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European Stroke Journal ; 7(1 SUPPL):452, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928127


Background and aims: To observe how the Covid-19 pandemic affected trends in referrals to our tertiary hyperacute stroke unit (HASU). Methods: Referrals from emergency departments in hospitals within our sector were made electronically using the online 'Refer-A-Patient' system. We reviewed 150 referrals made post-Covid, from 16th March 2020 (when Covid restrictions were first introduced in the UK) until June 2020. These were compared with 150 referrals made pre-Covid, between March and June in 2019. Results: The patients in the pre-Covid referral cohort were significantly older on average than the post-Covid referral cohort (p=0.0476);there were more referrals under the age of 50, and fewer over the age of 80, post-Covid. We accepted significantly fewer patients for transfer post-Covid compared with pre-Covid (21% vs. 43% respectively, p=0.0001). The percentage of cases with a confirmed stroke diagnosis post-transfer was marginally higher post-Covid than pre-Covid (69% vs. 59% respectively, p=0.2443). Importantly, of the patients not accepted for transfer post-Covid, none had a subsequent stroke diagnosis. Conclusions: The Covid-19 pandemic seems to have led to a more selective approach in accepting referrals for transfer. This in turn appears to have reduced our stroke mimic rate. This poses an argument that there are benefits in being more selective. Video triage is an emerging tool, which can be used in emergency departments to aid the accuracy of selection for transfer and warrants further evaluation.

Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ; 36(SUPPL 1):i245-i246, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1402418


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Initial WHO guidance advised cautious fluid administration for patients with COVID-19 due to concern about the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, as the pandemic unfolded it became apparent that patients who were admitted to hospital had high rates of AKI and this initiated a change in local clinical guidelines during early April 2020. We aimed to ascertain the impact of judicious intravenous fluid use on mortality, length of hospitalisation and AKI. METHOD: An observational cohort study of 158 adults admitted with confirmed SARS-Cov-2 between 18th March and 9th May 2020 was conducted in a teaching hospital and designated centre for infectious diseases, London, UK. Key clinical and demographic data collected included clinical severity markers on admission, biochemical and haematological parameters as well as radiological findings. Primary outcomes were inpatient mortality, mortality at 6-weeks post discharge, length of hospitalisation and intensive care (ICU) admission. We also measured requirement for kidney replacement therapy (KRT) and AKI recovery rate at discharge. Using tests of difference, we compared key outcomes between patients treated with varying fluid regimens and then identified risk factors for AKI and mortality using multivariate logistic regression with results expressed as odds ratios (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: The median age was 74.4 (IQR 59.90 - 84.35) years, 66% were male, 53% white with hypertension and diabetes being the commonest co-morbidities. The median duration of illness prior to admission was 7 days (IQR 2 - 10) with respiratory symptoms and fever most prevalent. The people who presented with AKI on admission were more likely to receive fluids (34% vs 15%, p=0.02). 118 patients (75%) received fluids within 24-hours of admission with no difference in volume administered after local guidance change (p=0.78). Comparing patients receiving fluids with those who did not, we observed no difference in mortality (p=0.97), duration of hospital stays (p=0.26) or requirement for ICU admission (p=0.70). 18% died as an inpatient, and 52 patients were either admitted with or developed AKI. Of these 52 patients, 43 received fluids and 9 did not with no difference in KRT requirement (p=0.34), mortality (p=0.50) or AKI recovery (p=0.63). Peak AKI stage was greater among participants who received fluids though stage of AKI at presentation was also greater (p=0.04). Mortality rate in patients with an AKI is higher compared to overall inpatient mortality (31% vs 18%). Of the 36 patients with AKI (Figure Presnted) who were discharged home, 25 patients (69.4%) had renal recovery by the time of discharge. Increasing age and clinical severity on admission were associated with higher mortality (see Figure 1). Older age was associated with 34 - 53 times higher risk of death compared with those aged ≥ 65 years (age 76 - 85 years: OR 34.26, 95% CI: 3.94 - 297.48, p=0.001;age > 85 years: OR 53.07, 95% CI: 5.23 - 539.03, p=0.001). Patients with NEWS2 >4 on admission has 5-fold increased risk of death than those with a score ≥4 (OR 5.26, 95% CI: 1.32 - 20.92). Black ethnicity was associated with a 16-fold increased risk of developing AKI (OR 15.86, 95% CI: 1.67 - 150.99). CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the impact of fluid management on inpatient mortality as well as on renal-associated outcomes of COVID-19 admission. Fluid administration regimen did not have an impact on mortality, length of hospitalisation or ICU admission, nor did it affect renal outcomes. Given the high rates of AKI and KRT in COVID-19 disease, early fluid administration is likely to be an important cornerstone of future management. Further adequately powered prospective studies are required to identify whether early fluid administration can reduce renal injury.