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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314424

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 image analysis has mostly focused on diagnostic tasks using single timepoint scans acquired upon disease presentation or admission. We present a deep learning-based approach to predict lung infiltrate progression from serial chest radiographs (CXRs) of COVID-19 patients. Our method first utilizes convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for feature extraction from patches within the concerned lung zone, and also from neighboring and remote boundary regions. The framework further incorporates a multi-scale Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) with a correlation module for effective predictions. The GRU accepts CNN feature vectors from three different areas as input and generates a fused representation. The correlation module attempts to minimize the correlation loss between hidden representations of concerned and neighboring area feature vectors, while maximizing the loss between the same from concerned and remote regions. Further, we employ an attention module over the output hidden states of each encoder timepoint to generate a context vector. This vector is used as an input to a decoder module to predict patch severity grades at a future timepoint. Finally, we ensemble the patch classification scores to calculate patient-wise grades. Specifically, our framework predicts zone-wise disease severity for a patient on a given day by learning representations from the previous temporal CXRs. Our novel multi-institutional dataset comprises sequential CXR scans from N=93 patients. Our approach outperforms transfer learning and radiomic feature-based baseline approaches on this dataset.

2.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-326551

ABSTRACT

Well-labeled datasets of chest radiographs (CXRs) are difficult to acquire due to the high cost of annotation. Thus, it is desirable to learn a robust and transferable representation in an unsupervised manner to benefit tasks that lack labeled data. Unlike natural images, medical images have their own domain prior;e.g., we observe that many pulmonary diseases, such as the COVID-19, manifest as changes in the lung tissue texture rather than the anatomical structure. Therefore, we hypothesize that studying only the texture without the influence of structure variations would be advantageous for downstream prognostic and predictive modeling tasks. In this paper, we propose a generative framework, the Lung Swapping Autoencoder (LSAE), that learns factorized representations of a CXR to disentangle the texture factor from the structure factor. Specifically, by adversarial training, the LSAE is optimized to generate a hybrid image that preserves the lung shape in one image but inherits the lung texture of another. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the disentangled texture representation, we evaluate the texture encoder $Enc

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306115

ABSTRACT

We predict mechanical ventilation requirement and mortality using computational modeling of chest radiographs (CXRs) for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. This two-center, retrospective study analyzed 530 deidentified CXRs from 515 COVID-19 patients treated at Stony Brook University Hospital and Newark Beth Israel Medical Center between March and August 2020. DL and machine learning classifiers to predict mechanical ventilation requirement and mortality were trained and evaluated using patient CXRs. A novel radiomic embedding framework was also explored for outcome prediction. All results are compared against radiologist grading of CXRs (zone-wise expert severity scores). Radiomic and DL classification models had mAUCs of 0.78+/-0.02 and 0.81+/-0.04, compared with expert scores mAUCs of 0.75+/-0.02 and 0.79+/-0.05 for mechanical ventilation requirement and mortality prediction, respectively. Combined classifiers using both radiomics and expert severity scores resulted in mAUCs of 0.79+/-0.04 and 0.83+/-0.04 for each prediction task, demonstrating improvement over either artificial intelligence or radiologist interpretation alone. Our results also suggest instances where inclusion of radiomic features in DL improves model predictions, something that might be explored in other pathologies. The models proposed in this study and the prognostic information they provide might aid physician decision making and resource allocation during the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
J Clin Med ; 9(12)2020 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463718

ABSTRACT

Patients receiving mechanical ventilation for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related, moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) have mortality rates between 76-98%. The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to identify differences in prone ventilation effects on oxygenation, pulmonary infiltrates (as observed on chest X-ray (CXR)), and systemic inflammation in CARDS patients by survivorship and to identify baseline characteristics associated with survival after prone ventilation. The study cohort included 23 patients with moderate-to-severe CARDS who received prone ventilation for ≥16 h/day and was segmented by living status: living (n = 6) and deceased (n = 17). Immediately after prone ventilation, PaO2/FiO2 improved by 108% (p < 0.03) for the living and 150% (p < 3 × 10-4) for the deceased. However, the 48 h change in lung infiltrate severity in gravity-dependent lung zones was significantly better for the living than for the deceased (p < 0.02). In CXRs of the lower lungs before prone ventilation, we observed 5 patients with confluent infiltrates bilaterally, 12 patients with ground-glass opacities (GGOs) bilaterally, and 6 patients with mixed infiltrate patterns; 80% of patients with confluent infiltrates were alive vs. 8% of patients with GGOs. In conclusion, our small study indicates that CXRs may offer clinical utility in selecting patients with moderate-to-severe CARDS who will benefit from prone ventilation. Additionally, our study suggests that lung infiltrate severity may be a better indicator of patient disposition after prone ventilation than PaO2/FiO2.

5.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444130

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to predict mechanical ventilation requirement and mortality using computational modeling of chest radiographs (CXRs) for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. This two-center, retrospective study analyzed 530 deidentified CXRs from 515 COVID-19 patients treated at Stony Brook University Hospital and Newark Beth Israel Medical Center between March and August 2020. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), and random forest (RF) machine learning classifiers to predict mechanical ventilation requirement and mortality were trained and evaluated using radiomic features extracted from patients' CXRs. Deep learning (DL) approaches were also explored for the clinical outcome prediction task and a novel radiomic embedding framework was introduced. All results are compared against radiologist grading of CXRs (zone-wise expert severity scores). Radiomic classification models had mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (mAUCs) of 0.78 ± 0.05 (sensitivity = 0.72 ± 0.07, specificity = 0.72 ± 0.06) and 0.78 ± 0.06 (sensitivity = 0.70 ± 0.09, specificity = 0.73 ± 0.09), compared with expert scores mAUCs of 0.75 ± 0.02 (sensitivity = 0.67 ± 0.08, specificity = 0.69 ± 0.07) and 0.79 ± 0.05 (sensitivity = 0.69 ± 0.08, specificity = 0.76 ± 0.08) for mechanical ventilation requirement and mortality prediction, respectively. Classifiers using both expert severity scores and radiomic features for mechanical ventilation (mAUC = 0.79 ± 0.04, sensitivity = 0.71 ± 0.06, specificity = 0.71 ± 0.08) and mortality (mAUC = 0.83 ± 0.04, sensitivity = 0.79 ± 0.07, specificity = 0.74 ± 0.09) demonstrated improvement over either artificial intelligence or radiologist interpretation alone. Our results also suggest instances in which the inclusion of radiomic features in DL improves model predictions over DL alone. The models proposed in this study and the prognostic information they provide might aid physician decision making and efficient resource allocation during the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 9(12):4129, 2020.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-984453

ABSTRACT

Patients receiving mechanical ventilation for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related, moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) have mortality rates between 76–98%. The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to identify differences in prone ventilation effects on oxygenation, pulmonary infiltrates (as observed on chest X-ray (CXR)), and systemic inflammation in CARDS patients by survivorship and to identify baseline characteristics associated with survival after prone ventilation. The study cohort included 23 patients with moderate-to-severe CARDS who received prone ventilation for ≥16 h/day and was segmented by living status: living (n = 6) and deceased (n = 17). Immediately after prone ventilation, PaO2/FiO2 improved by 108% (p <0.03) for the living and 150% (p <3 ×10−4) for the deceased. However, the 48 h change in lung infiltrate severity in gravity-dependent lung zones was significantly better for the living than for the deceased (p <0.02). In CXRs of the lower lungs before prone ventilation, we observed 5 patients with confluent infiltrates bilaterally, 12 patients with ground-glass opacities (GGOs) bilaterally, and 6 patients with mixed infiltrate patterns;80% of patients with confluent infiltrates were alive vs. 8% of patients with GGOs. In conclusion, our small study indicates that CXRs may offer clinical utility in selecting patients with moderate-to-severe CARDS who will benefit from prone ventilation. Additionally, our study suggests that lung infiltrate severity may be a better indicator of patient disposition after prone ventilation than PaO2/FiO2.

7.
ArXiv ; 2020 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-822389

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To predict mechanical ventilation requirement and mortality using computational modeling of chest radiographs (CXR) for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. We also investigate the relative advantages of deep learning (DL), radiomics, and DL of radiomic-embedded feature maps in predicting these outcomes. METHODS: This two-center, retrospective study analyzed deidentified CXRs taken from 514 patients suspected of COVID-19 infection on presentation at Stony Brook University Hospital (SBUH) and Newark Beth Israel Medical Center (NBIMC) between the months of March and June 2020. A DL segmentation pipeline was developed to generate masks for both lung fields and artifacts for each CXR. Machine learning classifiers to predict mechanical ventilation requirement and mortality were trained and evaluated on 353 baseline CXRs taken from COVID-19 positive patients. A novel radiomic embedding framework is also explored for outcome prediction. RESULTS: Classification models for mechanical ventilation requirement (test N=154) and mortality (test N=190) had AUCs of up to 0.904 and 0.936, respectively. We also found that the inclusion of radiomic-embedded maps improved DL model predictions of clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the potential for computerized analysis of baseline CXR in predicting disease outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Our results also suggest that radiomic embedding improves DL models in medical image analysis, a technique that might be explored further in other pathologies. The models proposed in this study and the prognostic information they provide, complementary to other clinical data, might be used to aid physician decision making and resource allocation during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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