Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 21
Filter
1.
Sci Immunol ; : eabl9943, 2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909566

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies are an efficacious therapy against SARS-CoV-2. However, rapid viral mutagenesis, led to escape from most of these therapies, outlining the need for an antibody cocktail with a broad neutralizing potency. Using an unbiased interrogation of the memory B cell repertoire of convalescent COVID-19 patients, we identified human antibodies with broad antiviral activity in vitro and efficacy in vivo against all tested SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, including Delta, Omicron BA.1 and BA.2. Here, we describe an antibody cocktail IMM-BCP-01, that consists of three patient-derived broadly neutralizing antibodies directed at non-overlapping surfaces on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Two antibodies, IMM20184 and IMM20190, directly blocked Spike binding to the ACE2 receptor. Binding of the third antibody, IMM20253, to its cryptic epitope on the outer surface of RBD, altered the conformation of the Spike Trimer, promoting release of Spike monomers. These antibodies decreased Omicron SARS-CoV-2 infection in the lungs of Syrian golden hamsters in vivo, and potently induced antiviral effector response in vitro, including phagocytosis, ADCC, and complement pathway activation. Our pre-clinical data demonstrated that the three antibody cocktail IMM-BCP-01 could be a promising means for preventing or treating infection of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, including Omicron BA.1 and BA.2, in susceptible individuals.

2.
Advanced Science ; 8(11), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1870661

ABSTRACT

While the ongoing COVID‐19 pandemic affirms an urgent global need for effective vaccines as second and third infection waves are spreading worldwide and generating new mutant virus strains, it has also revealed the importance of mitigating the transmission of SARS‐CoV‐2 through the introduction of restrictive social practices. Here, it is demonstrated that an architecturally‐ and chemically‐diverse family of nanostructured anionic polymers yield a rapid and continuous disinfecting alternative to inactivate coronaviruses and prevent their transmission from contact with contaminated surfaces. Operating on a dramatic pH‐drop mechanism along the polymer/pathogen interface, polymers of this archetype inactivate the SARS‐CoV‐2 virus, as well as a human coronavirus surrogate (HCoV‐229E), to the minimum detection limit within minutes. Application of these anionic polymers to frequently touched surfaces in medical, educational, and public‐transportation facilities, or personal protection equipment, can provide rapid and repetitive protection without detrimental health or environmental complications.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329690

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 continues to batter the world with the unceasing introduction of new variants of the causative virus, SARS-CoV-2. In order to understand differences in disease caused by variants of concern and to develop variant-specific vaccines, suitable small animal models are required that mimic disease progression in humans at various stages of life. In this study, we compared the dynamics of infection with two SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (Delta and Omicron) in aged (>1 year 3 months old) and young (<5 weeks old) Syrian hamsters ( Mesocricetus auratus ). We show that no weight loss occurred in Omicron infected groups regardless of age, while infection with the Delta variant caused weight loss of up to 10% by day 7 post-infection with slower and incomplete recovery in the aged group. Omicron replicated to similar levels as Delta in the lungs, trachea and nasal turbinates, with no significant differences in the tissue viral loads of aged versus young animals for either variant. In contrast to rare necrosis observed in Omicron-infected animals regardless of age, severe necrosis was observed in the olfactory epithelium in Delta-infected animals. Omicron infection also resulted in mild pulmonary disease in both young and aged animals compared to the moderate acute necrotizing bronchointerstitial pneumonia seen in Delta-infected animals. These results suggest that Omicron infection results in an attenuated clinical disease outlook in Syrian hamsters compared to infection with the Delta variant irrespective of age.

4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1128, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721520

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a betacoronavirus with a single-stranded, positive-sense, 30-kilobase RNA genome responsible for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Although population average structure models of the genome were recently reported, there is little experimental data on native structural ensembles, and most structures lack functional characterization. Here we report secondary structure heterogeneity of the entire SARS-CoV-2 genome in two lines of infected cells at single nucleotide resolution. Our results reveal alternative RNA conformations across the genome and at the critical frameshifting stimulation element (FSE) that are drastically different from prevailing population average models. Importantly, we find that this structural ensemble promotes frameshifting rates much higher than the canonical minimal FSE and similar to ribosome profiling studies. Our results highlight the value of studying RNA in its full length and cellular context. The genomic structures detailed here lay groundwork for coronavirus RNA biology and will guide the design of SARS-CoV-2 RNA-based therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , RNA, Viral/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Frameshifting, Ribosomal , Genome, Viral , Humans , Nucleic Acid Conformation , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(6): 1081-1084, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707490

ABSTRACT

The clinical significance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) RNA in stool remains uncertain. We found that extrapulmonary dissemination of infection to the gastrointestinal tract, assessed by the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool, is associated with decreased coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survival. Measurement of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool may have utility for clinical risk assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Feces , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322110

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has devastated global public health systems and economies, with over 23 million people infected, millions of jobs and businesses lost, and more than 800 000 deaths recorded to date. Contact with surfaces contaminated with droplets generated by infected persons through exhaling, talking, coughing and sneezing is a major driver of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, with the virus being able to survive on surfaces for extended periods of time. To interrupt these chains of transmission, there is an urgent need for devices that can be deployed to inactivate the virus on both recently and existing contaminated surfaces. Here, we describe the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in both wet and dry format using radiation generated by a commercially available Signify ultraviolet (UV)-C light source at 254 nm. We show that for contaminated surfaces, only seconds of exposure is required for complete inactivation, allowing for easy implementation in decontamination workflows.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312510

ABSTRACT

When working with the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 during a pandemic response, having a rapid, reproducible and reliable assay for infectious virus quantitation and utilization for evaluation of potential therapeutics is critical. Compared to traditional agarose overlay plaques visualized with neutral red, assays performed with Avicel R RC-591 semi-solid overlay provide a simplified format for rapid and easy detection and neutralization testing. The method is easily modified for higher throughput using dispensers or automated processing. Fixation using formalin provides flexibility when dealing with pathogenic agents such as SARS-CoV-2 where tissue culture plates might be removed from biocontainment for staining. Although plaque assays are considered straightforward in principle, having an easily reproducible, consistent plaque assay is an invaluable tool.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308702

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to an unprecedented global health crisis, resulting in a critical need for effective vaccines that generate protective antibodies. Protein subunit vaccines represent a promising approach but often lack the immunogenicity required for strong immune stimulation. To overcome this challenge, we first demonstrate that advanced biomaterials boost effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 protein subunit vaccines. Additionally, we report that oxygen is a powerful immunological co-adjuvant, a game-changer in the field for unlocking the full potential of vaccines. Mice immunized with oxygen-generating cryogel vaccines exhibited a robust and balanced Th1 and Th2 immune response, leading to sustained and high titer production of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Our data indicate that this platform is a revolutionary technology with the potential to reinforce any vaccine.

9.
Science ; 375(6578): eabl6251, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650842

ABSTRACT

Many studies have examined the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants on neutralizing antibody activity after they have become dominant strains. Here, we evaluate the consequences of further viral evolution. We demonstrate mechanisms through which the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) can tolerate large numbers of simultaneous antibody escape mutations and show that pseudotypes containing up to seven mutations, as opposed to the one to three found in previously studied variants of concern, are more resistant to neutralization by therapeutic antibodies and serum from vaccine recipients. We identify an antibody that binds the RBD core to neutralize pseudotypes for all tested variants but show that the RBD can acquire an N-linked glycan to escape neutralization. Our findings portend continued emergence of escape variants as SARS-CoV-2 adapts to humans.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cross Reactions , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Crystallography, X-Ray , Epitopes , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Polysaccharides/analysis , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Receptors, Coronavirus/chemistry , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(42): 17615-17621, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467046

ABSTRACT

Cellular binding and entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are mediated by its spike glycoprotein (S protein), which binds with not only the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor but also glycosaminoglycans such as heparin. Cell membrane-coated nanoparticles ("cellular nanosponges") mimic the host cells to attract and neutralize SARS-CoV-2 through natural cellular receptors, leading to a broad-spectrum antiviral strategy. Herein, we show that increasing surface heparin density on the cellular nanosponges can promote their inhibition against SARS-CoV-2. Specifically, cellular nanosponges are made with azido-expressing host cell membranes followed by conjugating heparin to the nanosponge surfaces. Cellular nanosponges with a higher heparin density have a larger binding capacity with viral S proteins and a significantly higher inhibition efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Overall, surface glycan engineering of host-mimicking cellular nanosponges is a facile method to enhance SARS-CoV-2 inhibition. This approach can be readily generalized to promote the inhibition of other glycan-dependent viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin/administration & dosage , Nanostructures/therapeutic use , Polysaccharides/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Heparin/metabolism , Humans , Polysaccharides/metabolism
11.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 10(22): e2101370, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449905

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic demonstrates the importance of generating safe and efficacious vaccines that can be rapidly deployed against emerging pathogens. Subunit vaccines are considered among the safest, but proteins used in these typically lack strong immunogenicity, leading to poor immune responses. Here, a biomaterial COVID-19 vaccine based on a mesoporous silica rods (MSRs) platform is described. MSRs loaded with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) agonist monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), and SARS-CoV-2 viral protein antigens slowly release their cargo and form subcutaneous scaffolds that locally recruit and activate antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for the generation of adaptive immunity. MSR-based vaccines generate robust and durable cellular and humoral responses against SARS-CoV-2 antigens, including the poorly immunogenic receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein. Persistent antibodies over the course of 8 months are found in all vaccine configurations tested and robust in vitro viral neutralization is observed both in a prime-boost and a single-dose regimen. These vaccines can be fully formulated ahead of time or stored lyophilized and reconstituted with an antigen mixture moments before injection, which can facilitate its rapid deployment against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants or new pathogens. Together, the data show a promising COVID-19 vaccine candidate and a generally adaptable vaccine platform against infectious pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , Antibodies, Viral , Biocompatible Materials , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans
12.
Advanced Science ; 8(18):2170111, 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1437024

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 Vaccines In article number 2100316 by Sidi A. Bencherif and co-workers, it is demonstrated that advanced biomaterials can be leveraged to boost the effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 protein subunit vaccines. Illustration depicting a subcutaneously injected oxygen-releasing cryogel-based COVID-19 vaccine boosting the immune response, leading to a sustained production of highly effective neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2.

13.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(9): 1437-1453.e8, 2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347535

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has affected more than 185 million people worldwide resulting in over 4 million deaths. To contain the pandemic, there is a continued need for safe vaccines that provide durable protection at low and scalable doses and can be deployed easily. Here, AAVCOVID-1, an adeno-associated viral (AAV), spike-gene-based vaccine candidate demonstrates potent immunogenicity in mouse and non-human primates following a single injection and confers complete protection from SARS-CoV-2 challenge in macaques. Peak neutralizing antibody titers are sustained at 1 year and complemented by functional memory T cell responses. The AAVCOVID vector has no relevant pre-existing immunity in humans and does not elicit cross-reactivity to common AAVs used in gene therapy. Vector genome persistence and expression wanes following injection. The single low-dose requirement, high-yield manufacturability, and 1-month stability for storage at room temperature may make this technology well suited to support effective immunization campaigns for emerging pathogens on a global scale.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Dependovirus/genetics , Dependovirus/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Transgenes/genetics , Vaccination/methods , Viral Load/immunology
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(6): 1081-1084, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303899

ABSTRACT

The clinical significance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) RNA in stool remains uncertain. We found that extrapulmonary dissemination of infection to the gastrointestinal tract, assessed by the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool, is associated with decreased coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survival. Measurement of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool may have utility for clinical risk assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Feces , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
15.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(18): 2100316, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233162

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to an unprecedented global health crisis, resulting in a critical need for effective vaccines that generate protective antibodies. Protein subunit vaccines represent a promising approach but often lack the immunogenicity required for strong immune stimulation. To overcome this challenge, it is first demonstrated that advanced biomaterials can be leveraged to boost the effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 protein subunit vaccines. Additionally, it is reported that oxygen is a powerful immunological co-adjuvant and has an ability to further potentiate vaccine potency. In preclinical studies, mice immunized with an oxygen-generating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cryogel-based vaccine (O2-CryogelVAX) exhibit a robust Th1 and Th2 immune response, leading to a sustained production of highly effective neutralizing antibodies against the virus. Even with a single immunization, O2-CryogelVAX achieves high antibody titers within 21 days, and both binding and neutralizing antibody levels are further increased after a second dose. Engineering a potent vaccine system that generates sufficient neutralizing antibodies after one dose is a preferred strategy amid vaccine shortage. The data suggest that this platform is a promising technology to reinforce vaccine-driven immunostimulation and is applicable to current and emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cryogels/administration & dosage , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Oxygen/immunology , Animals , Biocompatible Materials , Female , Immunity/immunology , Mice , Models, Animal , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Cell ; 184(10): 2605-2617.e18, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135275

ABSTRACT

Many individuals mount nearly identical antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2. To gain insight into how the viral spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) might evolve in response to common antibody responses, we studied mutations occurring during virus evolution in a persistently infected immunocompromised individual. We use antibody Fab/RBD structures to predict, and pseudotypes to confirm, that mutations found in late-stage evolved S variants confer resistance to a common class of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies we isolated from a healthy COVID-19 convalescent donor. Resistance extends to the polyclonal serum immunoglobulins of four out of four healthy convalescent donors we tested and to monoclonal antibodies in clinical use. We further show that affinity maturation is unimportant for wild-type virus neutralization but is critical to neutralization breadth. Because the mutations we studied foreshadowed emerging variants that are now circulating across the globe, our results have implications to the long-term efficacy of S-directed countermeasures.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Evolution, Molecular , Immune Evasion/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
17.
JCI Insight ; 6(1)2021 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066996

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), coupled with a lack of therapeutics, has paralyzed the globe. Although significant effort has been invested in identifying antibodies that block infection, the ability of antibodies to target infected cells through Fc interactions may be vital to eliminate the virus. To explore the role of Fc activity in SARS-CoV-2 immunity, the functional potential of a cross-SARS-reactive antibody, CR3022, was assessed. CR3022 was able to broadly drive antibody effector functions, providing critical immune clearance at entry and upon egress. Using selectively engineered Fc variants, no protection was observed after administration of WT IgG1 in mice or hamsters. Conversely, the functionally enhanced Fc variant resulted in increased pathology in both the mouse and hamster models, causing weight loss in mice and enhanced viral replication and weight loss in the more susceptible hamster model, highlighting the pathological functions of Fc-enhancing mutations. These data point to the critical need for strategic Fc engineering for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/genetics , Immunoglobulin G/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cricetinae , Cross Reactions , Epitopes , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/genetics , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Mesocricetus , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Protein Engineering , Receptors, Fc/immunology , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , THP-1 Cells , Viral Load/drug effects , Weight Loss/drug effects
18.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 28(2): 202-209, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065920

ABSTRACT

Effective intervention strategies are urgently needed to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a membrane-bound carboxypeptidase that forms a dimer and serves as the cellular receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). ACE2 is also a key negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system that modulates vascular functions. We report here the properties of a trimeric ACE2 ectodomain variant, engineered using a structure-based approach. The trimeric ACE2 variant has a binding affinity of ~60 pM for the spike protein of SARS­CoV­2 (compared with 77 nM for monomeric ACE2 and 12-22 nM for dimeric ACE2 constructs), and its peptidase activity and the ability to block activation of angiotensin II receptor type 1 in the renin-angiotensin system are preserved. Moreover, the engineered ACE2 potently inhibits SARS­CoV­2 infection in cell culture. These results suggest that engineered, trimeric ACE2 may be a promising anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent for treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Models, Molecular , Protein Engineering , Protein Multimerization , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22421, 2020 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003313

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has devastated global public health systems and economies, with over 52 million people infected, millions of jobs and businesses lost, and more than 1 million deaths recorded to date. Contact with surfaces contaminated with droplets generated by infected persons through exhaling, talking, coughing and sneezing is a major driver of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, with the virus being able to survive on surfaces for extended periods of time. To interrupt these chains of transmission, there is an urgent need for devices that can be deployed to inactivate the virus on both recently and existing contaminated surfaces. Here, we describe the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in both wet and dry format using radiation generated by a commercially available Signify ultraviolet (UV)-C light source at 254 nm. We show that for contaminated surfaces, only seconds of exposure is required for complete inactivation, allowing for easy implementation in decontamination workflows.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , COVID-19/transmission , Humans
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL