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1.
European journal of public health ; 32(Suppl 3), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2102438

ABSTRACT

Background Evidence about how population mental health has evolved from before and over the COVID-19 pandemic remains mixed, with impacts on mental health inequalities being unclear. We investigated changes in mental health and sociodemographic inequalities from before and across the first year of the pandemic. Methods Data from 11 UK longitudinal population-based studies with pre-pandemic measures of psychological distress were analysed, estimates pooled, and stratified by age, sex, ethnicity, country and lone household status. Trends in the prevalence of poor mental health were assessed before the pandemic (TP0) and across the pandemic at three time periods (initial lockdown (TP1), easing of restrictions (TP2), and a subsequent lockdown (TP3)). Results In total, 49,993 adult participants were analysed across the 11 cohort studies. There was an overall worsening in mental health from pre-pandemic scores across all three pandemic timepoints, (TP1 Standardised Mean Difference: 0.15 (95% CI: 0.06 - 0.25);TP2 SMD: 0.18 (0.09 - 0.27);TP3 SMD: 0.21 (0.10 - 0.32)) with no evidence of improvement during the period of eased lockdown restrictions in summer 2020. Changes from pre-pandemic psychological distress were higher in females during the pandemic (TP3 SMD: 0.23 (0.11 - 0.35)), amongst those with degree-level education (TP3 SMD: 0.26 (0.14 - 0.38)), and adults aged 25-44 years. We did not find evidence of changes in distress differing by ethnicity, lone household status or UK nation. Conclusions The substantial deterioration in mental health seen in the UK during the first lockdown did not reverse when lockdown lifted and a sustained worsening was observed across the pandemic. Mental health declines have been unequal across the population and these results have implications for policy, including the need for specific investment for support for those most affected to mitigate the effects of the pandemic and measures to reduce inequalities within these specific groups. Key messages • A sustained deterioration in mental health was observed from before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, and did not recover when social restrictions were eased. • Deterioration in mental health varied by sociodemographic factors, namely age, sex, and education, and highlights a need for improved mental health care provision to minimise widening inequalities.

2.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):919, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063543

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) created a research variance allowing for transplantation of HIV+ donor kidneys and livers into HIV+ recipients after passage of the HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act legislation in 2013 and subsequent published research criteria in November 2015. In May 2020 the OPTN modified the variance to include all solid organs. Method(s): The OPTN database was used to analyze temporal trends in waiting list registrations, HIV+ donors, HOPE transplant recipients, and program participation in the OPTN HOPE Act variance. HIV+ donors were identified through HIV serology/ NAT fields collected by the OPTN;recipients of these organs are HOPE recipients. Result(s): Transplant program participation saw consistent growth but has remained stable for the two years (Fig A). Despite this, patient demand for HOPE kidneys has been simultaneously declining, perhaps driven by a decline in listings related to Hypertensive Nephrosclerosis and DM Type II (listings for HIV Nephropathy remained stable), while liver demand remains low but stable (Fig B). Concurrently, there has been a consistent volume of recovered HIV+ donors and organs transplanted (Fig C, D). Transplant volume recently exceeded 300 organs transplanted (300 deceased donor, 3 living donor), largely driven by kidney (236 kidney, 67 liver;11 SLK) from 187 recovered HIV+ donors. Living donation of HIV+ organs remains limited to kidney. Among HIV+ deceased donors, the kidney discard rate was 32% while the liver discard rate was 4%. Twenty-nine recovered deceased donors had no organs transplanted, and associated common discard reasons for these donors were exhausted match runs and biopsy findings. Conclusion(s): The OPTN database does not include HIV status at listing;therefore, the decline in demand cannot be attributed to potential access changes for HIV+ patients, but may be related to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have not noticeably affected HOPE Act transplant volumes, highlighting the resiliency of the US transplant system. Based on consistent activity and positive data and safety analyses through five years, the OPTN recommended removal of the research criteria as a potential barrier to expanded utilization of the HOPE Act to HHS, in turn making HIV-to-HIV transplantation standard of care;the result of that recommendation is pending. (Figure Presented).

3.
Annals of Clinical Psychiatry ; 34(3):15-16, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2030805

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cotard syndrome is a rare neuropsychiatric condition in which individuals have delusions of being deceased or losing their organs. It is often seen in patients with severe depression and is associated with catatonia.1 Neurosyphilis is a severe sequelae of untreated treponema pallidum infection in which the paretic form of this disorder commonly has a psychiatric presentation. 2 We present a rare case of Cotard syndrome in a patient with neurosyphilis with successful treatment. OBJECTIVE: To understand Cotard syndrome and underlying neuropsychiatric conditions, and characterize the diagnosis and management of psychiatric symptoms in a patient with neurosyphilis. METHODS: Review of a case using electronic medical records and relevant literature. Key terms searched: 'Cotard syndrome,' 'neurosyphilis,' 'COVID-19 infection' using Medscape and Google Scholar. RESULTS: We present a 49-year-old male with a history of alcohol use disorder in remission, depression, and history of COVID-19 (asymptomatic) 6 months prior. The patient presented to the emergency department for recent changes in behavior. He was agitated, threatening, and required chemical and physical restraint. Evaluation was notable for illogical thought processes with somatic delusions. He repeatedly stated, 'I am already dead, my organs have died,' and had an episode of catatonia. All tests including drug screen and COVID-19 were negative. Rapid plasma regain (RPR) titer was 1:64. Neurology and Infectious Disease were consulted. Lumbar puncture revealed positive venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) titer of 1:4. The patient was diagnosed with neurosyphilis and major depressive disorder with psychosis with Cotard syndrome. He was treated with intravenous (IV) penicillin G and was discharged on oral mirtazapine 30 mg and olanzapine 20 mg nightly at bedtime, oral donepezil 5 mg daily, thiamine, and folate. CONCLUSIONS: Cotard syndrome is often seen in depression with psychotic features.1 Neurosyphilis can present with depression, anxiety, psychosis, and dementia. Early identification is the key for successful treatment. This is a unique case of neurosyphilis with features of Cotard syndrome in a patient with a history of depression with treatment noncompliance. Studies show that quetiapine and risperidone improve psychosis in neurosyphilis.5 In this case, neurosyphilis was successfully treated with IV penicillin G for 2 weeks. The patient was also tried on antipsychotics and mood stabilizers ' specifically aripiprazole, valproic acid, and haloperidol ' and was eventually stabilized on oral olanzapine 20 mg taken nightly at bedtime. Our differential diagnosis also included COVID-19 delirium with Cotard syndrome, which was ruled out due to a negative COVID test. To our knowledge, there are 2 cases of COVID-19 delirium with Cotard syndrome.6 We present this case to inform clinicians of rare manifestations of neurosyphilis in patients with comorbid psychiatric illness and to advance research into treatment options for psychosis in neurosyphilis.

4.
Neuromodulation ; 25(5):S43-S44, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1937039

ABSTRACT

Introduction: A novel spinal cord stimulation (SCS) system with a battery-free micro-implantable pulse generator (mIPG;Nalu Medical, Inc. CA, USA) is available for the treatment of intractable chronic pain. The system utilizes an external power source that bi-directionally communicates with the mIPG (∼1.5 cc volume). Methods: A prospective, multi-center clinical study was initiated to confirm the safety and performance of this novel system, in the treatment of trunk and limb intractable chronic pain. Specifically, subjects with leg(s) and/or back pain, meeting eligibility criteria were recruited and consented into the study. Subjects underwent a SCS trial utilizing a menu of therapy options, including tonic and the novel pulsed stimulation pattern (PSP) therapy. Eligible subjects received the permanent implant and were followed-up for up to 12-months from activation. Due to global COVID-19 restrictions, subjects were moved into a long-term follow-up (LTFU) phase, with study visits planned every 6-months, for an additional 2-years from their last visit. This reports on the long-term clinical and functional (depression, activities of daily living, overall change in quality of life) outcomes. The study was approved by an independent Ethics Committee and conducted in compliance with local regulations. Results: Twenty-five (25) intractable chronic back and/or leg pain subjects, using the PSP therapy, passed a screening and trial phase with ≥50% pain reduction in leg(s) and/or back and moved into the long-term implant phase of the study. Of these 25 subjects, 13 subjects have currently completed an average of 22-months follow-up;the average pain reduction was 73% (n=12) in the leg and 64% (n=11) in the back, from baseline to this time point. The responder rate (≥50% pain relief) was 92% in the leg (11/12) and 64% (7/11) in the back. In addition, all subjects wore the external power source via an adhesive clip and rated both its average comfort and ease of use as <1 on an 11-point scale (0=Very Comfortable, 10=Very Uncomfortable;0=Very Easy, 10=Very Difficult). The average percent improvement on the Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI) was 40% (n=13) from screening to 22-months;the average improvement in Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was 34% (n=13) at this time point. Sixty-nine percent (69%;9/13) of subjects indicated “very much improved” on the Patient Global Impression of Change. Conclusion: These results continue to demonstrate the favorable performance of this novel, battery-free, externally-powered micro-implantable SCS through 22-months post implantation. Further investigation is warranted to confirm these preliminary findings. Disclosure: Paul Verrills, FAFMM GDMM (Hons) MM (Pain Medicine) FIPP AMA: Abbott: Consulting Fee: Self, Abbott: Speakers Bureau: Self, Nalu: Ownership Interest - Future Stock Options: Self, Nalu: Contracted Research: Self, Nevro: Contracted Research: Self, Saluda: Contracted Research: Self, Nalu: Speakers Bureau: Self, Biotronik: Consulting Fee: Self, Presidio: Contracted Research: Self, John Salmon, MBBS: None, Dan Bates, MBBS: None, James Yu, MD: None, Bruce Mitchell, MD: None, Neels Du Toit, MBChB: None, Matthew Green, MD: None, Murray Taverner, MBBS: None, Vahid Mohabbati, MD: None, Peter Staats, MBA,MD: Saluda Medical: Consulting Fee: Self, Grunenthal: Royalty:, Medtronic: Fees for Non-CME/CE Services (e.g. advisor):, electroCore: Employee:, SPR therapeutics: Ownership Interest:, Nalu: Fees for Non-CME/CE Services (e.g. advisor):, Gary Heit, MD, PhD: Nalu Medical Inc: Consultant: Self, Robert Levy, MD, PhD: Nalu: Ownership Interest:, Saluda: Ownership Interest:, James Makous, PhD: Nalu Medical: Consulting Fee:, Nalu Medical: Ownership Interest:

5.
Journal of Social Policy ; : 25, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1927014

ABSTRACT

Although reduced working time and furlough policy initiatives are widely regarded as important for economic and business reasons, little is known about their impacts on workers' mental health at the onset of COVID-19 pandemic. Using data from the UK Household Longitudinal Panel Study data from 2018 to February 2020 and April 2020 and change score analysis, this study aims to compare mental health changes between those who worked reduced hours, were furloughed and left/lost paid work. The results suggest that at the onset of COVID-19 reduced working time and furlough can protect workers' mental health, but only for men not for women. The gender differences remain significant even after controlling for housework and childcare responsibilities at the onset of COVID-19. These results highlight the importance of distributing paid work more equitably and formulating gender-sensitive labour market policies in protection of workers' mental health.

6.
Journal for Nature Conservation ; : 126237, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1914644

ABSTRACT

Multi-decadal datasets for endangered species that track both populations and performance of management interventions are rare. One such dataset is for the critically endangered Spotted handfish, a species which has been used as a conservation model for the most endangered of the marine bony fish families the Brachionichthyidae. We assessed a 23-year, multi-site, time-series of population density surveys for the spotted handfish as well as a conservation intervention, the planting of ∼14,000 artificial spawning habitats (ASH). Data ownership spanned multiple Principal Investigators (PIs) and key data and covariates, such as monitoring and interventions, were often documented within personal files and difficult to access grey literature. We consolidated and curated these data, identifying gaps in the time-series and their causes and isolating confounding factors before we assessed population trends and the effectiveness of ASH planting. Both funding gaps and the 2020 Covid-19 lockdown produced breaks in the time-series. Breeding season observations mostly occurred in the early part of the dataset and there was also a change in method that needed to be considered when interpretating of the time-series. There was an overall decline in fish observed between 1997-2019 but, at least since 2014, there has been stabilisation of the population. Local populations of spotted handfish can either be highly dynamic or relatively stable but population increases were linked to the long-running, conservation intervention of planting ASH. As local populations can be dynamic, the functional life span of the ASH is limited and threats to the species - chronic, stochastic and climate - are ongoing, spotted handfish may be a ‘conservation reliant’ species that require annual site-specific monitoring, insitu interventions and existu captive husbandry.

7.
Frontiers in Communication ; 7, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1834366

ABSTRACT

Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) associated with public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) and response pose major challenges to the scientific community and civil society because a multistakeholder and interdisciplinary methodology is needed to foster public engagement. In 2017, within “Action plan on Science in Society related issues in Epidemics and Total pandemics”, twenty-three initiatives in eleven cities—Athens, Brussels, Bucharest, Dublin, Geneva, Haifa, Lyon, Milan, Oslo, Rome, and Sofia—represented effective opportunities for Mobilization and Mutual Learning on RRI issues in the matter of PHEP with different community-level groups. These experiences show that to effectively address a discourse on RRI-related issues in PHEP it is necessary to engage the local population and stakeholders, which is challenging because of needed competencies and resources. Under coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we are proven that such a diversified multistakeholder engagement on RRI related to PHEP locally needs further elaboration and practical development. Copyright © 2022 Possenti, De Mei, Kurchatova, Green, Drager, Villa, d'Onofrio, Saadatian-Elahi, Moore, Brattekas, Karnaki, Beresniak, Popa and Greco.

8.
The Journal of Law and Religion ; 37(1):5-8, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1740363

ABSTRACT

Heir to the call of Protestant Reformer Martin Luther (the subject of an article in this issue) to levy the power of conscience against tyrannical regimes both sacred and secular, Lewis had to tone down his address that was the warm-up to that of Martin Luther King Jr. at the 1963 March on Washington. [...]it was the case of Employment Division v. Smith, 494 U.S. 872 (1990), a dispute over Native Americans’ freedom to ingest peyote in a manner consistent with their traditional religious rituals that narrowed the scope of free exercise under the First Amendment and spawned federal, state, and international religious freedom restoration acts, in what was seen by many law and religion observers at the time, as a necessary rebalancing of free exercise against disestablishment principles. [...]in its recent cases, the US Supreme Court has seemed to throw disestablishment to the wind, affording religious claimants—but almost never indigenous claimants—accommodations and exceptions in the name of religious freedom that come perilously close to establishment in the eyes of some observers and risk the Court's becoming a rubber stamp for religion, concerns for equality and nondiscrimination notwithstanding. In these new religious freedom cases, as noted astutely by my fellow co-editor Cathleen Kaveny, the claimant's challenge is not always limited to the particular ways by which the state regulates education, health, employment, and other sectors, but to the authority of the state to mandate at all.3 After all, as Movsesian observes, the development of COVID-19–related religion jurisprudence—part of the larger field of what is being called “epidemic law” elsewhere—is occurring in the context of cultural and political divides that make “consensual resolution of conflicts over religious freedom increasingly problematic, and sometimes impossible, even during a once-in-a-lifetime pandemic.”

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312358

ABSTRACT

A country-wide `lock-down' imposed on the 23red March 2020 in the UK had a significant impact on the UK's anthropogenic movements. The closure of work-places and restrictions imposed on visiting friends and family has radically reduced the amount of traffic on the roads. In this short communication, we use data from UK air-quality sensors to quantify air pollution trends pre- and post-lock-down. While we detect large falls in nitrogen dioxide at levels not seen over the last decade, trends in other pollutants were mixed especially when compared to historical data. It suggests that the implication that lock-down was beneficial for the environment was not so obvious.

13.
Blood ; 138:2626, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582154

ABSTRACT

Background: Dysfunction of T cells, NK cells and other immune subsets is common in patients (pts) with CLL. Venetoclax (VEN), a BCL-2 inhibitor and obinutuzumab (OBIN), a CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) are approved for pts with CLL (Fischer, NEJM 2019). Atezolizumab, a PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor (CPI), is approved for melanoma, lung cancer and other solid tumors. Preclinical studies showed synergy of VEN and CD20 mAb with CPI (Kohlhapp, Cancer Discovery 2021;Westin, Lancet Oncology 2014). Clinical studies showed activity of PD1 inhibition in pts with Richter's transformation, but not CLL (Ding, Blood 2017;Jain, ASH 2018). To our knowledge, no prior study has evaluated PD-L1 inhibition in pts with CLL, nor combined CPI, VEN and OBIN. We hypothesized that combined VEN, OBIN and atezolizumab will be synergistic. Methods: This is an investigator-initiated Phase II trial of combined VEN, OBIN and atezolizumab in pts with previously untreated CLL meeting 2008 IWCLL treatment criteria (NCT02846623). Eligibility criteria included age ≥18 years, adequate organ function (total bilirubin ≤1.5 x ULN, ALT and AST ≤2.5 x ULN, creatinine ≤1.5 x ULN). OBIN was given at a flat dose of 100mg IV Cycle (C)1 Day (D)1, 900 mg C1D2, 1000mg on C1D8, 1000mg on C1D15 and then 1000mg on C2-9 D1. Atezolizumab was given at a flat dose of 1680 mg IV (split over 2 days) on C1D3-4 and then C2-9D1-2. VEN was initiated at the start of C3 with the weekly dose-escalation (20mg daily to a target dose of 400mg daily) and continued daily until end of C14 (total 12 cycles of VEN). All pts stopped therapy at the end of C14. Response assessments were done with CT imaging and bone marrow aspirate/biopsy with MRD assessment (multi-color flow cytometry;sensitivity 10 -4) at the end of C2 (prior to VEN initiation), end of C6, end of C9, and end of C14. Results: From July 2019 to December 2020, a total of 26 pts were enrolled. The median age was 60 years (range, 21-74). The baseline characteristics are shown in Table 1. A total of 19/26 (73%) had unmutated IGHV gene. Though the study did not restrict pts with del(17p) or mutated TP53, no pt in the current cohort had del(17p)/ mutated TP53. A total of 14 (54%) pts had a baseline lymph node >5cm. The median follow-up is 13.3 months. One pt came off study in C1 (details below). A total of 25 pts initiated VEN. The TLS risk categories at the start of C1 were high (n=9, 36%), medium (n=12, 48%), and low (n=4, 16%). After 2 cycles of OBIN and atezolizumab (prior to VEN initiation), the majority of pts had downgrading of TLS risk category [high (n=2, 8%), medium (n=3, 12%), and low (n=20, 80%)]. After C6 (about 3 cycles of VEN 400mg daily), bone marrow undetectable (U)-MRD rate was 19/25 (76%);4/25 (16%) had low+ MRD and 2/25 (8%) had high+ MRD. After C9 (about 6 cycles of VEN 400mg daily), among the 21 pts (4 pts have not reached this time-point), the bone marrow U-MRD rate was 18/21 (86%);2/21 (10%) had low+ MRD and 1/21 (5%) had high+ MRD. A total of 14 pts completed C14 (9 pts have not reached this time-point;2 pts came off study prior to completing C14, details below);13/14 (93%) achieved bone marrow U-MRD and 1/14 (7%) has low+ MRD. No patient had disease progression or MRD relapse so far. One pt died (details below). Three pts came off study (one developed retroperitoneal hematoma after receiving enoxaparin for DVT in C1;one developed CPI-induced colitis and removed from the study in C10;one died from COVID-19 pneumonia in C14 while in bone marrow U-MRD remission). Grade 3-4 neutropenia occurred in 14/26 (54%) pts. Grade 3 thrombocytopenia occurred in 5/26 (19%) pts;no pt had G4 thrombocytopenia. A total of 4 pts developed CPI-induced toxicities (colitis, G3, n=1;mucositis, G3, n=1;nephritis, G2, n=1;myositis, G2, n=1). A total of 10/25 (40%) pts had dose reduction of VEN, the majority due to neutropenia. Atezolizumab was discontinued early in 3 pts due to CPI-induced toxicities. Laboratory correlative studies including scRNAseq and CyTOF are ongoing. Conclusions: Treatment with combined VE , OBIN and atezolizumab leads to high rate of early U-MRD remission with 76% bone marrow U-MRD remission at the end of C6 (about 3 cycles of VEN 400mg daily). Four pts had CPI-induced toxicities. The enrollment in this trial continues and updated data and correlative studies will be presented at the ASH meeting. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Jain: Pfizer: Research Funding;Bristol Myers Squibb: Honoraria, Research Funding;Precision Biosciences: Honoraria, Research Funding;Aprea Therapeutics: Research Funding;AstraZeneca: Honoraria, Research Funding;Servier: Honoraria, Research Funding;Incyte: Research Funding;Pharmacyclics: Research Funding;Genentech: Honoraria, Research Funding;AbbVie: Honoraria, Research Funding;TG Therapeutics: Honoraria;Janssen: Honoraria;Beigene: Honoraria;Fate Therapeutics: Research Funding;Adaptive Biotechnologies: Honoraria, Research Funding;Cellectis: Honoraria, Research Funding;ADC Therapeutics: Honoraria, Research Funding. Ferrajoli: Janssen: Other: Advisory Board;AstraZeneca: Other: Advisory Board, Research Funding;BeiGene: Other: Advisory Board, Research Funding. Yilmaz: Daiichi-Sankyo: Research Funding;Pfizer: Research Funding. Thompson: AbbVie: Other: Institution: Advisory/Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Grant/Funding;Gilead: Other: Institution: Advisory/Consultancy, Honoraria;Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria;Pharmacyclics: Other: Institution: Advisory/Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Grant/Funding;Adaptive Biotechnologies: Other: Institution: Advisory/Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Grant/Funding, Expert Testimony;Genentech: Other: Institution: Advisory/Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Grant/Funding;Amgen: Other: Institution: Honoraria, Research Grant/Funding. Konopleva: Novartis: Other: research funding pending, Patents & Royalties: intellectual property rights;Reata Pharmaceuticals: Current holder of stock options in a privately-held company, Patents & Royalties: intellectual property rights;Eli Lilly: Patents & Royalties: intellectual property rights, Research Funding;KisoJi: Research Funding;Stemline Therapeutics: Research Funding;Sanofi: Other: grant support, Research Funding;Rafael Pharmaceuticals: Other: grant support, Research Funding;AstraZeneca: Other: grant support, Research Funding;Cellectis: Other: grant support;F. Hoffmann-La Roche: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: grant support;Calithera: Other: grant support, Research Funding;Ascentage: Other: grant support, Research Funding;Ablynx: Other: grant support, Research Funding;Genentech: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: grant support, Research Funding;Forty Seven: Other: grant support, Research Funding;AbbVie: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Grant Support, Research Funding;Agios: Other: grant support, Research Funding. Neelapu: Takeda Pharmaceuticals and related to cell therapy: Patents & Royalties;Kite, a Gilead Company, Bristol Myers Squibb, Merck, Poseida, Cellectis, Celgene, Karus Therapeutics, Unum Therapeutics (Cogent Biosciences), Allogene, Precision BioSciences, Acerta and Adicet Bio: Research Funding;Kite, a Gilead Company, Merck, Bristol Myers Squibb, Novartis, Celgene, Pfizer, Allogene, Kuur, Incyte, Precision BioSciences, Legend, Adicet Bio, Calibr, and Unum Therapeutics: Other: personal fees;Kite, a Gilead Company, Merck, Bristol Myers Squibb, Novartis, Celgene, Pfizer, Allogene Therapeutics, Cell Medica/Kuur, Incyte, Precision Biosciences, Legend Biotech, Adicet Bio, Calibr, Unum Therapeutics and Bluebird Bio: Honoraria. Takahashi: Symbio Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Celgene/BMS: Consultancy;Novartis: Consultancy;GSK: Consultancy. Burger: TG Therapeutics: Other: Travel/Accommodations/Expenses, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau;Beigene: Research Funding, Speakers Bureau;Novartis: Other: Travel/Accommodations/Expenses, Speakers Bureau;Pharmacyclics LLC: Consultancy, Other: Travel/Accommodations/Expenses, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau;Gilead: Consultancy, Other: Travel/Accommodations/Expenses, Rese rch Funding, Speakers Bureau;AstraZeneca: Consultancy;Janssen: Consultancy, Other: Travel/Accommodations/Expenses, Speakers Bureau. Khoury: Stemline Therapeutics: Research Funding;Kiromic: Research Funding;Angle: Research Funding. Kantarjian: Jazz: Research Funding;NOVA Research: Honoraria;Novartis: Honoraria, Research Funding;KAHR Medical Ltd: Honoraria;Precision Biosciences: Honoraria;Amgen: Honoraria, Research Funding;Astra Zeneca: Honoraria;AbbVie: Honoraria, Research Funding;Ipsen Pharmaceuticals: Honoraria;Pfizer: Honoraria, Research Funding;Astellas Health: Honoraria;Aptitude Health: Honoraria;Taiho Pharmaceutical Canada: Honoraria;Immunogen: Research Funding;Daiichi-Sankyo: Research Funding;BMS: Research Funding;Ascentage: Research Funding. Wierda: Karyopharm: Research Funding;Miragen: Research Funding;Acerta Pharma Inc.: Research Funding;Cyclacel: Research Funding;Oncternal Therapeutics, Inc.: Research Funding;Pharmacyclics LLC, an AbbVie Company: Research Funding;Sunesis: Research Funding;Juno Therapeutics: Research Funding;Gilead Sciences: Research Funding;AstraZeneca: Research Funding;Genentech: Research Funding;Loxo Oncology, Inc.: Research Funding;Janssen: Research Funding;Xencor: Research Funding;GSK/Novartis: Research Funding;KITE Pharma: Research Funding;Genzyme Corporation: Consultancy;AbbVie: Research Funding. OffLabel Disclosure: Atezolizumab is not approved for CLL

16.
European Journal of Public Health ; 31, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1514555

ABSTRACT

Disruptions to economic activity such as job loss can impact substance use behaviours. During the COVID-19 pandemic many countries implemented a furlough scheme to prevent job loss. We examine how furlough was associated with respondents' substance use behaviours in the initial stages of the pandemic in the UK. Data were from over 27,000 participants in eight adult longitudinal surveys. Participants self-reported economic activity (furlough or job loss vs stable employment) and smoking (any current), vaping (any current) and drinking alcohol (>4 days/week or 5+ drinks per typical occasion) both before and during the initial stages of the pandemic. Changes in frequency/quantity of substance use were also examined. Risk ratios were estimated within each study using modified Poisson regression, adjusting for a range of potential confounders, including pre-pandemic behaviour (though this was excluded in analyses of behaviour change). Findings were synthesised using a random effects meta-analysis. Compared to stable employment, participation in the furlough scheme was associated with smoking (risk ratio: 1.24 [95% CI: 1.08-1.42];I2=0%) while job loss was associated with vaping (1.72 [1.10-2.71];I2=25%) and heavier drinking (1.21 [1.02-1.43];I2=2%), but these associations were largely accounted for by confounders (adjusted risk ratios: smoking: 1.06 [0.96-1.16];I2=8%;vaping: 1.55 [0.93-2.56];I2=42%;and drinking: 1.03 [0.89-1.20];I2=35%). Furlough was associated with drinking more than before the pandemic (adjusted risk ratio: 1.15 [1.00-1.33];I2=70%), and with increases in vaping behaviour (1.54 [1.14-2.07];I2=0%). Increased drinking associated with furlough is concerning, while increased vaping likely represents moves to reduce smoking and may be positive.

17.
European Journal of Public Health ; 31, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1514554

ABSTRACT

The recent Covid-19 pandemic, and its mitigations, are expected to have long-term consequences on the health and health behaviours. In an effort to reduce the effect of lockdown on the economy, the UK government launched their Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme (commonly known as furlough) in March 2020, which entitled employees who were unable to work to 80% of their monthly pay up to a cap of £2,500. We investigated the association between changes in economic activity and health behaviours of the working-age participants of eight longitudinal studies, during the early stages of the pandemic. Specifically, we investigate the post-pandemic levels, and the pre-to-post pandemic change, in fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and sleeping patterns. We obtained study-specific estimates using modified Poisson regression, adjusting for a comparable set of potential confounders, and combined results in a random-effects meta-analyses. Compared to those who continually worked, furloughed workers were more likely to report an increase in their fruit and vegetable consumption (1.22 [1.04-1.43];I2 = 52%), and an increase in their physical activity (1.19 [1.04-1.35];I2 = 73%). However, furlough appears to have a polarizing effect on sleeping patterns (change from 6 - 9 h to outside this range: 1.46 [1.03, 2.08];I2 = 75%;change from outside of the 6 -9 h to within this range: 1.78 [1.03, 3.07];I2 = 75%), especially amongst women and those with no higher education degree. This polarization is partially explained by the age of the survey participants, indicating that sleeping patterns of the younger cohorts were more adversely affected. Furlough schemes may be associated with better diet and more physical activity, while inconsistent effects on sleeping patterns may place younger generations at particular risk of atypical sleep.

18.
European Journal of Public Health ; 31, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1514553

ABSTRACT

Disruptions related to the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated virus suppression measures have affected many worldwide but those already suffering from psychological distress may have been especially vulnerable. We investigated associations between pre-pandemic psychological distress and disruptions to healthcare, economic activity, housing, and cumulative disruptions. Data were from 59,482 participants in 12 UK longitudinal adult population surveys with both pre-pandemic and COVID-19 surveys. Participants self-reported disruptions since the start of the pandemic to: healthcare (medication access, procedures, or appointments);economic activity (negative changes in employment, income or working hours);and housing (change of address or household composition). Logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between pre-pandemic standardised psychological distress scores and disruption outcomes. Findings were synthesised using a random effects meta-analysis with restricted maximum likelihood. Approximately one to two thirds of study participants experienced some form of disruption during the pandemic. One standard deviation higher pre-pandemic psychological distress was associated with: increased odds of any healthcare disruption (odds ratio: 1.30 [95% CI: 1.20-1.40];I2: 65%);increased odds of experiencing any economic disruption (1.11 [1.03-1.16];I2: 61%);no associations with housing disruptions;and increased likelihood of experiencing a disruption in at least two domains (1.25 [1.18-1.32];I2: 38%) or one domain (1.11 [1.07-1.16];I2: 32%) compared to no disruptions. Associations did not differ by sex, ethnicity, education, or age. Individuals suffering from psychological distress pre-pandemic may need additional support to manage stressful life disruptions. Considering mental ill-health was already unequally distributed in the UK population, this may exacerbate existing inequalities related to sex, ethnicity, education and age.

19.
European Journal of Public Health ; 31, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1514552

ABSTRACT

Like other health systems worldwide, the UK, the National Health Service (NHS) has faced major disruptions due to high Covid-19 burden and repeated lockdown measures. These disruptions can have both short and long-term health impacts. The NHS provides free healthcare and prioritises equity of delivery, but despite this, inequalities in access to health care remain and it is plausible that pandemic-related disruptions affect different groups disproportionally, thus widening health inequalities. This paper investigates associations between well-established axes of health inequality (sex, age, social class, education and ethnicity) and self-reported health care disruptions (medication access, procedures, or appointments) in over 65,000 participants across eleven longitudinal studies in the UK. Participants reported disruptions from March 2020 through to as late as January 2021. We obtained study-specific estimates using logistic regression models and combined them in a random-effects meta-analysis. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity where relevant. Between 10.1% (Millennium Cohort Study) and 31.8 % (Understanding Society) of study participants reported experiencing health care disruptions. Results show that females (OR: 1.27 [95%CI: 1.15,1.4];I2=56%), older participants (e.g. OR: 1.39 [1.13,1.72];I2=77% for 65-75y vs 45-54y), and non-white ethnic minorities (OR: 1.17 [1.02,1.34];I2=0% vs white) were more likely to report healthcare disruptions. Those in a more disadvantaged social class (e.g. OR: 1.18 [1.08, 1.21];I2=0% for manual/routine vs managerial/professional) were also more likely to report healthcare disruptions, but no clear differences were observed for education. Our findings highlight inequities in healthcare disruptions, which, if unaddressed, could contribute to the maintenance or widening of existing health inequalities.

20.
BJS Open ; 5(SUPPL 1):i23, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1493722

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Observational study exploring the differences between the number and severity of mental health presentations to a Children's Emergency Department over a 2-month period during the Covid-19 Pandemic (2020) compared to the same months in 2019. Additionally, exploration of the possible impact of the introduction of a hotline giving clinicians access to 24/7 Children's and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) advice. Methods: Identification of mental health presentations in children ≤ 16 years from coded admission data. Data collected included basic demographics, presenting complaint, final diagnosis, mental health Risk Assessment Matrix (RAM) outcome and timings of review, referral and discharge. Results: 141 cases were examined (2019-n=79, 2020-n=62). During the Covid-19 pandemic 18.9% (n=10) scored high on the RAM and 64.2% (n=34) scored moderate whilst in 2019, 17.2% (n=11) scored high on the RAM and 69.4% (n=38) scored moderate. 2019 data saw 25.3% (n=20) discharged directly compared to 37.1% (n=23) in 2020. In 2020, 26 (42.6%) of CAMHS reviews were via telephone compared to nine (12.3%) in 2019. Overnight (20:00-08:00), in 2019, there were 37 (46.8%) presentations, 86.5% (n=32) of which required admission and in 2020 there were 36 (58.1%) where 75.0% (n=27) required admission. Conclusion: A higher number of presentations was not seen in the CED despite the potentially adverse psychological effects caused by enforced isolation due to Covid-19. The provision of a 24/7 hotline may have contributed to clinician's decision to discharge, aiding a higher number of out of hours discharges.

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