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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In the current COVID-19 pandemic, children below the age of 12 could manifest COVID-19 symptoms and serve as a reservoir for the virus in the community. The present study was conducted to evaluate the reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of BBIBP-CorV, prior to involving this age group in the vaccination program in the kingdom of Bahrain. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study included 582 children from 3 to 12 years old of Bahraini and non-Bahraini nationality, all of which contributed to the reactogenicity study. Of those, 401 contributed to the immunogenicity study. All children received 2 doses of BBIBP-CorV inactivated virus 3 weeks apart. To assess reactogenicity, children were followed up for 5 weeks to evaluate any vaccine-related adverse events (AE). To assess immunogenicity, blood was collected on day 0 and day 35 to assess antibody titer against S, N, and neutralizing antibody. RESULTS: Of the 582 participants, (45.4%) were female, (54.61%) were male, with 49% in 9-12 age group. Of the 401 children contributing to the immunogenicity study, 274 (68.3%) had no prior exposure to COVID-19. The overall incidence of AE was 27.7%. No significant difference was found among different age groups. The most frequent AE was local (at the injection site) and occurred in 16% of children, followed by fever in 9.3%. No serious adverse events were reported. The Seroconversion rate was 100% among children with no prior exposure to COVID-19. Children with previous COVID-19 exposure had higher averages of anti-S (2379 U/mL compared to 409.1), anti-N (177.6 U/mL compared to 30.9) and neutralizing antibody (93.7 U/mL compared to 77.1) than children with no prior exposure at day 35. CONCLUSIONS: Two doses of COVID-19 BBIBP-CorV on the subjects aged between 3 to 12 has good safety and tolerance and can induce an effective immune response and neutralizing antibody titer.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330151

ABSTRACT

Background: and Objectives: In the current Covid-19 pandemic, children below the age of 12 could manifest Covid-19 symptoms and serve as a reservoir for the virus in the community. The present study was conducted to evaluate the reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of BBIBP-CorV, prior to involving this age group in the vaccination program in the kingdom of Bahrain. Subjects and Methods: The study included 582 children from 3 to 12 years old of Bahraini and non-Bahraini nationality, all of which contributed to the reactogenicity study. Of those, 401 contributed to the immunogenicity study. All children received 2 doses of BBIBP-CorV inactivated virus 3 weeks apart. To assess reactogenicity, children were followed up for 5 weeks to evaluate any vaccine-related adverse events (AE). To assess immunogenicity, blood was collected on day 0 and day 35 to assess antibody titer against S, N, and neutralizing antibody. Results: Of the 582 participants, (45.4%) were female, (54.61%) were male, with 49% in 9-12 age group. Of the 401 children contributing to the immunogenicity study, 274 (68.3%) had no prior exposure to Covid-19. The overall incidence of AE was 27.7%. No significant difference was found among different age groups. The most frequent AE was local (at the injection site) and occurred in 16% of children, followed by fever in 9.3%. No serious adverse events were reported. The Seroconversion rate was 100% among children with no prior exposure to Covid-19. Children with previous Covid-19 exposure had higher averages of anti-S (2379 U/ml compared to 409.1), anti-N (177.6 U/ml compared to 30.9) and neutralizing antibody (93.7 U/ml compared to 77.1) than children with no prior exposure at day 35. Conclusions: Two doses of COVID-19 BBIBP-CorV on the subjects aged between 3 to 12 has good safety and tolerance and can induce an effective immune response and neutralizing antibody titer.

3.
J Drug Target ; 30(4): 413-429, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545744

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a clinical outcome of viral infection emerged due to strain of beta coronavirus which attacks the type-2 pneumocytes in alveoli via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. There is no satisfactory drug developed against 'SARS-CoV2', highlighting an immediate necessity chemotherapeutic repurposing plan COVID-19. Drug repurposing is a method of selection of approved therapeutics for new use and is considered to be the most effective drug finding strategy since it includes less time and cost to obtain treatment compared to the de novo drug acquisition process. Several drugs such as hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, teicoplanin, darunavir, ritonavir, nitazoxanide, chloroquine, tocilizumab and favipiravir (FPV) showed their activity against 'SARS-CoV2' in vitro. This review has emphasized on repurposing of drugs, and biologics used in clinical set up for targeting COVID-19 and to evaluate their pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety with their future aspect. The key benefit of drug repurposing is the wealth of information related to its safety, and easy accessibility. Altogether repurposing approach allows access to regulatory approval as well as reducing sophisticated safety studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
4.
Oncol Lett ; 21(6): 458, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225869

ABSTRACT

Cryoablation is an emerging type of treatment for cancer. The sensitization of tumors using cryosensitizing agents prior to treatment enhances ablation efficiency and may improve clinical outcomes. Water efflux, which is regulated by aquaporin channels, contributes to cancer cell damage achieved through cryoablation. An increase in aquaporin (AQP) 3 is cryoprotective, whereas its inhibition augments cryodamage. The present study aimed to investigate aquaporin (AQP1, AQP3 and AQP5) gene expression and cellular localization in response to cryoinjury. Cultured breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) were exposed to freezing to induce cryoinjury. RNA and protein extracts were then analyzed using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively. Localization of aquaporins was studied using immunocytochemistry. Additionally, cells were transfected with small interfering RNA to silence aquaporin gene expression and cell viability was assessed using the Sulforhodamine B assay. Cryoinjury did not influence gene expression of AQPs, except for a 4-fold increase of AQP1 expression in MDA-MD-231 cells. There were no clear differences in AQP protein expression for either cell lines upon exposure to frozen and non-frozen temperatures, with the exception of fainter AQP5 bands for non-frozen MCF-7 cells. The exposure of cancer cells to freezing temperatures altered the localization of AQP1 and AQP3 proteins in both MCF-7 and MDA-MD-231 cells. The silencing of AQP1, AQP3 and AQP5 exacerbated MDA-MD-231 cell damage associated with freezing compared with control siRNA. This was also observed with AQP3 and AQP5 silencing in MCF-7 cells. Inhibition of aquaporins may potentially enhance cryoinjury. This cryosensitizing process may be used as an adjunct to breast cancer cryotherapy, especially in the border area targeted by cryoablation where freezing temperatures are not cold enough to induce cellular damage.

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