) residents. To provide a plausible proxy for predicting vaccine response among this population. METHODS: We enrolled and sampled NH residents and community-dwelling healthcare workers who received the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, to assess local or systemic reactogenicity and antibody levels (immunogenicity). RESULTS: NH residents reported reactions at a much lower frequency and lesser severity than the community-dwelling healthcare workers. These reactions were mild and transient with all subjects experiencing more local than systemic reactions. Based on our reactogenicity and immunogenicity data, we developed a linear regression model predicting log-transformed anti-spike, anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD), and neutralizing titers, with a dichotomous variable indicating the presence or absence of reported reactions which revealed a statistically significant effect, with estimated shifts in log-transformed titers ranging from 0.32 to 0.37 (all p < 0.01) indicating greater immunogenicity in subjects with one or more reported reactions of varying severity. DISCUSSION: With a significantly lower incidence of post-vaccination reactions among NH residents as reported in this study, the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine appears to be well-tolerated among this vulnerable population. If validated in larger populations, absence of reactogenicity could help guide clinicians in prioritizing vaccine boosters. CONCLUSIONS: Reactogenicity is significantly mild among nursing home residents and overall, subjects who reported post-vaccination reactions developed higher antibody titers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , Nursing Homes , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(11): 2228-2232, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373104

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare rates of adverse events following Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination among nursing home residents with and without previous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 20,918 nursing home residents who received the first dose of messenger RNA COVID-19 vaccine from December 18, 2020, through February 14, 2021, in 284 facilities within Genesis Healthcare, a large nursing home provider spanning 24 US states. METHODS: We screened the electronic health record for adverse events, classified by the Brighton Collaboration, occurring within 15 days of a resident's first COVID-19 vaccine dose. All events were confirmed by physician chart review. To obtain risk ratios, multilevel logistic regression model that accounted for clustering (variability) across nursing homes was implemented. To balance the probability of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (previous positive test or diagnosis by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification) more than 20 days before vaccination, we used inverse probability weighting. To adjust for multiplicity of adverse events tested, we used a false discovery rate procedure. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences existed between those without (n = 13,163) and with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection [symptomatic (n = 5617) and asymptomatic (n = 2138)] for all baseline characteristics assessed. Only 1 adverse event was reported among those with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (asymptomatic), venous thromboembolism [46.8 per 100,000 residents 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.3-264.5], which was not significantly different from the rate reported for those without previous infection (30.4 per 100,000 95% CI 11.8-78.1). Several other adverse events were observed for those with no previous infection, but were not statistically significantly higher than those reported with previous infection after adjustments for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Although reactogenicity increases with preexisting immunity, we did not find that vaccination among those with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in higher rates of adverse events than those without previous infection. This study stresses the importance of monitoring novel vaccines for adverse events in this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Nursing Homes , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
Vaccine ; 39(29): 3844-3851, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The devastating impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic prompted the development and emergency use authorization of two mRNA vaccines in early 2020. Vaccine trials excluded nursing home (NH) residents, limiting adverse event data that directly apply to this population. METHODS: To prospectively monitor for potential adverse events associated with vaccination, we used Electronic Health Record (EHR) data from Genesis HealthCare, the largest NH provider in the United States. EHR data on vaccinations and pre-specified adverse events were updated daily and monitored for signal detection among residents of 147 facilities who received the first dose of vaccine between December 18, 2020 and January 3, 2021. For comparison, unvaccinated residents during the same time period were included from 137 facilities that started vaccinating at least 15 days after the vaccinating-facilities. RESULTS: As of January 3, 2021, 8553 NH residents had received one dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and by February 20, 2021, 8371 residents had received their second dose of vaccine; 11,072 were included in the unvaccinated comparator group. No significant associations were noted for neurologic outcomes, anaphylaxis, or cardiac events. CONCLUSIONS: No major safety problems were detected following the first or second dose of the vaccine to prevent COVID-19 in the study cohort from December 18, 2020 through March 7, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Nursing Homes , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccination
11.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(8): 2063-2069, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189734

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare rates of incident SARS-CoV-2 infection and 30-day hospitalization or death among residents with confirmed infection in nursing homes with earlier versus later SARS-CoV-2 vaccine clinics. DESIGN: Matched pairs analysis of nursing homes that had their initial vaccine clinics between December 18, 2020, and January 2, 2021, versus between January 3, 2021, and January 18, 2021. Matched facilities had their initial vaccine clinics between 12 and 16 days apart. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and eighty nursing homes in 21 states owned and operated by the largest long-term care provider in the United States. MEASUREMENTS: Incident SARS-CoV-2 infections per 100 at-risk residents per week; hospital transfers and/or deaths per 100 residents with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection per day, averaged over a week. RESULTS: The early vaccinated group included 136 facilities with 12,157 residents; the late vaccinated group included 144 facilities with 13,221 residents. After 1 week, early vaccinated facilities had a predicted 2.5 fewer incident SARS-CoV-2 infections per 100 at-risk residents per week (95% CI: 1.2-4.0) compared with what would have been expected based on the experience of the late vaccinated facilities. The rates remained significantly lower for several weeks. Cumulatively over 5 weeks, the predicted reduction in new infections was 5.2 cases per 100 at-risk residents (95% CI: 3.2-7.3). By 5 to 8 weeks post-vaccine clinic, early vaccinated facilities had a predicted 1.1 to 3.8 fewer hospitalizations and/or deaths per 100 infected residents per day, averaged by week than expected based on late vaccinated facilities' experience for a cumulative on average difference of 5 events per 100 infected residents per day. CONCLUSIONS: The SARS-CoV-2 vaccines seem to have accelerated the rate of decline of incident infections, morbidity, and mortality in this large multi-state nursing home population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
12.
Health Affairs ; 40(4):655-663, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1167123

ABSTRACT

Improved therapeutics and supportive care in hospitals have helped reduce mortality from COVID-19. However, there is limited evidence as to whether nursing home residents, who account for a disproportionate share of COVID-19 deaths and are often managed conservatively in the nursing home instead of being admitted to the hospital, have experienced similar mortality reductions. In this study we examined changes in thirty-day mortality rates between March and November 2020 among 12,271 nursing home residents with COVID-19. We found that adjusted mortality rates significantly declined from a high of 20.9 percent in early April to 11.2 percent in early November. Mortality risk declined for residents with both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections and for residents with both high and low clinical complexity. The mechanisms driving these trends are not entirely understood, but they may include improved clinical management within nursing homes, improved personal protective equipment supply and use, and genetic changes in the virus. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Health Affairs is the property of Project HOPE/HEALTH AFFAIRS and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

13.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 32(7): 1199-1202, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139405

ABSTRACT

The advent of the SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 pandemic has generated a lot of publications at a rapid pace. We know that older adults disproportionately suffer the most severe of COVID outcomes. Here we attempt to coalesce the key knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 biology to the disease and clinical care concepts in the context of older adults.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(4): 655-663, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127805

ABSTRACT

Improved therapeutics and supportive care in hospitals have helped reduce mortality from COVID-19. However, there is limited evidence as to whether nursing home residents, who account for a disproportionate share of COVID-19 deaths and are often managed conservatively in the nursing home instead of being admitted to the hospital, have experienced similar mortality reductions. In this study we examined changes in thirty-day mortality rates between March and November 2020 among 12,271 nursing home residents with COVID-19. We found that adjusted mortality rates significantly declined from a high of 20.9 percent in early April to 11.2 percent in early November. Mortality risk declined for residents with both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections and for residents with both high and low clinical complexity. The mechanisms driving these trends are not entirely understood, but they may include improved clinical management within nursing homes, improved personal protective equipment supply and use, and genetic changes in the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Nursing Homes , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Skilled Nursing Facilities
15.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(1): 193-198, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065275

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic presents an urgent need to investigate whether existing drugs can enhance or even worsen prognosis; metformin, a known mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) inhibitor, has been identified as a potential agent. We sought to evaluate mortality benefit among older persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 who were taking metformin as compared to those who were not. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 775 nursing home residents infected with SARS-CoV-2 who resided in one of the 134 Community Living Centers (CLCs) of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) during March 1, 2020, to May 13, 2020, were included. METHODS: Using a window of 14 days prior to SARS-CoV-2 testing, bar-coded medication administration records were examined for dispensing of medications for diabetes. The COVID-19-infected residents were divided into 4 groups: (1) residents administered metformin alone or in combination with other medications, (2) residents who used long-acting or daily insulin, (3) residents administered other diabetes medications, and (4) residents not administered diabetes medication, including individuals without diabetes and patients with untreated diabetes. Proportional hazard models adjusted for demographics, hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, and renal function. RESULTS: Relative to those not receiving diabetes medications, residents taking metformin were at significantly reduced hazard of death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28, 0.84] over the subsequent 30 days from COVID-19 diagnosis. There was no association with insulin (adjusted HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.60, 1.64) or other diabetes medications (adjusted HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.38, 1.32). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our data suggest a reduction in 30-day mortality following SARS-CoV-2 infection in residents who were on metformin-containing diabetes regimens. These findings suggest a relative survival benefit in nursing home residents on metformin, potentially through its mTOR inhibition effects. A prospective study should investigate the therapeutic benefits of metformin among persons with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Nursing Homes , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(7): 1722-1728, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066719

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency and timing of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody detection in a convenience sample of skilled nursing facility (SNF) residents with and without confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of SNF electronic health records. SETTING: Qualitative SARS-CoV-2 antibody test results were available from 81 SNFs in 16 states. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred and sixty nine SNF residents who underwent both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antibody testing for SARS-CoV-2. MEASUREMENTS: Presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies following the first positive PCR test for confirmed cases, or first PCR test for non-cases. RESULTS: Among 397 residents with PCR-confirmed infection, antibodies were detected in 4 of 7 (57.1%) tested within 7-14 days of their first positive PCR test; in 44 of 47 (93.6%) tested within 15-30 days; in 182 of 219 (83.1%) tested within 31-60 days; and in 110 of 124 (88.7%) tested after 60 days. Among 272 PCR negative residents, antibodies were detected in 2 of 9 (22.2%) tested within 7-14 days of their first PCR test; in 41 of 81 (50.6%) tested within 15-30 days; in 65 of 148 (43.9%) tested within 31-60 days; and in 9 of 34 (26.5%) tested after 60 days. No significant differences in baseline resident characteristics or symptoms were observed between those with versus without antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that vulnerable older adults can mount an antibody response to SARS-CoV-2, and that antibodies are most likely to be detected within 15-30 days of diagnosis. That antibodies were detected in a large proportion of residents with no confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection highlights the complexity of identifying who is infected in real time. Frequent surveillance and diagnostic testing based on low thresholds of clinical suspicion for symptoms and/or exposure will remain critical to inform strategies designed to mitigate outbreaks in SNFs while community SARS-CoV-2 prevalence remains high.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Early Diagnosis , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Skilled Nursing Facilities/standards , Skilled Nursing Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(3): 513-514, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060411

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus pandemic is unlike any other since 1918. A century of dramatic medical advances has produced a public expectation that the medical field will rapidly provide solutions to restore normalcy. In less than 6 months, since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified, the massive international effort to develop a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has generated more than 140 vaccines in different stages of development, with 9 already recruiting into clinical trials posted on ClinicalTrials.gov. The long-term strategy to handle coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) will almost certainly rely on vaccines. But what type of protection can we realistically expect to achieve from vaccines and when?


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Motivation , SARS-CoV-2
18.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(4): 439-448, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006405

ABSTRACT

Importance: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has severely affected nursing homes. Vulnerable nursing home residents are at high risk for adverse outcomes, but improved understanding is needed to identify risk factors for mortality among nursing home residents. Objective: To identify risk factors for 30-day all-cause mortality among US nursing home residents with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted at 351 US nursing homes among 5256 nursing home residents with COVID-19-related symptoms who had severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection confirmed by polymerase chain reaction testing between March 16 and September 15, 2020. Exposures: Resident-level characteristics, including age, sex, race/ethnicity, symptoms, chronic conditions, and physical and cognitive function. Main Outcomes and Measures: Death due to any cause within 30 days of the first positive SARS-CoV-2 test result. Results: The study included 5256 nursing home residents (3185 women [61%]; median age, 79 years [interquartile range, 69-88 years]; and 3741 White residents [71%], 909 Black residents [17%], and 586 individuals of other races/ethnicities [11%]) with COVID-19. Compared with residents aged 75 to 79 years, the odds of death were 1.46 (95% CI, 1.14-1.86) times higher for residents aged 80 to 84 years, 1.59 (95% CI, 1.25-2.03) times higher for residents aged 85 to 89 years, and 2.14 (95% CI, 1.70-2.69) times higher for residents aged 90 years or older. Women had lower risk for 30-day mortality than men (odds ratio [OR], 0.69 [95% CI, 0.60-0.80]). Two comorbidities were associated with mortality: diabetes (OR, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.05-1.40]) and chronic kidney disease (OR, 1.33 [95%, 1.11-1.61]). Fever (OR, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.41-1.96]), shortness of breath (OR, 2.52 [95% CI, 2.00-3.16]), tachycardia (OR, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.04-1.64]), and hypoxia (OR, 2.05 [95% CI, 1.68-2.50]) were also associated with increased risk of 30-day mortality. Compared with cognitively intact residents, the odds of death among residents with moderate cognitive impairment were 2.09 (95% CI, 1.68-2.59) times higher, and the odds of death among residents with severe cognitive impairment were 2.79 (95% CI, 2.14-3.66) times higher. Compared with residents with no or limited impairment in physical function, the odds of death among residents with moderate impairment were 1.49 (95% CI, 1.18-1.88) times higher, and the odds of death among residents with severe impairment were 1.64 (95% CI, 1.30-2.08) times higher. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of US nursing home residents with COVID-19, increased age, male sex, and impaired cognitive and physical function were independently associated with mortality. Understanding these risk factors can aid in the development of clinical prediction models of mortality in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Nursing Homes , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sex Factors , Survival Rate , United States
20.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(12): 2716-2720, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840738

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Infection screening tools classically define fever as 38.0°C (100.4°F). Frail older adults may not mount the same febrile response to systemic infection as younger or healthier individuals. We evaluate temperature trends among nursing home (NH) residents undergoing diagnostic SARS-CoV-2 testing and describe the diagnostic accuracy of temperature measurements for predicting test-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study evaluating diagnostic accuracy of pre-SARS-CoV-2 testing temperature changes. SETTING: Two separate NH cohorts tested diagnostically (e.g., for symptoms) for SARS-CoV-2. PARTICIPANTS Veterans residing in Veterans Affairs (VA) managed NHs and residents in a private national chain of community NHs. MEASUREMENTS: For both cohorts, we determined the sensitivity, specificity, and Youden's index with different temperature cutoffs for SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction results. RESULTS: The VA cohort consisted of 1,301 residents in 134 facilities from March 1, 2020, to May 14, 2020, with 25% confirmed for SARS-CoV-2. The community cohort included 3,368 residents spread across 282 facilities from February 18, 2020, to June 9, 2020, and 42% were confirmed for SARS-CoV-2. The VA cohort was younger, less White, and mostly male. A temperature testing threshold of 37.2°C has better sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2, 76% and 34% in the VA and community NH, respectively, versus 38.0°C with 43% and 12% sensitivity, respectively. CONCLUSION: A definition of 38.0°C for fever in NH screening tools should be lowered to improve predictive accuracy for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Stakeholders should carefully consider the impact of adopting lower testing thresholds on testing availability, cost, and burden on staff and residents. Temperatures alone have relatively low sensitivity/specificity, and we advocate any threshold be used as part of a screening tool, along with other signs and symptoms of infection.


Subject(s)
Aging/physiology , Body Temperature/physiology , COVID-19 , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Thermography , Veterans Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Dimensional Measurement Accuracy , Female , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thermography/methods , Thermography/standards , Thermography/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
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