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Pediatrics ; 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779805


Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a severe inflammatory response described in children after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We present a case of a 9-year-old African American boy with 2 distinct illnesses that were both consistent with MIS-C. He first presented in the early stages of our understanding of MIS-C with predominantly neurologic and gastrointestinal symptoms and demonstrated elevated inflammatory markers consistent with MIS-C. He was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin with complete resolution of signs and symptoms. After 7 months of good health, he returned with a second, distinct illness characterized by fever, rash, gastrointestinal symptoms, and elevated inflammatory markers that met the criteria for MIS-C. In addition, we identified new dilatation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. He improved rapidly after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, aspirin, and steroids. Our report highlights the need to achieve a better understanding of this entity's pathogenesis and clinical course and to improve anticipatory guidance for children with MIS-C.

Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S320-S320, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564190


Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infection with widely varying clinical severity. Severe COVID-19 was initially proposed to be secondary to cytokine storm syndrome (CSS). However, studies since showed that patients with severe COVID-19 rarely display CSS cytokine phenotypes, and may have more limited inflammatory responses instead. Methods Prospective cohorts, aged 0-90 years of age who tested positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 were enrolled from inpatient hospitals and outpatient testing centers in Memphis, TN from May 2020-January 2021. Longitudinal blood samples were obtained including acute, sub-acute and convalescent timepoints. Severity scores of asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 were assigned at time of convalescent assessment. Plasma was analyzed with a quantitative human magnetic 38-plex cytokine assay. Results : 169 participants were enrolled, including 8 asymptomatic, 117 mild, 22 moderate and 17 severe cases, and 5 children with post-COVID-19 multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). All moderate and severe patients were hospitalized and received treatment (39%). Clear distinctions were seen between asymptomatic-mild cases and moderate-severe cases at acute timepoints and during disease progression for GCSF, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-1Ra, IP-10, MIP-1a, MIP-1β, and TGFα. There was a significant difference between participants who did and did not require hospitalization for acute timepoint levels of IL-10, IL-15, MIP-1 β and TGFα (p< 0.01). Only 4 participants with active COVID-19 were found to meet criteria for CSS (2%), only 3 of which were severe. MIS-C participants showed nearly universally elevated cytokine levels compared to those with active COVID-19. Temporal and severity associations of IL-10 and IP-10 Figure 1. Temporal and severity associations of IL-10 and IP-10 Examples of differentiating cytokine profiles by severity and time. Among SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive participants, IL-10 and IP-10 displayed increased levels in their acute plasma samples as clinical severity increased [A,C]. IL-10 and IP-10 also showed distinct time-dependent responses (ln(Cytokine level (pg/mL)) that differentiated the more severe from the less severe groups [B,D]. Conclusion Moderate and severe acute COVID-19 has a distinct cytokine profile from asymptomatic and mild cases, as detected from acute, subacute and convalescent plasma. Disclosures Joshua Wolf, MBBS, PhD, FRACP, Karius Inc. (Research Grant or Support) Joshua Wolf, MBBS, PhD, FRACP, Nothing to disclose Paul Thomas, PhD, Cytoagents (Consultant)Immunoscape (Consultant)