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1.
Nature ; 618(7963): 144-150, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318679

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is lethal in 88% of patients1, yet harbours mutation-derived T cell neoantigens that are suitable for vaccines 2,3. Here in a phase I trial of adjuvant autogene cevumeran, an individualized neoantigen vaccine based on uridine mRNA-lipoplex nanoparticles, we synthesized mRNA neoantigen vaccines in real time from surgically resected PDAC tumours. After surgery, we sequentially administered atezolizumab (an anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy), autogene cevumeran (a maximum of 20 neoantigens per patient) and a modified version of a four-drug chemotherapy regimen (mFOLFIRINOX, comprising folinic acid, fluorouracil, irinotecan and oxaliplatin). The end points included vaccine-induced neoantigen-specific T cells by high-threshold assays, 18-month recurrence-free survival and oncologic feasibility. We treated 16 patients with atezolizumab and autogene cevumeran, then 15 patients with mFOLFIRINOX. Autogene cevumeran was administered within 3 days of benchmarked times, was tolerable and induced de novo high-magnitude neoantigen-specific T cells in 8 out of 16 patients, with half targeting more than one vaccine neoantigen. Using a new mathematical strategy to track T cell clones (CloneTrack) and functional assays, we found that vaccine-expanded T cells comprised up to 10% of all blood T cells, re-expanded with a vaccine booster and included long-lived polyfunctional neoantigen-specific effector CD8+ T cells. At 18-month median follow-up, patients with vaccine-expanded T cells (responders) had a longer median recurrence-free survival (not reached) compared with patients without vaccine-expanded T cells (non-responders; 13.4 months, P = 0.003). Differences in the immune fitness of the patients did not confound this correlation, as responders and non-responders mounted equivalent immunity to a concurrent unrelated mRNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Thus, adjuvant atezolizumab, autogene cevumeran and mFOLFIRINOX induces substantial T cell activity that may correlate with delayed PDAC recurrence.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Neoplasm , Cancer Vaccines , Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal , Lymphocyte Activation , Pancreatic Neoplasms , T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal/genetics , Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal/immunology , Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal/therapy , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunotherapy , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/genetics , Pancreatic Neoplasms/immunology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/therapy , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
2.
RNA ; 28(3): 277-289, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592848

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerases produce subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) that encode viral structural and accessory proteins. User-friendly bioinformatic tools to detect and quantify sgRNA production are urgently needed to study the growing number of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data of SARS-CoV-2. We introduced sgDI-tector to identify and quantify sgRNA in SARS-CoV-2 NGS data. sgDI-tector allowed detection of sgRNA without initial knowledge of the transcription-regulatory sequences. We produced NGS data and successfully detected the nested set of sgRNAs with the ranking M > ORF3a > N>ORF6 > ORF7a > ORF8 > S > E>ORF7b. We also compared the level of sgRNA production with other types of viral RNA products such as defective interfering viral genomes.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology/methods , Genome, Viral , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Open Reading Frames
3.
MEDLINE; 2020.
Non-conventional in English | MEDLINE | ID: grc-750614

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to acute respiratory syndrome in patients, which can be due in part to dysregulated immune signalling. We analyze here the occurrences of CpG dinucleotides, which are putative pathogen-associated molecular patterns, along the viral sequence. Carrying out a comparative analysis with other ssRNA viruses and within the Coronaviridae family, we find the CpG content of SARS-CoV-2, while low compared to other betacoronaviruses, widely fluctuates along its primary sequence. While the CpG relative abundance and its associated CpG force parameter are low for the spike protein (S) and comparable to circulating seasonal coronaviruses such as HKU1, they are much greater and comparable to SARS and MERS for the 3'-end of the viral genome. In particular, the nucleocapsid protein (N), whose transcripts are relatively abundant in the cytoplasm of infected cells and present in the 3'UTRs of all subgenomic RNA, has high CpG content. We speculate this dual nature of CpG content can confer to SARS-CoV-2 high ability to both enter the host and trigger pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in different contexts. We then investigate the evolution of synonymous mutations since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a new application of selective forces on dinucleotides to estimate context driven mutational processes, we find that synonymous mutations seem driven both by the viral codon bias and by the high value of the CpG force in the N protein, leading to a loss in CpG content. Sequence motifs preceding these CpG-loss-associated loci match recently identified binding patterns of the Zinc Finger anti-viral Protein (ZAP) protein. Funding: This work was partially supported by the ANR19 Decrypted CE30-0021-01 grants. B.G. was supported by National Institutes of Health grants 7R01AI081848-04, 1R01CA240924-01, a Stand Up to Cancer - Lustgarten Foundation Convergence Dream Team Grant, and The Pershing Square Sohn Prize - Mark Foundation Fellow supported by funding from The Mark Foundation for Cancer Research.

4.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(6): 2428-2445, 2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069279

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can lead to acute respiratory syndrome, which can be due to dysregulated immune signaling. We analyze the distribution of CpG dinucleotides, a pathogen-associated molecular pattern, in the SARS-CoV-2 genome. We characterize CpG content by a CpG force that accounts for statistical constraints acting on the genome at the nucleotidic and amino acid levels. The CpG force, as the CpG content, is overall low compared with other pathogenic betacoronaviruses; however, it widely fluctuates along the genome, with a particularly low value, comparable with the circulating seasonal HKU1, in the spike coding region and a greater value, comparable with SARS and MERS, in the highly expressed nucleocapside coding region (N ORF), whose transcripts are relatively abundant in the cytoplasm of infected cells and present in the 3'UTRs of all subgenomic RNA. This dual nature of CpG content could confer to SARS-CoV-2 the ability to avoid triggering pattern recognition receptors upon entry, while eliciting a stronger response during replication. We then investigate the evolution of synonymous mutations since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, finding a signature of CpG loss in regions with a greater CpG force. Sequence motifs preceding the CpG-loss-associated loci in the N ORF match recently identified binding patterns of the zinc finger antiviral protein. Using a model of the viral gene evolution under human host pressure, we find that synonymous mutations seem driven in the SARS-CoV-2 genome, and particularly in the N ORF, by the viral codon bias, the transition-transversion bias, and the pressure to lower CpG content.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , CpG Islands , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6319, 2020 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966313

ABSTRACT

The relationship of SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary infection and severity of disease is not fully understood. Here we show analysis of autopsy specimens from 24 patients who succumbed to SARS-CoV-2 infection using a combination of different RNA and protein analytical platforms to characterize inter-patient and intra-patient heterogeneity of pulmonary virus infection. There is a spectrum of high and low virus cases associated with duration of disease. High viral cases have high activation of interferon pathway genes and a predominant M1-like macrophage infiltrate. Low viral cases are more heterogeneous likely reflecting inherent patient differences in the evolution of host response, but there is consistent indication of pulmonary epithelial cell recovery based on napsin A immunohistochemistry and RNA expression of surfactant and mucin genes. Using a digital spatial profiling platform, we find the virus corresponds to distinct spatial expression of interferon response genes demonstrating the intra-pulmonary heterogeneity of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Host Microbial Interactions , Interferons/metabolism , Lung , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/metabolism , Autopsy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , Immunity , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Interferons/genetics , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macrophages/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Mucins/genetics , Mucins/metabolism , Surface-Active Agents/metabolism , Transcriptome , Viral Load
7.
SSRN ; : 3611280, 2020 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679312

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to acute respiratory syndrome in patients, which can be due in part to dysregulated immune signalling. We analyze here the occurrences of CpG dinucleotides, which are putative pathogen-associated molecular patterns, along the viral sequence. Carrying out a comparative analysis with other ssRNA viruses and within the Coronaviridae family, we find the CpG content of SARS-CoV-2, while low compared to other betacoronaviruses, widely fluctuates along its primary sequence. While the CpG relative abundance and its associated CpG force parameter are low for the spike protein (S) and comparable to circulating seasonal coronaviruses such as HKU1, they are much greater and comparable to SARS and MERS for the 3'-end of the viral genome. In particular, the nucleocapsid protein (N), whose transcripts are relatively abundant in the cytoplasm of infected cells and present in the 3'UTRs of all subgenomic RNA, has high CpG content. We speculate this dual  nature of CpG content can confer to SARS-CoV-2 high ability to both enter the host and trigger pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in different contexts. We then investigate the evolution of synonymous mutations since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a new application of selective forces on dinucleotides to estimate context driven mutational processes, we find that synonymous mutations seem driven both by the viral codon bias and by the high value of the CpG force in the N protein, leading to a loss in CpG content. Sequence motifs preceding these CpG-loss-associated loci match recently identified binding patterns of the Zinc Finger anti-viral Protein (ZAP) protein. Funding: This work was partially supported by the ANR19 Decrypted CE30-0021-01 grants. B.G. was supported by National Institutes of Health grants 7R01AI081848-04, 1R01CA240924-01, a Stand Up to Cancer - Lustgarten Foundation Convergence Dream Team Grant, and The Pershing Square Sohn Prize - Mark Foundation Fellow supported by funding from The Mark Foundation for Cancer Research.

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