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1.
Cell Reports Medicine ; : 100898, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165956

ABSTRACT

Summary Multiple SARS-CoV-2 exposures, from infection or vaccination, can potently boost spike antibody responses. Less is known about the impact of repeated exposures on T cell responses. Here, we compare the prevalence and frequency of peripheral SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell and IgG responses in 190 individuals with complex SARS-CoV-2 exposure histories. As expected, an increasing number of SARS-CoV-2 spike exposures significantly enhances the magnitude of IgG responses, while repeated exposures improve the number of T cell responders but have less impact on SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific T cell frequencies in the circulation. Moreover, we find that the number and nature of exposures (rather than the order of infection and vaccination) shape the spike immune response, with spike-specific CD4 T cells displaying a greater polyfunctional potential following hybrid immunity compared to vaccination only. Characterizing adaptive immunity from an evolving viral and immunological landscape may inform vaccine strategies to elicit optimal immunity as the pandemic progresses.

3.
iScience ; : 105753, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2149916

ABSTRACT

Summary The emergence of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants led to the recommendation of booster vaccinations after Ad26.COV2.S priming. It was previously shown that heterologous booster vaccination induces high antibody levels, but how heterologous boosters affect other functional aspects of the immune response remained unknown. Here, we performed immunological profiling of Ad26.COV2.S-primed individuals before and after homologous or heterologous (mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2) booster. Booster vaccinations increased functional antibodies targeting ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants. Especially heterologous booster vaccinations induced high levels of functional antibodies. In contrast, T cell responses were similar in magnitude following homologous or heterologous booster vaccination, and retained cross-reactivity towards variants. Booster vaccination led to a minimal expansion of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell clones and no increase in breadth of the T cell repertoire. In conclusion, we show that Ad26.COV2.S priming vaccination provided a solid immunological base for heterologous boosting, increasing humoral and cellular responses targeting emerging variants of concern.

4.
Journal of the Neurological Sciences ; : 120510, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2122629

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a heightened inflammatory state, including activated T cells. However, it is unclear whether these PD T cell responses are antigen specific or more indicative of generalized hyperresponsiveness. Our objective was to measure and compare antigen-specific T cell responses directed towards antigens derived from commonly encountered human pathogens/vaccines in patients with PD and age-matched healthy controls (HC). Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 20 PD patients and 19 age-matched HCs were screened. Antigen specific T cell responses were measured by flow cytometry using a combination of the activation induced marker (AIM) assay and intracellular cytokine staining. Results Here we show that both PD patients and HCs show similar T cell activation levels to several antigens derived from commonly encountered human pathogens/vaccines in the general population. Similarly, we also observed no difference between HC and PD in the levels of CD4 and CD8 T cell derived cytokines produced in response to any of the common antigens tested. These antigens encompassed both viral (coronavirus, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, cytomegalovirus) and bacterial (pertussis, tetanus) targets. Conclusions These results suggest the T cell dysfunction observed in PD may not extend itself to abnormal responses to commonly encountered or vaccine-target antigens. Our study supports the notion that the targets of inflammatory T cell responses in PD may be more directed towards autoantigens like α-synuclein (α-syn) rather than common foreign antigens.

5.
mBio ; : e0131122, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119438

ABSTRACT

Multiple vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been evaluated in clinical trials. However, trials addressing the immune response in the pediatric population are scarce. The inactivated vaccine CoronaVac has been shown to be safe and immunogenic in a phase 1/2 clinical trial in a pediatric cohort in China. Here, we report interim safety and immunogenicity results of a phase 3 clinical trial for CoronaVac in healthy children and adolescents in Chile. Participants 3 to 17 years old received two doses of CoronaVac in a 4-week interval until 31 December 2021. Local and systemic adverse reactions were registered for volunteers who received one or two doses of CoronaVac. Whole-blood samples were collected from a subgroup of 148 participants for humoral and cellular immunity analyses. The main adverse reaction reported after the first and second doses was pain at the injection site. Four weeks after the second dose, an increase in neutralizing antibody titer was observed in subjects relative to their baseline visit. Similar results were found for activation of specific CD4+ T cells. Neutralizing antibodies were identified against the Delta and Omicron variants. However, these titers were lower than those for the D614G strain. Importantly, comparable CD4+ T cell responses were detected against these variants of concern. Therefore, CoronaVac is safe and immunogenic in subjects 3 to 17 years old, inducing neutralizing antibody secretion and activating CD4+ T cells against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under no. NCT04992260.) IMPORTANCE This work evaluated the immune response induced by two doses of CoronaVac separated by 4 weeks in healthy children and adolescents in Chile. To date, few studies have described the effects of CoronaVac in the pediatric population. Therefore, it is essential to generate knowledge regarding the protection of vaccines in this population. Along these lines, we reported the anti-S humoral response and cellular immune response to several SARS-CoV-2 proteins that have been published and recently studied. Here, we show that a vaccination schedule consisting of two doses separated by 4 weeks induces the secretion of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, CoronaVac induces the activation of CD4+ T cells upon stimulation with peptides from the proteome of SARS-CoV-2. These results indicate that, even though the neutralizing antibody response induced by vaccination decreases against the Delta and Omicron variants, the cellular response against these variants is comparable to the response against the ancestral strain D614G, even being significantly higher against Omicron.

6.
JCI Insight ; 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117617

ABSTRACT

Despite the widespread use of SARS-CoV-2-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy for the treatment of acute COVID-19, the impact of this therapy on the development of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses has been unknown, resulting in uncertainty as to whether anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAb administration may result in failure to generate immune memory. Alternatively, it has been suggested that SARS-CoV-2-specific mAb may enhance adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 via a "vaccinal effect." Bamlanivimab (Eli Lilly) is a recombinant human IgG1 that was granted FDA emergency use authorization for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in those at high risk for progression to severe disease. Here, we compared SARS-CoV-2 specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses of 95 individuals from the ACTIV-2/A5401 clinical trial 28 days after treatment with 700 mg bamlanivimab versus placebo. SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses were evaluated using activation induced marker (AIM) assays in conjunction with intracellular cytokine staining. We demonstrate that most individuals with acute COVID-19 develop SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses. Overall, our findings suggest that the quantity and quality of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell memory was robust in individuals who received bamlanivimab for acute COVID-19. Receipt of bamlanivimab during acute COVID-19 neither diminished nor enhanced SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular immunity.

7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1032411, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109771

ABSTRACT

Coronavac is a widely used SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine, but its long-term immune response assessment is still lacking. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2-specific immune responses, including T cell activation markers, antigen-specific cytokine production and antibody response following vaccination in 53 adult and elderly individuals participating in a phase 3 clinical trial. Activated follicular helper T (Tfh), non-Tfh and memory CD4+ T cells were detected in almost all subjects early after the first vaccine dose. Activated memory CD4+ T cells were predominantly of central and effector memory T cell phenotypes and were sustained for at least 6 months. We also detected a balanced Th1-, Th2- and Th17/Th22-type cytokine production that was associated with response over time, together with particular cytokine profile linked to poor responses in older vaccinees. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG levels peaked 14 days after the second dose and were mostly stable over one year. CoronaVac was able to induce a potent and durable antiviral antigen-specific cellular response and the cytokine profiles related to the response over time and impacted by the senescence were defined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Cytokines , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
Front Bioinform ; 2: 876380, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089815

ABSTRACT

Definition of the T cells responses to SARS-CoV-2 and associated variants is critical to understanding the complexity of adaptive immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Several groups have investigated the T cells responses by both experimental and bioinformatical approaches. Here we summarize recent findings on CD4 and CD8 T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 with particular emphasis on emerging variants of concern, consolidating the results on the impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants on T cell responses by performing an additional metanalysis emphasizing the lower impact of variant mutations in dominant T cell epitopes. The consensus is that the majority of T cell responses are conserved across all current SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Delta and Omicron. Thus, even in concomitance with reduced antibody and B cell responses, T cells can still provide a second line of antiviral immunity.

9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081926

ABSTRACT

We prospectively studied immunological response against SARS-CoV-2 after vaccination among healthcare workers without (group A) and with previous infection (group B). The analyses were collected at T0 (before the BNT162b2), T1 (before the second dose), T2 and T6 (1 and 6 months after the second dose). For cellular immune response, the activation-induced cell marker assay was performed with CD4 and CD8 Spike peptide megapools expressed as Stimulation Index. For humoral immune response, we determined antibodies to Spike-1 and nucleocapsid protein. The linear mixed model compared specific times to T0. The CD4+ Spike response overall rate of change was significant at T1 (p = 0.038) and at T2 (p < 0.001), while decreasing at T6. For CD8+ Spike reactivity, the interaction between the time and group was significant (p = 0.0265), and the p value for group comparison was significant at the baseline (p = 0.0030) with higher SI in previously infected subjects. Overall, the anti-S Abs significantly increased from T1 to T6 compared to T0. The group B at T6 retained high anti-S titer (p < 0.001). At T6, in both groups we found a persistent humoral response and a high CD4+ T cell response able to cross recognize SARS-COV-2 variants including epsilon, even if not a circulating virus at that time.

10.
Elife ; 112022 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067163

ABSTRACT

Background: The development of vaccines to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic progression is a worldwide priority. CoronaVac is an inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine approved for emergency use with robust efficacy and immunogenicity data reported in trials in China, Brazil, Indonesia, Turkey, and Chile. Methods: This study is a randomized, multicenter, and controlled phase 3 trial in healthy Chilean adults aged ≥18 years. Volunteers received two doses of CoronaVac separated by 2 (0-14 schedule) or 4 weeks (0-28 schedule); 2302 volunteers were enrolled, 440 were part of the immunogenicity arm, and blood samples were obtained at different times. Samples from a single center are reported. Humoral immune responses were evaluated by measuring the neutralizing capacities of circulating antibodies. Cellular immune responses were assessed by ELISPOT and flow cytometry. Correlation matrixes were performed to evaluate correlations in the data measured. Results: Both schedules exhibited robust neutralizing capacities with the response induced by the 0-28 schedule being better. No differences were found in the concentration of antibodies against the virus and different variants of concern (VOCs) between schedules. Stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with Mega pools of Peptides (MPs) induced the secretion of interferon (IFN)-γ and the expression of activation induced markers in CD4+ T cells for both schedules. Correlation matrixes showed strong correlations between neutralizing antibodies and IFN-γ secretion. Conclusions: Immunization with CoronaVac in Chilean adults promotes robust cellular and humoral immune responses. The 0-28 schedule induced a stronger humoral immune response than the 0-14 schedule. Funding: Ministry of Health, Government of Chile, Confederation of Production and Commerce & Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Chile. Clinical trial number: NCT04651790.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization Schedule , Adult , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Immunity, Humoral , Interferons , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2
12.
iScience ; 25(10): 105202, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041844

ABSTRACT

The ongoing evolution of SARS-CoV-2 requires monitoring the capability of immune responses to cross-recognize Variants of Concern (VOC). In this cross-sectional study, we examined serological and cell-mediated immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron, among a cohort of 18-21-year-old Marines with a history of either asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection 6 to 14 months earlier. Among the 210 participants in the study, 169 were unvaccinated while 41 received 2 doses of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines. Vaccination of previously infected participants strongly boosted neutralizing and binding activity and memory B and T cell responses including the recognition of Omicron, compared to infected but unvaccinated participants. Additionally, no measurable differences were observed in immune memory in healthy young adults with previous symptomatic or asymptomatic infections, for ancestral or variant strains. These results provide mechanistic immunological insights into population-based differences observed in immunity against Omicron and other variants among individuals with different clinical histories.

13.
Nat Immunol ; 23(10): 1445-1456, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036840

ABSTRACT

Understanding immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines is of great interest, principally because of the poor knowledge about the mechanisms of protection. In the present study, we analyzed longitudinally B cell and T cell memory programs against the spike (S) protein derived from ancestral SARS-CoV-2 (Wuhan-1), B.1.351 (beta), B.1.617.2 (delta) and B.1.1.529 (omicron) variants of concern (VOCs) after immunization with an mRNA-based vaccine (Pfizer). According to the magnitude of humoral responses 3 months after the first dose, we identified high and low responders. Opposite to low responders, high responders were characterized by enhanced antibody-neutralizing activity, increased frequency of central memory T cells and durable S-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Reduced binding antibodies titers combined with long-term specific memory T cells that had distinct polyreactive properties were found associated with subsequent breakthrough with VOCs in low responders. These results have important implications for the design of new vaccines and new strategies for booster follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
14.
Immunity ; 55(9): 1732-1746.e5, 2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015472

ABSTRACT

Many immunocompromised patients mount suboptimal humoral immunity after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. Here, we assessed the single-cell profile of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells post-mRNA vaccination in healthy individuals and patients with various forms of immunodeficiencies. Impaired vaccine-induced cell-mediated immunity was observed in many immunocompromised patients, particularly in solid-organ transplant and chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. Notably, individuals with an inherited lack of mature B cells, i.e., X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) displayed highly functional spike-specific T cell responses. Single-cell RNA-sequencing further revealed that mRNA vaccination induced a broad functional spectrum of spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in healthy individuals and patients with XLA. These responses were founded on polyclonal repertoires of CD4+ T cells and robust expansions of oligoclonal effector-memory CD45RA+ CD8+ T cells with stem-like characteristics. Collectively, our data provide the functional continuum of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses post-mRNA vaccination, highlighting that cell-mediated immunity is of variable functional quality across immunodeficiency syndromes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Syndrome , Vaccination , Viral Envelope Proteins
15.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(658): eabq4130, 2022 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992934

ABSTRACT

Despite the remarkable efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines, waning immunity and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants such as Omicron represents a global health challenge. Here, we present data from a study in nonhuman primates demonstrating durable protection against the Omicron BA.1 variant induced by a subunit SARS-CoV-2 vaccine comprising the receptor binding domain of the ancestral strain (RBD-Wu) on the I53-50 nanoparticle adjuvanted with AS03, which was recently authorized for use in individuals 18 years or older. Vaccination induced neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers that were maintained at high concentrations for at least 1 year after two doses, with a pseudovirus nAb geometric mean titer (GMT) of 1978 and a live virus nAb GMT of 1331 against the ancestral strain but not against the Omicron BA.1 variant. However, a booster dose at 6 to 12 months with RBD-Wu or RBD-ß (RBD from the Beta variant) displayed on I53-50 elicited high neutralizing titers against the ancestral and Omicron variants. In addition, we observed persistent neutralization titers against a panel of sarbecoviruses, including SARS-CoV. Furthermore, there were substantial and persistent memory T and B cell responses reactive to Beta and Omicron variants. Vaccination resulted in protection against Omicron infection in the lung and suppression of viral burden in the nares at 6 weeks after the final booster immunization. Even at 6 months after vaccination, we observed protection in the lung and rapid control of virus in the nares. These results highlight the durable and cross-protective immunity elicited by the AS03-adjuvanted RBD-I53-50 nanoparticle vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Subunit
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_1): S24-S29, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992141

ABSTRACT

Since the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic began 2 years ago, the scientific community has swiftly worked to understand the transmission, pathogenesis, and immune response of this virus to implement public health policies and ultimately project an end to the pandemic. In this perspective, we present our work identifying SARS-CoV-2 epitopes to quantify T-cell responses and review how T cells may help protect against severe disease. We examine our prior studies which demonstrate durable humoral and cell-mediated memory in natural infection and vaccination. We discuss how SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells from either natural infection or vaccination can recognize emerging variants of concern, suggesting that the currently approved vaccines may be sufficient. We also discuss how pre-existing cross-reactive T cells promote rapid development of immune memory to SARS-CoV-2. We finally posit how identifying SARS-CoV-2 epitopes can help us develop a pan-coronavirus vaccine to prepare for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes , Humans
17.
Current research in immunology ; 3:146-150, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1989583

ABSTRACT

It is critically important to understand how the adaptive immune response, elicited by vaccination or infection, recognizes SARS-CoV-2. This is especially true when considering the challenges to the immune response posed by variant evolution. Herein, we summarize our work aimed at characterizing the magnitude of the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2, the proteins most frequently recognized, and the associated T cell epitope repertoire. This work formed the foundation for our most recent studies aimed at understanding and predicting the ability of T cell responses induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination to subsequently cross-recognize novel SARS-CoV-2 variants. We found that T cell responses are remarkably preserved and able to cross-recognize SARS-CoV-2 variants, from Alpha to Omicron. This is distinct from what has been observed for the SARS-CoV-2- specific antibody and B cell responses. This body of work, supported by independent studies carried out by other groups, suggests that T cells may contribute to a second line of defense against infection while also limiting viral spread and, thus, disease severity. Graphical Image 1

18.
mBio ; 13(4): e0142322, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1986332

ABSTRACT

CoronaVac is an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine approved by the World Health Organization (WHO). Previous studies reported increased levels of neutralizing antibodies and specific T cells 2 and 4 weeks after two doses of CoronaVac; these levels were significantly reduced at 6 to 8 months after the two doses. Here, we report the effect of a booster dose of CoronaVac on the anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response generated against the variants of concern (VOCs), Delta and Omicron, in adults participating in a phase III clinical trial in Chile. Volunteers immunized with two doses of CoronaVac in a 4-week interval received a booster dose of the same vaccine between 24 and 30 weeks after the second dose. Neutralization capacities and T cell activation against VOCs Delta and Omicron were assessed 4 weeks after the booster dose. We observed a significant increase in neutralizing antibodies 4 weeks after the booster dose. We also observed a rise in anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells over time, and these cells reached a peak 4 weeks after the booster dose. Furthermore, neutralizing antibodies and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells induced by the booster showed activity against VOCs Delta and Omicron. Our results show that a booster dose of CoronaVac increases adults' humoral and cellular anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses. In addition, immunity induced by a booster dose of CoronaVac is active against VOCs, suggesting adequate protection. IMPORTANCE CoronaVac is an inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 that has been approved by WHO for emergency use. Phase III clinical trials are in progress in several countries, including China, Brazil, Turkey, and Chile, and have shown safety and immunogenicity after two doses of the vaccine. This report characterizes immune responses induced by two doses of CoronaVac followed by a booster dose 5 months after the second dose in healthy Chilean adults. The data reported here show that a booster dose increased the immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, enhancing levels of neutralizing antibodies against the ancestral strain and VOCs. Similarly, anti-SARS-CoV-2 CD4+ T cell responses were increased following the booster dose. In contrast, levels of gamma interferon secretion and T cell activation against the VOCs Delta and Omicron were not significantly different from those for the ancestral strain. Therefore, a third dose of CoronaVac in a homologous vaccination schedule improves its immunogenicity in healthy volunteers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes
19.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(9): 1269-1278.e4, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936161

ABSTRACT

The immune memory to common cold coronaviruses (CCCs) influences SARS-CoV-2 infection outcome, and understanding its effect is crucial for pan-coronavirus vaccine development. We performed a longitudinal analysis of pre-COVID19-pandemic samples from 2016-2019 in young adults and assessed CCC-specific CD4+ T cell and antibody responses. Notably, CCC responses were commonly detected with comparable frequencies as with other common antigens and were sustained over time. CCC-specific CD4+ T cell responses were associated with low HLA-DR+CD38+ signals, and their magnitude did not correlate with yearly CCC infection prevalence. Similarly, CCC-specific and spike RBD-specific IgG responses were stable in time. Finally, high CCC-specific CD4+ T cell reactivity, but not antibody titers, was associated with pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 immunity. These results provide a valuable reference for understanding the immune response to endemic coronaviruses and suggest that steady and sustained CCC responses are likely from a stable pool of memory CD4+ T cells due to repeated earlier exposures and possibly occasional reinfections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Common Cold , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Common Cold/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunologic Memory , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
20.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(4): e252-e264, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937379

ABSTRACT

Background: COH04S1, a synthetic attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara vector co-expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid antigens, was tested for safety and immunogenicity in healthy adults. Methods: This combined open-label and randomised, phase 1 trial was done at the City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center (Duarte, CA, USA). We included participants aged 18-54 years with a negative SARS-CoV-2 antibody and PCR test, normal haematology and chemistry panels, a normal electrocardiogram and troponin concentration, negative pregnancy test if female, body-mass index of 30 kg/m2 or less, and no modified vaccinia virus Ankara or poxvirus vaccine in the past 12 months. In the open-label cohort, 1·0 × 107 plaque-forming units (PFU; low dose), 1·0 × 108 PFU (medium dose), and 2·5 × 108 PFU (high dose) of COH04S1 were administered by intramuscular injection on day 0 and 28 to sentinel participants using a queue-based statistical design to limit risk. In a randomised dose expansion cohort, additional participants were randomly assigned (3:3:1), using block size of seven, to receive two placebo vaccines (placebo group), one low-dose COH04S1 and one placebo vaccine (low-dose COH04S1 plus placebo group), or two low-dose COH04S1 vaccines (low-dose COH04S1 group). The primary outcome was safety and tolerability, with secondary objectives assessing vaccine-specific immunogenicity. The primary immunological outcome was a four times increase (seroconversion) from baseline in spike-specific or nucleocapsid-specific IgG titres within 28 days of the last injection, and seroconversion rates were compared with participants who received placebo using Fisher's exact test. Additional secondary outcomes included assessment of viral neutralisation and cellular responses. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT046339466. Findings: Between Dec 13, 2020, and May 24, 2021, 56 participants initiated vaccination. On day 0 and 28, 17 participants received low-dose COH04S1, eight received medium-dose COH04S1, nine received high-dose COH04S1, five received placebo, 13 received low-dose COH04S1 followed by placebo, and four discontinued early. Grade 3 fever was observed in one participant who received low-dose COH04S1 and placebo, and grade 2 anxiety or fatigue was seen in one participant who received medium-dose COH04S1. No severe adverse events were reported. Seroconversion was observed in all 34 participants for spike protein and 32 (94%) for nucleocapsid protein (p<0·0001 vs placebo for each comparison). Four times or more increase in SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies within 56 days was measured in nine of 17 participants in the low-dose COH04S1 group, all eight participants in the medium-dose COH04S1 group, and eight of nine participants in the high-dose COH04S1 group (p=0·0035 combined dose levels vs placebo). Post-prime and post-boost four times increase in spike-specific or nucleocapsid-specific T cells secreting interferon-γ was measured in 48 (98%; 95% CI 89-100) of 49 participants who received at least one dose of COH04S1 and provided a sample for immunological analysis. Interpretation: COH04S1 was well tolerated and induced spike-specific and nucleocapsid-specific antibody and T-cell responses. Future evaluation of this COVID-19 vaccine candidate as a primary or boost vaccination is warranted. Funding: The Carol Moss Foundation and City of Hope Integrated Drug Development Venture programme.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Young Adult
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