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1.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 905046, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879467

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In 2020, a new disease entitled Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS), or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), emerged, with thousands of children affected globally. There is no available evidence based on randomized controlled trials (RCT) to date on the two most commonly used immunomodulatory treatments, intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) and corticosteroids. Therefore, the Swissped RECOVERY trial was conducted to assess whether intravenous (IV) methylprednisolone shortens hospital length of stay compared with IVIG. Methods and Analysis: Swissped RECOVERY is an ongoing investigator-initiated, open-label, multicenter two-arm RCT in children and adolescents <18 years hospitalized with a diagnosis of PIMS-TS. The trial is recruiting at 10 sites across Switzerland. Patients diagnosed with PIMS-TS are randomized 1:1 to methylprednisolone IV (10 mg/kg/day for 3 days) or IVIG (2 g/kg as a single dose). The primary outcome is hospital length of stay censored at day 28, death, or discharge (whichever is first). The target total sample size is ~80 patients 1:1 randomized to each study arm. Ancillary and exploratory studies on inflammation, vaccination acceptance and coverage, long-term outcomes, and healthcare costs are pre-planned. Significance: Currently, robust trial evidence for the treatment of PIMS-TS is lacking, with a controversy surrounding the use of corticosteroids vs. IVIG. This trial will provide evidence for the effectiveness and safety of these two treatments. Ethics and Dissemination: The study protocol, which was designed based on the U.K. RECOVERY trial, the patient information and consent forms, and other study-specific study documents were approved by the local ethics committees (Project ID: 2021-00362). Registration Details: The study is registered on the Swiss National Clinical Trials Portal (SNCTP000004720) and Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04826588).

2.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 100(5): 735-746, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763332

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) represents a rare but severe complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection affecting children that can lead to myocardial injury and shock. Vascular endothelial dysfunction has been suggested to be a common complicating factor in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aims to characterize endothelial glycocalyx degradation in children admitted with MIS-C. We collected blood and urine samples and measured proinflammatory cytokines, myocardial injury markers, and endothelial glycocalyx markers in 17 children admitted with MIS-C, ten of which presented with inflammatory shock requiring intensive care admission and hemodynamic support with vasopressors. All MIS-C patients presented signs of glycocalyx deterioration with elevated levels of syndecan-1 in blood and both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in the urine. The degree of glycocalyx shedding correlated with tumor necrosis factor-α concentration. Five healthy age-matched children served as controls. Patients with MIS-C presented severe alteration of the endothelial glycocalyx that was associated with disease severity. Future studies should clarify if glycocalyx biomarkers could effectively be predictive indicators for the development of complications in adult patients with severe COVID-19 and children with MIS-C. KEY MESSAGES : Children admitted with MIS-C presented signs of endothelial glycocalyx injury with elevated syndecan-1 and heparan sulfate level. Syndecan-1 levels were associated with MIS-C severity and correlated TNF-α concentration. Syndecan-1 and heparan sulfate may represent potential biomarkers for patients with severe COVID-19 or MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glycocalyx , Adult , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Child , Glycocalyx/metabolism , Heparitin Sulfate/metabolism , Humans , Syndecan-1/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321903

ABSTRACT

The impact of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic on pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) is difficult to quantify. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in all eight Swiss PICUs between 02-24-2020 and 06-15-2020 to characterize the logistical and medical aspects of the pandemic and their impact on Swiss PICUs. Out of the 1113 patients under the age of 20, who were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Switzerland during the study period, 6% (63/1113) had to be hospitalized. All nine patients requiring intensive care had pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) and constituted 14% (9/63) of all hospitalized patients. The patients presented with multiple organ dysfunction, needed longer stays in PICUs ( p < 0.0001) and longer positive pressure ventilation ( p = 0.025) than the regular PICU patients. They caused a higher workload (total Nine Equivalents of nursing Manpower use Score (NEMS) points, p = 0.0008) and were classified to higher workload categories (p < 0.0001) than regular PICU patients (n = 4881) in 2019. PICU burden was also influenced by different logistical factors such as cancellation of planned surgeries and staff recruitment to adult wards. Conclusions: The different logistical and medical factors associated with the pandemic influenced the workload of the individual PICUs differently, depending on the presence of the single factors and their temporal relationship. The experiences of the study period help further to organize Swiss PICUs during the current pandemic to reduce the workload and optimize occupancy.

4.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 761815, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686520

ABSTRACT

The impact of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic on pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) is difficult to quantify. We conducted an observational study in all eight Swiss PICUs between 02/24/2020 and 06/15/2020 to characterize the logistical and medical aspects of the pandemic and their impact on the management of the Swiss PICUs. The nine patients admitted to Swiss PICUs during the study period suffering from pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) and constituting 14% (9/63) of all SARS-CoV-2 positive hospitalized patients in Swiss children's hospitals caused a higher workload [total Nine Equivalents of nursing Manpower use Score (NEMS) points, p = 0.0008] and were classified to higher workload categories (p < 0.0001) than regular PICU patients (n = 4,881) admitted in 2019. The comparison of the characteristics of the eight Swiss PICUs shows that they were confronted by different organizational issues arising from temporary regulations put in place by the federal council. These general regulations had different consequences for the eight individual PICUs due to the differences between the PICUs. In addition, the temporal relationship of these different regulations influenced the available PICU resources, dependent on the characteristics of the individual PICUs. As pandemic continues, reflecting and learning from experience is essential to reduce workload, optimize bed occupancy and manage resources in each individual PICU. In a small country as Switzerland, with a relatively decentralized health care local differences between PICUs are considerable and should be taken into account when making policy decisions.

5.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 691024, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367755

ABSTRACT

Most children with a SARS-CoV-2 infection are asymptomatic or exhibit mild symptoms. However, a small number of children develop features of substantial inflammation temporarily related to the COVID-19 also called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) or pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS), clinically similar to Kawasaki disease, toxic shock syndrome and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). It is well-known that genetic pre-disposition plays an important role in virally-triggered diseases such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated HLH, while this has not yet been established for patients with MIS-C. Here we describe a male patient fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of MIS-C, who was initially treated according to current consensus guidelines. Presence of hypofibrinogenemia, normal lymphocyte counts and C-reactive protein, but substantial hyperferritinemia distinguish this patient from others with MIS-C. The clinical course following initial presentation with acute respiratory distress syndrome was marked by fatal liver failure in the context of EBV-associated HLH despite treatment with steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, interleukin (IL)-1 receptor blockade and eventually HLH-directed treatment. X-linked lymphoproliferative disease type 1 (XLP1), a subtype of primary HLH was diagnosed in this patient post-mortem. This case report highlights the importance of including HLH in the differential diagnosis in MIS-C with severe disease course to allow specific, risk-adapted treatment and genetic counseling.

6.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(6): 706-713, 2021 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, cases of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported worldwide. Negative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing associated with positive serology in most of the cases suggests a postinfectious syndrome. Because the pathophysiology of this syndrome is still poorly understood, extensive virological and immunological investigations are needed. METHODS: We report a series of 4 pediatric patients admitted to Geneva University Hospitals with persistent fever and laboratory evidence of inflammation meeting the published definition of MIS-C related to COVID-19, to whom an extensive virological and immunological workup was performed. RESULTS: RT-PCRs on multiple anatomical compartments were negative, whereas anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were strongly positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence. Both pseudoneutralization and full virus neutralization assays showed the presence of neutralizing antibodies in all children, confirming a recent infection with SARS-CoV-2. The analyses of cytokine profiles revealed an elevation in all cytokines, as reported in adults with severe COVID-19. Although differing in clinical presentation, some features of MIS-C show phenotypic overlap with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). In contrast to patients with primary HLH, our patients showed normal perforin expression and natural killer (NK) cell degranulation. The levels of soluble interleukin (IL)-2 receptor (sIL-2R) correlated with the severity of disease, reflecting recent T-cell activation. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that MIS-C related to COVID-19 is caused by a postinfectious inflammatory syndrome associated with an elevation in all cytokines, and markers of recent T-cell activation (sIL-2R) occurring despite a strong and specific humoral response to SARS-CoV-2. Further functional and genetic analyses are essential to better understand the mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
7.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 667507, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268270

ABSTRACT

Background: Following the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic a new disease entity emerged, defined as Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS), or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). In the absence of trials, evidence for treatment remains scarce. Purpose: To develop best practice recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of children with PIMS-TS in Switzerland. It is acknowledged that the field is changing rapidly, and regular revisions in the coming months are pre-planned as evidence is increasing. Methods: Consensus guidelines for best practice were established by a multidisciplinary group of Swiss pediatric clinicians with expertise in intensive care, immunology/rheumatology, infectious diseases, hematology, and cardiology. Subsequent to literature review, four working groups established draft recommendations which were subsequently adapted in a modified Delphi process. Recommendations had to reach >80% agreement for acceptance. Results: The group achieved agreement on 26 recommendations, which specify diagnostic approaches and interventions across anti-inflammatory, anti-infectious, and support therapies, and follow-up for children with suspected PIMS-TS. A management algorithm was derived to guide treatment depending on the phenotype of presentation, categorized into PIMS-TS with (a) shock, (b) Kawasaki-disease like, and (c) undifferentiated inflammatory presentation. Conclusion: Available literature on PIMS-TS is limited to retrospective or prospective observational studies. Informed by these cohort studies and indirect evidence from other inflammatory conditions in children and adults, as well as guidelines from international health authorities, the Swiss PIMS-TS recommendations represent best practice guidelines based on currently available knowledge to standardize treatment of children with suspected PIMS-TS. Given the absence of high-grade evidence, regular updates of the recommendations will be warranted, and participation of patients in trials should be encouraged.

8.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 175, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243815

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Uncertainty about the optimal respiratory support strategies in critically ill COVID-19 patients is widespread. While the risks and benefits of noninvasive techniques versus early invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) are intensely debated, actual evidence is lacking. We sought to assess the risks and benefits of different respiratory support strategies, employed in intensive care units during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic on intubation and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality rates. METHODS: Subanalysis of a prospective, multinational registry of critically ill COVID-19 patients. Patients were subclassified into standard oxygen therapy ≥10 L/min (SOT), high-flow oxygen therapy (HFNC), noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIV), and early IMV, according to the respiratory support strategy employed at the day of admission to ICU. Propensity score matching was performed to ensure comparability between groups. RESULTS: Initially, 1421 patients were assessed for possible study inclusion. Of these, 351 patients (85 SOT, 87 HFNC, 87 NIV, and 92 IMV) remained eligible for full analysis after propensity score matching. 55% of patients initially receiving noninvasive respiratory support required IMV. The intubation rate was lower in patients initially ventilated with HFNC and NIV compared to those who received SOT (SOT: 64%, HFNC: 52%, NIV: 49%, p = 0.025). Compared to the other respiratory support strategies, NIV was associated with a higher overall ICU mortality (SOT: 18%, HFNC: 20%, NIV: 37%, IMV: 25%, p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: In this cohort of critically ill patients with COVID-19, a trial of HFNC appeared to be the most balanced initial respiratory support strategy, given the reduced intubation rate and comparable ICU mortality rate. Nonetheless, considering the uncertainty and stress associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, SOT and early IMV represented safe initial respiratory support strategies. The presented findings, in agreement with classic ARDS literature, suggest that NIV should be avoided whenever possible due to the elevated ICU mortality risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Respiratory Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
10.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 594127, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038614

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the severe SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, an increasing number of countries reported cases of a systemic hyperinflammatory condition defined as multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The clinical features of MIS-C can be an overlap of Kawasaki Disease (KD), Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS), Macrophage Activation Syndrome (MAS), or have often an acute abdominal presentation. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is recommended as first line therapy in KD. Recent evidence suggests intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) resistance in some cases of SARS-CoV-2 related MIS-C, thereby questioning the benefit of immunomodulators such as IL-1 or IL-6 blocking agents. We report on a cohort of 6 Swiss children with SARS-CoV2 related MIS-C presenting with clinical features compatible with Incomplete KD and Toxic Shock Syndrome associated to a cytokine storm. Serum cytokine profile investigations showed increased IL1RA levels (8 to 22-fold) in 5 of the 6 patients (one patient had not been tested), whereas, IL-6 serum levels were increased only in the 3 patients of the 6 who were tested. With exception of one patient who had only benefited by Anakinra, all patients received at least one dose of IVIG. One patient has only received Anakinra with favorable evolution, and three patients had also a steroid treatment. In addition to all this anti-inflammatory medication two patients have also received one dose of anti-IL6. In conclusion, our case series reports on clinical and laboratory findings of most of Swiss cases with MIS-C and suggests the use of Anakinra as an alternative to steroids in these children, most of whom presented with high IL-1RA levels.

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