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1.
Cells ; 11(5)2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725524

ABSTRACT

Among the first clinical symptoms of the SARS-CoV-2 infection is olfactory-gustatory deficit; this continues for weeks and, in some cases, can be persistent. We prospectively evaluated 162 patients affected by COVID-19 using a visual analogue scale (VAS) for nasal and olfactory-gustatory symptoms. Patients were checked after 7, 14, 21, 28, 90, and 180 days. A total of 118 patients (72.8%) reported an olfactory VAS < 7 at baseline (group B), and 44 (27.2%) reported anosmia (VAS ≥ 7) (group A) and underwent the Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT) and Burghart Taste Strips (BTS) to quantify the deficit objectively and repeated the tests to confirm the sense recovery. Group A patients showed B-SIT anosmia and hyposmia in 44.2% and 55.8% of cases, respectively. A total of 88.6% of group A patients reported ageusia with VAS ≥ 7, and BTS confirmed 81.8% of ageusia and 18.2% of hypogeusia. VAS smell recovery was recorded starting from 14 days, with normalization at 28 days. The 28-day B-SIT score showed normosmia in 90.6% of group A patients. The mean time for full recovery (VAS = 0) was shorter in group B (22.9 days) than in group A (31.9 days). Chemosensory deficit is frequently the first symptom in patients with COVID-19, and, in most cases, recovery occurs after four weeks.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste
2.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(2)2022 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) suffer from delirium during hospitalization. This single-center observational study investigates the occurrence of delirium, the associated risk factors and its impact on in-hospital mortality in an Italian cohort of COVID 19 inpatients. METHODS: Data were collected in the COVID units of a general medical hospital in the South of Italy. Socio-demographic, clinical and pharmacological features were collected. Diagnosis of delirium was based on a two-step approach according to 4AT criteria and DSM5 criteria. Outcomes were: dates of hospital discharge, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission, or death, whichever came first. Univariable and multivariable proportional hazards Cox regression models were estimated, and risks were reported as hazard ratios (HR) along with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: A total of 47/214 patients (22%) were diagnosed with delirium (21 hypoactive, 15 hyperactive, and 11 mixed). In the multivariable model, four independent variables were independently associated with the presence of delirium: dementia, followed by age at admission, C-reactive protein (CRP), and Glasgow Coma Scale. In turn, delirium was the strongest independent predictor of death/admission to ICU (composite outcome), followed by Charlson Index (not including dementia), CRP, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. The probability of reaching the composite outcome was higher for patients with the hypoactive subtype than for those with the hyperactive subtype. CONCLUSIONS: Delirium was the strongest predictor of poor outcome in COVID-19 patients, especially in the hypoactive subtype. Several clinical features and inflammatory markers were associated with the increased risk of its occurrence. The early recognition of these factors may help clinicians to select patients who would benefit from both non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions in order to prevent delirium, and in turn, reduce the risk of admission to ICU or death.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308649

ABSTRACT

Background: The worldwide escalation of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has urgently required the development of safe and effective vaccines against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the causative agent of disease. The BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech) RNA-based vaccine confers 95% protection against COVID-19 by encoding a mutated isoform of SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike (S) protein. Objective: Here, we report the antigen-specific immune profile against SARS-CoV-2 S protein after vaccination with a single dose of BNT162b2 in order to define the immunological landscape required for an efficient response to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Methods: We determined the levels of antibodies and antigen-specific B, T and NK-T cells against a recombinant GFP tagged SARS-CoV-2 S protein in subjects up to 20 days after injection of a single dose of BNT162b2 vaccine using a combined approach involving serological assays and flow cytometry analyses. Former COVID-19 patients have been also included in this study to evaluate the effect of vaccine after exposition to SARS-CoV-2. Results: The level of antigen-specific helper T-cells against SARS-CoV-2 S protein was reduced in subjects, low responsive or unresponsive to vaccination with respect to the highly responsive individuals, while the numbers of antigen-specific regulatory and cytotoxic T-cells were comparable. Of interest, in former COVID-19 patients, a single dose of BNT162b2 vaccine induced a significant increase of antibody production simultaneous with an antigen-specific B and NK-T cell response. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that favorable immune profiles support the progression and an effective reaction to BNT162b2 vaccination.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686821

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic dictated new priorities in biomedicine research. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus. In this pilot study, we optimized our padlock assay to visualize genomic and subgenomic regions using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded placental samples obtained from a confirmed case of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was localized in trophoblastic cells. We also checked the presence of the virion by immunolocalization of its glycoprotein spike. In addition, we imaged mitochondria of placental villi keeping in mind that the mitochondrion has been suggested as a potential residence of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. We observed a substantial overlapping of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and mitochondria in trophoblastic cells. This intriguing linkage correlated with an aberrant mitochondrial network. Overall, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that provides evidence of colocalization of the SARS-CoV-2 genome and mitochondria in SARS-CoV-2 infected tissue. These findings also support the notion that SARS-CoV-2 infection can reprogram mitochondrial activity in the highly specialized maternal-fetal interface.


Subject(s)
Mitochondria/virology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Placenta/virology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , DNA Probes/metabolism , Female , Humans , Pilot Projects , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534248

ABSTRACT

The escalation of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has required the development of safe and effective vaccines against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-associated (SARS-CoV-2), which is the causative agent of the disease. Here, we determined the levels of antibodies, antigen-specific B cells, against a recombinant GFP-tagged SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and total T and NK cell subsets in subjects up to 20 days after the injection of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine using a combined approach of serological and flow cytometry analyses. In former COVID-19 patients and highly responsive individuals, a significant increase of antibody production was detected, simultaneous with an expansion of antigen-specific B cell response and the total number of NK-T cells. Additionally, through a genetic screening of a specific polymorphic region internal to the 3' regulatory region 1 (3'RR1) of human immunoglobulin constant-gene (IgH) locus, we identified different single-nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) variants associated with either highly or lowly responsive subjects. Taken together, these results suggest that favorable genetic backgrounds and immune profiles support the progression of an effective response to BNT162b2 vaccination.

6.
J Clin Med ; 10(22)2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical course of COVID-19 is more severe in elderly patients with cardio-metabolic co-morbidities. Chronic kidney disease is considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We aimed to evaluate the impact of reduced eGFR on the composite outcome of admission to ICU and death in a sample of consecutive COVID-19 hospitalized patients. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated clinical records of a consecutive sample of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. A total of 231 patients were considered for statistical analysis. The whole sample was divided in two groups on the basis of eGFR value, e.g., ≥ or <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Patients with low eGFR were further divided among those with a history of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and those without (AKI, acute kidney injury). The primary outcome was a composite of admission to ICU or death, whichever occurred first. The single components were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Seventy-nine (34.2%) patients reached the composite outcome. A total of 64 patients (27.7%) died during hospitalization, and 41 (17.7%) were admitted to the ICU. A significantly higher number of events was present among patients with low eGFR (p < 0.0001). Age (p < 0.001), SpO2 (p < 0.001), previous anti-platelet treatment (p = 0.006), Charlson's Comorbidities Index (p < 0.001), serum creatinine (p < 0.001), eGFR (p = 0.003), low eGFR (p < 0.001), blood glucose levels (p < 0.001), and LDH (p = 0.003) were significantly associated with the main outcome in univariate analysis. Low eGFR (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.02-2.63, p = 0.040) and age (HR per 5 years 1.22, 95% CI 1.10-1.36, p < 0.001) were significantly and independently associated with the main outcome in the multivariate model. Patients with AKI showed an increased hazard ratio to reach the combined outcome (p = 0.059), while those patients with both CKD had a significantly higher probability of developing the combined outcome (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with reduced eGFR at admission should be considered at high risk for clinical deterioration and death, requiring the best supportive treatment in order to prevent the worst outcome.

7.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(1): 790, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359309

ABSTRACT

Curcumin [1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione], the main component of turmeric (Curcuma longa, a flowering plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae), is known to possess different pharmacological activities, particularly anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Since an underlying inflammatory process exists in several ocular conditions, such as anterior uveitis, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR), the aim of the present review was to summarize the pleiotropic effects exerted by this molecule, focusing in particular on its beneficial role in retinal diseases. The anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin has also been described in numerous systemic inflammatory pathologies and tumors. Specifically, the biological, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties of curcumin are associated with its ability to downregulate the expression of the following genes: IκBα, cyclooxygenase 2, prostaglandin E2, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α. According to this finding, curcumin may be useful in the treatment of some retinal disorders. In DR, proliferative vitreoretinopathy and AMD, beneficial effects have been observed following treatment with curcumin, including slowing down of the inflammatory process. Despite the aforementioned evidence, the main disadvantage of this substance is that it possesses a low solubility, as well as poor oral bioavailability due to its reduced absorption, rapid metabolism and rapid elimination. Therefore, several curcumin analogues have been synthesized and tested over the years, in order to improve the possible obtainable therapeutic effects. The purpose of the present review was to identify new aspects that could guide future research on this important traditional medicine, which is a well-tolerated natural product, and is widely considered safe and economical.

8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 707602, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344275

ABSTRACT

Background: In the current coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, lung ultrasound (LUS) has been extensively employed to evaluate lung involvement and proposed as a useful screening tool for early diagnosis in the emergency department (ED), prehospitalization triage, and treatment monitoring of COVID-19 pneumonia. However, the actual effectiveness of LUS in characterizing lung involvement in COVID-19 is still unclear. Our aim was to evaluate LUS diagnostic performance in assessing or ruling out COVID-19 pneumonia when compared with chest CT (gold standard) in a population of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Methods: A total of 260 consecutive RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2-infected patients were included in the study. All the patients underwent both chest CT scan and concurrent LUS at admission, within the first 6-12 h of hospital stay. Results: Chest CT scan was considered positive when showing a "typical" or "indeterminate" pattern for COVID-19, according to the RSNA classification system. Disease prevalence for COVID-19 pneumonia was 90.77%. LUS demonstrated a sensitivity of 56.78% in detecting lung alteration. The concordance rate for the assessment of abnormalities by both methods increased in the case of peripheral distribution and middle-lower lung location of lesions and in cases of more severe lung involvement. A total of nine patients had a "false-positive" LUS examination. Alternative diagnosis included chronic heart disease (six cases), bronchiectasis (two cases), and subpleural emphysema (one case). LUS specificity was 62.50%. Collateral findings indicative of overlapping conditions at chest CT were recorded also in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and appeared distributed with increasing frequency passing from the group with mild disease (17 cases) to that with severe disease (40 cases). Conclusions: LUS does not seem to be an adequate tool for screening purposes in the ED, due to the risk of missing some lesions and/or to underestimate the actual extent of the disease. Furthermore, the not specificity of LUS implies the possibility to erroneously classify pre-existing or overlapping conditions as COVID-19 pneumonia. It seems more safe to integrate a positive LUS examination with clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and radiologic findings to suggest a "virosis." Viral testing confirmation is always required.

9.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211029783, 2021 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329093

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this observational retrospective study was to evaluate, in patients with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, the association between the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) respiratory illness and the risk of infected patients to develop obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: Ninety-six patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection were enrolled in the study. The STOP-BANG questionnaire to investigate the risk of the OSA syndrome was filled in by the patients at admission. The enrolled patients were divided into 2 groups according to the respiratory disease: group 1 (72 patients), hospitalized patients undergoing conventional oxygen therapy; group 2 (24 patients), patients requiring enhanced respiratory support. STOP-BANG results of these 2 groups were compared to observe whether patients with high OSA risk more frequently presented a severe form of COVID-19. RESULTS: 41.6% of the patients in group 2 had a STOP-BANG score between 5 and 8 (high risk of having apnea); in contrast, 20.8% of the patients in group 1 had a STOP-BANG score between 5 and 8, with a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (P = .05). A complementary trend was observed regarding the proportion of patients in the range 0 to 2, which classifies patients at a low risk of OSA (48.6% vs 20.8% for groups 1 and 2, P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: According to our data, the chances of having a severe case of COVID-19 should be considered in patients at high risk of OSA. CURRENT KNOWLEDGE/STUDY RATIONALE: Emerging research suggests that OSA could represent a potentially important risk factor for the severe forms of COVID-19. The purpose of this observational retrospective study was to evaluate the potential association between OSA and the severity of COVID-19 disease. STUDY IMPACT: According to our data, the likelihood of contracting a severe form of COVID-19 disease should be considered in patients at high risk of OSA.

10.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 279(5): 2383-2389, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293367

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare and analyze the incidence of otitis media with effusion (OME), before and during the COVID-19-related pandemic period, to evaluate the effects of the social changes (lockdown, continuous use of facial masks, social distancing, reduction of social activities) in the OME incidence in children and adults. METHODS: The number of diagnosed OME in e five referral centers, between 1 March 2018 and 1 March 2021, has been reviewed and collected. To estimate the reduction of OME incidence in children and adults during the COVID-19 pandemic period the OME incidence in three period of time were evaluated and compared: group 1-patients with OME diagnosis achieved between 1/03/2018 and 01/03/2019 (not pandemic period). Group 2-patients with OME diagnosis achieved between 1/03/2019 and 1/03/2020 (not pandemic period). Group 3-patients with OME diagnosis achieved between 1/03/2020 and 1/03/2021 (COVID-19 pandemic period). RESULTS: In the non-pandemic periods (group 1 and 2), the incidence of OME in the five referral centers considered was similar, with 482 and 555 diagnosed cases, respectively. In contrast, the OME incidence in the same centers, during the pandemic period (group 3) was clearly reduced with a lower total number of 177 cases of OME estimated. Percentage variation in OME incidence between the first non-pandemic year considered (group 1) and the pandemic period (group 3) was-63, 3%, with an absolute value decrease value of-305 cases. Similarly, comparing the second non-pandemic year (group 2) and the pandemic year (group 3) the percentage variation of OME incidence was-68, 1% with an absolute value of-305 cases decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed a lower incidence of OME during the pandemic period compared with 2 previous non pandemic years. The drastic restrictive anti-contagion measures taken by the Italian government to contain the spread of COVID-19 could have had a positive impact on the lower OME incidence during the last pandemic year.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Otitis Media with Effusion , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Incidence , Otitis Media with Effusion/surgery , Pandemics
11.
Pathogens ; 10(6)2021 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The WHO has solicited all countries to eliminate HCV by 2030. The Italian government started routine screening for HCV infection in January 2021, initially targeting subjects born between 1969 and 1989. With the aim of achieving micro-elimination, we designed a hospital-wide project focusing on inpatients born from 1935 to 1985 and conducted it in our institution. METHOD: All inpatients aged 35 to 85, admitted from 10 February 2020 to 9 February 2021 for many different diseases and conditions underwent HCV antibody (HCVAb) testing by third-generation ELISA. When positive, reflex HCV RNA testing and genotyping were performed. Clinical history, fibrosis diagnosis, laboratory data and concomitant medications were available for all. RESULTS: The HCV screening rate of inpatients was 100%. In total, 11,748 participants were enrolled, of whom 53.50% were male. The HCVAb positivity rate was 3.03%. The HCVAb rate increased with age and was higher for patients born between 1935 and 1944 (4.81%). The rate of HCV RNA positivity was 0.97%. The vast majority (80.70%) of HCV RNA-positive participants were 55 or older; in about 40% of cases, HCV RNA-positive patients were unaware of their infection. Although 16 patients died after HCV chronic infection diagnosis (two due COVID-19) or HCV treatment prescription (one due to COVID-19), 74.56% of patient HCV diagnoses were linked to HCV treatment, despite their co-morbidities. All patients older than 65 who died had an active HCV infection. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed a rate of active HCV infections among inpatients lower than what has been reported in the past in the general population; this appears to be a result of the widespread use of pangenotypic direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). The overall rate of active infection was lower than the rate observed in the 1935-1954 cohort. The high rate of inpatients unaware of HCV infections and the high number of deaths among subjects with an active HCV infection born from 1935 to 1954, suggest that, at least in southern Italy, targeted screening of this birth cohort may be required to reduce the number of undiagnosed cases and hidden infections.

12.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 32: 100724, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic impacted on heart failure patients' lifestyle and quality of life, affecting both physical activity levels and state of health. METHODS: Demographic data and device records were extracted for patients with heart failure in the 16 weeks at the turn of lockdown during pandemic. To explore the variability across the lockdown period, a week-to-week analysis was performed. Patients were interviewed to investigate physical activity and psychological insights. The primary endpoint was the variation in physical activity at the turn of lockdown. RESULTS: At our facility, 2225 patients implanted with a cardiac device were screened and data were collected for 211 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Patients' physical activity significantly decreased in the lockdown period compared with the control period (active time per day 8.0% vs. 10.8%; relative reduction [RRR] 25.9%; p < 0.0001). A small decrease was noted for mean heart rate (70.1 vs. 71.7 beats per minute [bpm]; RRR 2.2%; p < 0.0001), while thoracic impedance slightly increased (82.2 vs. 82.7 ohm; RRR 0.6%; p = 0.001). Patients' physical activity decreased from week 7 to week 11 (10.9% vs. 6.9%; RRR 36.7%; P < 0.0001) with an increase between week 11 and week 16 (6.9% vs. 8.5%; RRR 18.8%; P < 0.0001). Patients' perceptions about physical activity showed a very low correlation with remote monitoring-assessed physical activity levels (r2 = 0.035, p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: Telemedicine and remote monitoring can explore the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on vital signs and physical activity levels of heart failure patients, playing a crucial role in the prediction of heart failure worsening during circumstances discouraging outpatient visits.

13.
Bosn J Basic Med Sci ; 21(1): 117-119, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052562

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 outbreak, Italy has been one of the most affected countries in Europe and the second for number of deaths. In this commentary, we discuss some lessons that we learned as health-care providers working in a large public hospital during the pandemic, with a special focus on the importance of infection containment and early diagnosis, the role of swab, serological tests, home isolation and individual protection  devices, and the available therapies and management indications to better face a possible new outbreak in the near future. These comments should stimulate a more diffused, efficient, and efficacious management of COVID-19 patients, also reducing the number of admissions to hospital emergency departments and the related spread of the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Critical Care , Health Personnel , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Physical Distancing , Quarantine , Treatment Outcome
18.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 163(1): 86-88, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306370

ABSTRACT

Otolaryngology and head and neck surgery underwent drastic changes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Since March 10, the first day of the lockdown in Italy, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were limited to emergency and oncology cases, while outpatient procedures and clinical examinations were temporarily suspended to limit virus diffusion and to reallocate personnel into wards dedicated to COVID-19. In our otolaryngology unit, between March 10 and April 28, 2020, we performed 96 surgical procedures; they mainly consisted in diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors of the head and neck (77%), management of acute upper airway obstruction in adults and children (14.7%), drainage of abscesses of the head and neck (6.2%), and treatment of nasal bone fractures (2.1%). When comparing these data with those of the same period in 2019 for emergency and oncology procedures, we noticed a drastic reduction of head and neck abscesses and nasal bone fractures, while oncology surgery remained stable.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Hospitals, University , Otolaryngology/organization & administration , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Head and Neck Neoplasms/complications , Humans , Italy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 163(1): 75-77, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-175753

ABSTRACT

Epistaxis is a common complaint in the general population, and its treatment is a common procedure in emergency departments. In the COVID-19 era, procedures involving airway management are a particular risk for health care workers due to the high virulence of the virus, the transmission through aerosol, and the risk of contagion from asymptomatic patients. In this article, we propose a simple memorandum of clinical recommendations to minimize the risk of operator infection deriving from epistaxis management. The correct use of personal protective equipment and strict compliance with the behavioral guidelines are essential to reduce the potential risk of infection. In particular, the use of filtering masks is strongly recommended since all patients, including those referring for epistaxis, should be treated as being COVID-19 positive in the emergency department. The safety of health care workers is essential not only to safeguard continuous patient care but also to limit virus transmission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Epistaxis/therapy , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Management , Epistaxis/etiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 99(9): 565-566, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-141704

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic during the first months of 2020 is causing profound changes in worldwide health care systems, resulting in a major reduction of surgical interventions and routine non-urgent outpatient diagnostic procedures. The lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, one of the most affected countries in Europe, is having severe effects on the otolaryngology medical and surgical activities. The main changes are represented by the postponement of outpatient visits and scheduled surgery, while the only guaranteed service is reserved to diagnostics and surgery for oncology and urgent patients. In these cases, given the sites of action typical of the otolaryngology practice, physicians and nurses are exposed to a high risk of contagion through virus aerosol transmission. Furthermore, as the current measures of lockdown continue, it will be difficult to perform scheduled and new diagnostic assessments, medical treatments and surgical procedures in a timely manner favoring the risk of diagnostic and therapeutic delays with severe impact on patients' health.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Otolaryngology , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Biopsy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data
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