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2.
J Clin Med ; 11(4)2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715434

ABSTRACT

Correlation between risk of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and CD3+ counts within the peripheral blood stem cell graft has recently been reported in the setting of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy). We aimed to investigate the benefit of the addition of a single dose of anti-T lymphocyte globulin (ATLG 5 mg/kg) to PT-Cy in this setting. Starting in 2019, all patients receiving PBSC transplant containing CD3+ counts above 300 × 106/kg (study group) received a post-transplant dose of ATLG in addition to standard PT-Cy. The study was designed as a real-life analysis and included all consecutive Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) recipients according to the above-mentioned inclusion criterion (n = 21), excluding cord blood and bone marrow donors. Using a 1:2 matched-pair analysis, we compared the outcomes with a historical population who received PT-Cy only (control group). We found a delayed platelet engraftment (29% vs. 45% at 30 days, p = 0.03) and a non-significant trend toward higher risk of poor graft function (29% vs. 19%, p = 0.52). The addition of ATLG impacted long-term immune reconstitution on the CD4+ subsets, but this did not translate into higher rate of relapse or viral infection. Acute GvHD was not significantly impacted, but 1-year cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD was significantly lower in the study group (15% vs. 41%, p = 0.04). Survival outcomes were comparable. In conclusion PT-Cy and ATLG was overall safe and translated into a low rate of chronic GvHD incidence.

3.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 57(5): 742-752, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702554

ABSTRACT

In 2020, 45,364 HCT in 41,016 patients, 18,796 (41%) allogeneic and 26,568 (59%) autologous in 690 centers were reported. Changes observed were as follows: total number of HCT -6.5%, allogeneic HCT -5.1%, autologous HCT -7.5%, and were more pronounced in non-malignant disorders for allogeneic HCT and in autoimmune disease for autologous HCT. Main indications were myeloid malignancies 10,441 (25%), lymphoid malignancies 26,120 (64%) and non-malignant disorders 2532 (6%). A continued growth in CAR-T cellular therapies to 1874 (+65%) patients in 2020 was observed. In allogeneic HCT, the use of haploidentical donors increased while use of unrelated and sibling donors decreased. Cord blood HCT increased by 11.7% for the first time since 2012. There was a significant increase in the use of non-myeloablative but a drop in myeloablative conditioning and in use of marrow as stem cell source. We interpreted these changes as being due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic starting early in 2020 in Europe and provided additional data reflecting the varying impact of the pandemic across selected countries and larger cities. The transplant community confronted with the pandemic challenge, continued in providing patients access to treatment. This annual report of the EBMT reflects current activities useful for health care planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Neoplasms , Europe/epidemiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Neoplasms/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplantation, Homologous
4.
Frontiers in immunology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1688458

ABSTRACT

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system (CNS) disorder, which is mediated by an abnormal immune response coordinated by T and B cells resulting in areas of inflammation, demyelination, and axonal loss. Disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) are available to dampen the inflammatory aggression but are ineffective in many patients. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been used as treatment in patients with a highly active disease, achieving a long-term clinical remission in most. The rationale of the intervention is to eradicate inflammatory autoreactive cells with lympho-ablative regimens and restore immune tolerance. Immunological studies have demonstrated that autologous HSCT induces a renewal of TCR repertoires, resurgence of immune regulatory cells, and depletion of proinflammatory T cell subsets, suggesting a “resetting” of immunological memory. Although our understanding of the clinical and immunological effects of autologous HSCT has progressed, further work is required to characterize the mechanisms that underlie treatment efficacy. Considering that memory B cells are disease-promoting and stem-like T cells are multipotent progenitors involved in self-regeneration of central and effector memory cells, investigating the reconstitution of B cell compartment and stem and effector subsets of immunological memory following autologous HSCT could elucidate those mechanisms. Since all subjects need to be optimally protected from vaccine-preventable diseases (including COVID-19), there is a need to ensure that vaccination in subjects undergoing HSCT is effective and safe. Additionally, the study of vaccination in HSCT-treated subjects as a means of evaluating immune responses could further distinguish broad immunosuppression from immune resetting.

6.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(7): 1493-1508, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241800

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), represents one of the biggest challenges of 21st century, threatening public health around the globe. Increasing age and presence of co-morbidities are reported risk factors for severe disease and mortality, along with autoimmune diseases (ADs) and immunosuppressive treatments such as haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), which are also associated with adverse outcomes. We review the impact of the pandemic on specific groups of patients with neurological, rheumatological, and gastroenterological indications, along with the challenges delivering HSCT in adult and pediatric populations. Moving forward, we developed consensus-based guidelines and recommendations for best practice and quality of patient care in order to support clinicians, scientists, and their multidisciplinary teams, as well as patients and their carers. These guidelines aim to support national and international organizations related to autoimmune diseases and local clinical teams delivering HSCT. Areas of unmet need and future research questions are also highlighted. The waves of the COVID-19 pandemic are predicted to be followed by an "endemic" phase and therefore an ongoing risk within a "new normality". These recommendations reflect currently available evidence, coupled with expert opinion, and will be revised according to necessary modifications in practice.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Adult , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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