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1.
Frontiers in physiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1743892

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has emerged as a very serious pandemic caused by the rapidly evolving transmission of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Since its outbreak in 2020, the SARS CoV-2 has represented an important challenge for the physicians due to its well known respiratory sequelae. To date, the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection on organs and systems other than lungs and respiratory tract remains less clear. In particular, it remains to be investigated whether the reproductive system can be affected by the SARS-CoV-2 in the long term-period or, in alternative, drugs used to treat COVID-19 might impact the reproductive systems and, in turn, fertility. What is known is that SARS-Cov-2 binds to target cells of host through different receptors including angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), neuropilin-1, AXL and antibody-FcɣR complexes. ACE2 physiologically regulates both the expression of angiotensin II (Ang II) as well as Ang-(1-7) to exerts its physiological functions. The reproductive system abundantly expresses ACE2 and produces Ang-(1-7), starting from precursors which are locally generated or derived from systemic circulation. Ang-(1-7) plays an important role of stimulus to the growth and maturation of ovarian follicle as well as to ovulation. Also human endometrium expresses Ang-(1-7), mainly during the post-ovulatory phase. Animal and human observational studies demonstrated that Ang-(1-7) is involved in the maternal immune response to pregnancy and its deficiency is associated with a defective placenta development. In our manuscript, we review the current knowledge about whether SARS-CoV-2 may impact the female reproductive system. We further explain the possible molecular mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 might affect ovarian, endometrial and female genital tract cells.

2.
J Gynecol Oncol ; 33(1): e10, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573883

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has correlated with the disruption of screening activities and diagnostic assessments. Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common gynecological malignancies and it is often detected at an early stage, because it frequently produces symptoms. Here, we aim to investigate the impact of COVID-19 outbreak on patterns of presentation and treatment of EC patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective study involving 54 centers in Italy. We evaluated patterns of presentation and treatment of EC patients before (period 1: March 1, 2019 to February 29, 2020) and during (period 2: April 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021) the COVID-19 outbreak. RESULTS: Medical records of 5,164 EC patients have been retrieved: 2,718 and 2,446 women treated in period 1 and period 2, respectively. Surgery was the mainstay of treatment in both periods (p=0.356). Nodal assessment was omitted in 689 (27.3%) and 484 (21.2%) patients treated in period 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.001). While, the prevalence of patients undergoing sentinel node mapping (with or without backup lymphadenectomy) has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic (46.7% in period 1 vs. 52.8% in period 2; p<0.001). Overall, 1,280 (50.4%) and 1,021 (44.7%) patients had no adjuvant therapy in period 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.001). Adjuvant therapy use has increased during COVID-19 pandemic (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on the characteristics and patterns of care of EC patients. These findings highlight the need to implement healthcare services during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endometrial Neoplasms , Endometrial Neoplasms/epidemiology , Endometrial Neoplasms/therapy , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Minerva Surg ; 77(1): 14-21, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has impacted professional, economic and social activities. In the surgical field, it has brought changes to operating activities, the organization of workforces, the protection measures for patients and personnel against possible intraoperative transmissions as well as training young surgeons. This study intends to assess the extent of this impact in our institution. METHODS: The patients operated on in nine Operating Units (OUs) in the period February 1 - March 31, 2020, with follow-ups on April 30, 2020, were evaluated both retrospectively and prospectively. Organizational, clinical and impact parameters on staff were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 833 consecutive admitted patients, 742 were operated on, 705 of whom were recruited for the study. Compared to the same period in 2019 there was a decrease in the number of operations (742 compared to 1187), similar use of intensive care unit (ICU), a diagnostic activity only for symptomatic patients, heterogeneity in organizational behaviors, an impact on staff who highlighted concerns about getting sick or passing the infection on to others (87.64%) or their family members (75.14%). CONCLUSIONS: The present study made it possible to detect the need to make significant changes in the clinical, organizational and teaching fields, for which some operational proposals are suggested.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Perinat Med ; 48(9): 950-958, 2020 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797424

ABSTRACT

Objectives To evaluate the strength of association between maternal and pregnancy characteristics and the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnancies with laboratory confirmed COVID-19. Methods Secondary analysis of a multinational, cohort study on all consecutive pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from February 1, 2020 to April 30, 2020 from 73 centers from 22 different countries. A confirmed case of COVID-19 was defined as a positive result on real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasal and pharyngeal swab specimens. The primary outcome was a composite adverse fetal outcome, defined as the presence of either abortion (pregnancy loss before 22 weeks of gestations), stillbirth (intrauterine fetal death after 22 weeks of gestation), neonatal death (death of a live-born infant within the first 28 days of life), and perinatal death (either stillbirth or neonatal death). Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate parameters independently associated with the primary outcome. Logistic regression was reported as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Mean gestational age at diagnosis was 30.6±9.5 weeks, with 8.0% of women being diagnosed in the first, 22.2% in the second and 69.8% in the third trimester of pregnancy. There were six miscarriage (2.3%), six intrauterine device (IUD) (2.3) and 5 (2.0%) neonatal deaths, with an overall rate of perinatal death of 4.2% (11/265), thus resulting into 17 cases experiencing and 226 not experiencing composite adverse fetal outcome. Neither stillbirths nor neonatal deaths had congenital anomalies found at antenatal or postnatal evaluation. Furthermore, none of the cases experiencing IUD had signs of impending demise at arterial or venous Doppler. Neonatal deaths were all considered as prematurity-related adverse events. Of the 250 live-born neonates, one (0.4%) was found positive at RT-PCR pharyngeal swabs performed after delivery. The mother was tested positive during the third trimester of pregnancy. The newborn was asymptomatic and had negative RT-PCR test after 14 days of life. At logistic regression analysis, gestational age at diagnosis (OR: 0.85, 95% CI 0.8-0.9 per week increase; p<0.001), birthweight (OR: 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.12.7 per 100 g decrease; p=0.012) and maternal ventilatory support, including either need for oxygen or CPAP (OR: 4.12, 95% CI 2.3-7.9; p=0.001) were independently associated with composite adverse fetal outcome. Conclusions Early gestational age at infection, maternal ventilatory supports and low birthweight are the main determinants of adverse perinatal outcomes in fetuses with maternal COVID-19 infection. Conversely, the risk of vertical transmission seems negligible.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Fetal Death , Perinatal Death , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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