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1.
biorxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.02.22.481100

ABSTRACT

To date, there is no effective oral antiviral against SARS-CoV-2 that is also anti-inflammatory. Herein, we show that the mitochondrial antioxidant mitoquinone/mitoquinol mesylate (Mito-MES), a dietary supplement, has potent antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants of concern in vitro and in vivo. Mito-MES had nanomolar in vitro antiviral potency against the Beta and Delta SARS-CoV-2 variants as well as the murine hepatitis virus (MHV-A59). Mito-MES given in SARS-CoV-2 infected K18-hACE2 mice through oral gavage reduced viral titer by nearly 4 log units relative to the vehicle group. We found in vitro that the antiviral effect of Mito-MES is attributable to its hydrophobic dTPP+ moiety and its combined effects scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), activating Nrf2 and increasing the host defense proteins TOM70 and MX1. Mito-MES was efficacious reducing increase in cleaved caspase-3 and inflammation induced by SARS-CoV2 infection both in lung epithelial cells and a transgenic mouse model of COVID-19. Mito-MES reduced production of IL-6 by SARS-CoV-2 infected epithelial cells through its antioxidant properties (Nrf2 agonist, coenzyme Q10 moiety) and the dTPP moiety. Given established safety of Mito-MES in humans, our results suggest that Mito-MES may represent a rapidly applicable therapeutic strategy that can be added in the therapeutic arsenal against COVID-19. Its potential long-term use by humans as diet supplement could help control the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, especially in the setting of rapidly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants that may compromise vaccine efficacy. One-Sentence SummaryMitoquinone/mitoquinol mesylate has potent antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity in preclinical models of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.07.15.205211

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has taken a significant toll on people worldwide, and there are currently no specific antivirus drugs or vaccines. We report herein a therapeutic based on catalase, an antioxidant enzyme that can effectively breakdown hydrogen peroxide and minimize the downstream reactive oxygen species, which are excessively produced resulting from the infection and inflammatory process. Catalase assists to regulate production of cytokines, protect oxidative injury, and repress replication of SARS-CoV-2, as demonstrated in human leukocytes and alveolar epithelial cells, and rhesus macaques, without noticeable toxicity. Such a therapeutic can be readily manufactured at low cost as a potential treatment for COVID-19.

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