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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(7): 1166-1173, 2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706028

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sentiments of vaccine hesitancy and distrust in public health institutions have complicated the government-led coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine control strategy in the United States. As the first to receive the vaccine, COVID-19 vaccine attitudes among frontline workers are consequential for COVID-19 control and public opinion of the vaccine. METHODS: In this study, we used a repeated cross-sectional survey administered at 3 time points between 24 September 2020 and 6 February 2021 to a cohort of employees of the University of California, Los Angeles Health and the Los Angeles County Fire Department. The primary outcome of interest was COVID-19 vaccination intent and vaccine uptake. RESULTS: Confidence in COVID-19 vaccines and vaccine uptake rose significantly over time. At survey 1, confidence in vaccine protection was 46.4% among healthcare workers (HCWs) and 34.6% among first responders (FRs); by survey 3, this had risen to 90.0% and 75.7%, respectively. At survey 1, about one-third of participants intended to receive a vaccine as soon as possible. By survey 3, 96.0% of HCWs and 87.5% of FRs had received a COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Attitudes toward vaccine uptake increased over the study period, likely a result of increased public confidence in COVID-19 vaccines, targeted communications, a COVID-19 winter surge in Los Angeles County, and ease of access from employer-sponsored vaccine distribution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Vaccination
2.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259703, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506037

ABSTRACT

Two mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273) against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are globally authorized as a two-dose regimen. Understanding the magnitude and duration of protective immune responses is vital to curbing the pandemic. We enrolled 461 high-risk health services workers at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and first responders in the Los Angeles County Fire Department (LACoFD) to assess the humoral responses in previously infected (PI) and infection naïve (NPI) individuals to mRNA-based vaccines (BNT162b2/Pfizer- BioNTech or mRNA-1273/Moderna). A chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay was used to detect antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 Spike in vaccinees prior to (n = 21) and following each vaccine dose (n = 246 following dose 1 and n = 315 following dose 2), and at days 31-60 (n = 110) and 61-90 (n = 190) following completion of the 2-dose series. Both vaccines induced robust antibody responses in all immunocompetent individuals. Previously infected individuals achieved higher median peak titers (p = 0.002) and had a slower rate of decay (p = 0.047) than infection-naïve individuals. mRNA-1273 vaccinated infection-naïve individuals demonstrated modestly higher titers following each dose (p = 0.005 and p = 0.029, respectively) and slower rates of antibody decay (p = 0.003) than those who received BNT162b2. A subset of previously infected individuals (25%) required both doses in order to reach peak antibody titers. The biologic significance of the differences between previously infected individuals and between the mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2 vaccines remains uncertain, but may have important implications for booster strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2 , Academic Medical Centers , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , California/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Responders , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoassay , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Universities
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(7): 1166-1173, 2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sentiments of vaccine hesitancy and distrust in public health institutions have complicated the government-led coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine control strategy in the United States. As the first to receive the vaccine, COVID-19 vaccine attitudes among frontline workers are consequential for COVID-19 control and public opinion of the vaccine. METHODS: In this study, we used a repeated cross-sectional survey administered at 3 time points between 24 September 2020 and 6 February 2021 to a cohort of employees of the University of California, Los Angeles Health and the Los Angeles County Fire Department. The primary outcome of interest was COVID-19 vaccination intent and vaccine uptake. RESULTS: Confidence in COVID-19 vaccines and vaccine uptake rose significantly over time. At survey 1, confidence in vaccine protection was 46.4% among healthcare workers (HCWs) and 34.6% among first responders (FRs); by survey 3, this had risen to 90.0% and 75.7%, respectively. At survey 1, about one-third of participants intended to receive a vaccine as soon as possible. By survey 3, 96.0% of HCWs and 87.5% of FRs had received a COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Attitudes toward vaccine uptake increased over the study period, likely a result of increased public confidence in COVID-19 vaccines, targeted communications, a COVID-19 winter surge in Los Angeles County, and ease of access from employer-sponsored vaccine distribution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Vaccination
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 542, 2021 01 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044339

ABSTRACT

There is need for effective and affordable vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 to tackle the ongoing pandemic. In this study, we describe a protein nanoparticle vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. The vaccine is based on the display of coronavirus spike glycoprotein receptor-binding domain (RBD) on a synthetic virus-like particle (VLP) platform, SpyCatcher003-mi3, using SpyTag/SpyCatcher technology. Low doses of RBD-SpyVLP in a prime-boost regimen induce a strong neutralising antibody response in mice and pigs that is superior to convalescent human sera. We evaluate antibody quality using ACE2 blocking and neutralisation of cell infection by pseudovirus or wild-type SARS-CoV-2. Using competition assays with a monoclonal antibody panel, we show that RBD-SpyVLP induces a polyclonal antibody response that recognises key epitopes on the RBD, reducing the likelihood of selecting neutralisation-escape mutants. Moreover, RBD-SpyVLP is thermostable and can be lyophilised without losing immunogenicity, to facilitate global distribution and reduce cold-chain dependence. The data suggests that RBD-SpyVLP provides strong potential to address clinical and logistic challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Peptides/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Blocking/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Multimerization , Swine
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