Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 19 de 19
Filter
1.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 10(4): 384-402, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775028

ABSTRACT

Vaccination has been a game changer in our efforts to address the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the disease might still represent a clinical crisis for several more years, in part because of the inevitable emergence of variants capable of evading the preexisting immunity. Drugs affecting viral spread will help curtail transmission, but therapeutics are needed to treat the more severe cases requiring hospitalization. A deep analysis of the evolving immune landscape of COVID-19 suggests that understanding the molecular bases of the distinct clinical stages is paramount if we are to limit the burden of inflammation, which can lead to death in frail individuals, according to age, sex, and comorbidities. Different phases can be defined using immune biomarkers and need specific therapeutic approaches, tailored to the underlying immune contexture.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
2.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100553, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 signal blockade showed preliminary beneficial effects in treating inflammatory response against SARS-CoV-2 leading to severe respiratory distress. Herein we describe the outcomes of off-label intravenous use of Sarilumab in severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia. METHODS: 53 patients with SARS-CoV-2 severe pneumonia received intravenous Sarilumab; pulmonary function improvement or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission rate in medical wards, live discharge rate in ICU treated patients and safety profile were recorded. Sarilumab 400 mg was administered intravenously on day 1, with eventual additional infusion based on clinical judgement, and patients were followed for at least 14 days, unless previously discharged or dead. FINDINGS: Of the 53 SARS-CoV-2pos patients receiving Sarilumab, 39(73·6%) were treated in medical wards [66·7% with a single infusion; median PaO2/FiO2:146(IQR:120-212)] while 14(26·4%) in ICU [92·6% with a second infusion; median PaO2/FiO2: 112(IQR:100-141.5)].Within the medical wards, 7(17·9%) required ICU admission, 4 of whom were re-admitted to the ward within 5-8 days. At 19 days median follow-up, 89·7% of medical inpatients significantly improved (46·1% after 24 h, 61·5% after 3 days), 70·6% were discharged from the hospital and 85·7% no longer needed oxygen therapy. Within patients receiving Sarilumab in ICU, 64·2% were discharged from ICU to the ward and 35·8% were still alive at the last follow-up. Overall mortality rate was 5·7%. INTERPRETATION: IL-6R inhibition appears to be a potential treatment strategy for severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and intravenous Sarilumab seems a promising treatment approach showing, in the short term, an important clinical outcome and good safety.

4.
JCI Insight ; 6(13)2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346128

ABSTRACT

We explored the potential link between chronic inflammatory arthritis and COVID-19 pathogenic and resolving macrophage pathways and their role in COVID-19 pathogenesis. We found that bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) macrophage clusters FCN1+ and FCN1+SPP1+ predominant in severe COVID-19 were transcriptionally related to synovial tissue macrophage (STM) clusters CD48hiS100A12+ and CD48+SPP1+ that drive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovitis. BALF macrophage cluster FABP4+ predominant in healthy lung was transcriptionally related to STM cluster TREM2+ that governs resolution of synovitis in RA remission. Plasma concentrations of SPP1 and S100A12 (key products of macrophage clusters shared with active RA) were high in severe COVID-19 and predicted the need for Intensive Care Unit transfer, and they remained high in the post-COVID-19 stage. High plasma levels of SPP1 were unique to severe COVID-19 when compared with other causes of severe pneumonia, and IHC localized SPP1+ macrophages in the alveoli of COVID-19 lung. Investigation into SPP1 mechanisms of action revealed that it drives proinflammatory activation of CD14+ monocytes and development of PD-L1+ neutrophils, both hallmarks of severe COVID-19. In summary, COVID-19 pneumonitis appears driven by similar pathogenic myeloid cell pathways as those in RA, and their mediators such as SPP1 might be an upstream activator of the aberrant innate response in severe COVID-19 and predictive of disease trajectory including post-COVID-19 pathology.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Osteopontin/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , B7-H1 Antigen/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , CD48 Antigen/immunology , COVID-19/chemically induced , COVID-19/metabolism , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/immunology , Humans , Lectins/immunology , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/immunology , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/metabolism , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Osteopontin/blood , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , S100A12 Protein/immunology , S100A12 Protein/metabolism , Synovial Membrane/immunology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
5.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(10): 1080-1090, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337893

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients developing the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) show increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6). The use of humanized monoclonal antibody against interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) may represent a potential treatment strategy. We analyzed the effects of compassionate use of tocilizumab and sarilumab on clinical outcome of patients affected by ARDS due COVID-19. METHODS: This single-center, observational, exploratory study was performed during the acute phase of COVID-19 outbreak, between March 7th and April 21st, 2020 in a University Hospital in Rome, Italy. All consecutive adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and fulfilling ARDS criteria were enrolled. Patients who were treated with anti-IL-6R therapy were compared to those who were not, as per clinical decision. Inverse probability weights were applied to weight individual's contribution to survival curves and in the multivariate regression model. RESULTS: Among 105 ARDS patients, 65 received compassionate treatment with anti-IL-6R therapy (43 [66%] Tocilizumab [Hoffmann-La Roche, Basel, Switzerland] and 22 [34%] Sarilumab, respectively], with oxygenation improvement. In the multivariable Cox proportional regression hazards model with propensity score inverse probability weighting, patients who received anti-IL-6R treatment had lower risk of death compared to those who did not, with a hazard ration of 0.34 [95% confidence interval 0.17-0.74], P=0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested that immune modulator therapy based on anti-human IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibodies might lead to improved outcome in patients with ARDS due to COVID-19. These data support the need for confirmatory randomized trials to assess the effect of immune modulator therapies on mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Compassionate Use Trials , Critical Illness , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Microvasc Res ; 133: 104071, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-850352

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence points to endothelial dysfunction as a key pathophysiological factor in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). No specific methods have been identified to predict, detect and quantify the microvascular alterations during COVID-19. Our aim was to assess microvasculature through nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We performed NVC in patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. Elementary alterations were reported for each finger according to a semi-quantitative score. Capillary density, number of enlarged and giant capillaries, number of micro-hemorrhages and micro-thrombosis (NEMO score) were registered. RESULTS: We enrolled 82 patients (mean age 58.8 ± 13.2 years, male 68.3%) of whom 28 during the hospitalization and 54 after recovery and hospital discharge. At NVC examination we found abnormalities classifiable as non-specific pattern in 53 patients (64.6%). Common abnormalities were pericapillary edema (80.5%), enlarged capillaries (61.0%), sludge flow (53.7%), meandering capillaries and reduced capillary density (50.0%). No pictures suggestive of scleroderma pattern have been observed. Acute COVID-19 patients, compared to recovered patients, showed a higher prevalence of hemosiderin deposits as a result of micro-hemorrhages (P = .027) and micro-thrombosis (P < .016), sludge flow (P = .001), and pericapillary edema (P < .001), while recovered patients showed a higher prevalence of enlarged capillaries (P < .001), loss of capillaries (P = .002), meandering capillaries (P < .001), and empty dermal papillae (P = .006). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients present microvascular abnormalities at NVC. Currently ill and recovered subjects are characterized by a different distribution of elementary capillaroscopic alterations, resembling acute and post-acute microvascular damage. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical relevance of NVC in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Capillaries/pathology , Microscopic Angioscopy , Nails/blood supply , Vascular Diseases/pathology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Vascular Diseases/etiology
10.
Am J Prev Med ; 60(1): 13-19, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778345

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As an emerging infectious disease, the clinical and virologic course of COVID-19 requires better investigation. The aim of this study is to identify the potential risk factors associated with persistent positive nasopharyngeal swab real-time reverse transcription‒polymerase chain reaction tests in a large sample of patients who recovered from COVID-19. METHODS: After the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 epidemic infection, the Fondazione Policlinico A. Gemelli IRCSS of Rome established a post-acute care service for patients discharged from the hospital and recovered from COVID-19. Between April 21 and May 21, 2020, a total of 137 individuals who officially recovered from COVID-19 were enrolled in this study. All patients were tested for the SARS-CoV-2 virus with nucleic acid RT-PCR tests. Analysis was conducted in June 2020. RESULTS: Of the 131 patients who repeated the nasopharyngeal swab, 22 patients (16.7%) tested positive again. Some symptoms such as fatigue (51%), dyspnea (44%), and coughing (17%) were still present in a significant percentage of the patients, with no difference between patients with a negative test and those who tested positive. The likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly higher among participants with persistent sore throat (prevalence ratio=6.50, 95% CI=1.38, 30.6) and symptoms of rhinitis (prevalence ratio=3.72, 95% CI=1.10, 12.5). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to provide a given rate of patients (16.7%) who test positive on RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid after recovering from COVID-19. These findings suggest that a significant proportion of patients who have recovered from COVID-19 still could be potential carriers of the virus. In particular, if patients continue to have symptoms related to COVID-19, such as sore throat and rhinitis, it is reasonable to be cautious by avoiding close contact, wearing a face mask, and possibly repeating a nasopharyngeal swab.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Carrier State/epidemiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , RNA, Viral , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rhinitis/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
15.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 50(9): e13342, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636108

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemia is a major concern for patients and healthcare systems. The fear of infection by patients with concomitant rheumatic diseases (either adult or children) and connective tissue diseases is arising worldwide, because of their immunological background and immunological therapies. Analysing the basic biology of single diseases, the data suggest that there is an "immunological umbrella" that seems to protect against the infection, through IFN type 1 and NK cell function. To date, reports from China, United States and Europe did not reveal an higher risk of infection, either for rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis nor for lupus erythematosus. Antimalarials, anti-IL6-Anti-IL6 receptor, anti-IL1, anti-GM-CSF receptor and JAK1/2/3 inhibitors, are under investigation in COVID-dedicated clinical trials to control the inflammation raised by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Initial reports on the occurrence of autoimmune phenomena in the convalescence phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection suggests that the immunological consequences of the infection need to be strictly understood. Reporting of the study conforms to broad EQUATOR guidelines (Simera et al January 2010 issue of EJCI).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology
17.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 2(8): e458, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-627323
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL