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1.
Neurology International ; 14(4):991-996, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2143404

ABSTRACT

(1) Introduction: There have been numerous reports on the neuroinvasive competence of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we present a case with anti-MOG positive bilateral optic neuritis and brainstem encephalitis secondary to COVID-19 infection. Additionally, we present a review of the current literature regarding the manifestation of anti-MOG positive optic neuritis as well as anti-MOG positive encephalitis after COVID-19 infection. (2) Case Report: A 59-year-old female patient, with a recent history of COVID-19 infection, presented a progressive reduction of visual acuity and bilateral retrobulbar pain for the last 20 days. An ophthalmological examination revealed a decreased visual acuity (counting fingers) and a bilateral papilledema. An MRI scan of the brain revealed a mild thickening of the bilateral optic nerves and high-intensity lesions in the medial and right lateral pons. A high titer of IgG and IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in serum and antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (anti-MOG) in serum and CSF were revealed. The diagnosis of anti-MOG brainstem encephalitis and optic neuritis was set. (3) Conclusions: The history of COVID-19 infection should raise awareness about these autoimmune and infection-triggered diseases, such as anti-MOG antibody disease.

2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1045101, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099155

ABSTRACT

It has been over a year since people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) have been receiving vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). With a negligible number of cases in which vaccination led to a relapse or new onset MS, experts around the world agree that the potential consequences of COVID-19 in pwMS by far outweigh the risks of vaccination. This article reviews the currently available types of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and the immune responses they elicit in pwMS treated with different DMTs. Findings to date highlight the importance of vaccine timing in relation to DMT dosing to maximize protection, and of encouraging pwMS to get booster doses when offered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination
4.
Neuroimmunology Reports ; : 100109, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1907602

ABSTRACT

Background : Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) is a rare, recently introduced sectorial outer retinopathy commonly seen in young females. The presence of AZOOR in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients can sometimes masquerade as optic neuritis. We hereby analyze an infrequent case of such an incident, as well as the comorbidities of this particular patient and the arising differential diagnostic dilemmas. Case Presentation : A 29-year-old female MS patient on cladribine presented in the emergency department (ED) due to left eye (LE) visual disturbances which appeared after Covid-19 infection. As a result of her past medical history, the case was considered to be consistent with optic neuritis. The patient was treated with high doses of intravenous methylprednisolone, but despite the treatment symptoms persisted. Ophthalmological findings were compatible with AZOOR. Conclusions : AZOOR can coexist with MS. However, it is unclear whether cladribine treatment or Covid-19 infection triggered AZOOR. Given the potential for ocular adverse effects associated with cladribine use, patients should be encouraged to report visual disturbances promptly. In addition, medical professionals must be vigilant of MS patients on cladribine complaining of visual symptoms, and refer them to an ophthalmologist as soon as possible.

5.
Ther Adv Chronic Dis ; 13: 20406223221076890, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779561

ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence points toward a very high prevalence of prolonged neurological symptoms among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors. To date, there are no solidified criteria for 'long-COVID' diagnosis. Nevertheless, 'long-COVID' is conceptualized as a multi-organ disorder with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that may be indicative of underlying pulmonary, cardiovascular, endocrine, hematologic, renal, gastrointestinal, dermatologic, immunological, psychiatric, or neurological disease. Involvement of the central or peripheral nervous system is noted in more than one-third of patients with antecedent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, while an approximately threefold higher incidence of neurological symptoms is recorded in observational studies including patient-reported data. The most frequent neurological manifestations of 'long-COVID' encompass fatigue; 'brain fog'; headache; cognitive impairment; sleep, mood, smell, or taste disorders; myalgias; sensorimotor deficits; and dysautonomia. Although very limited evidence exists to date on the pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in the manifestation of 'long-COVID', neuroinflammatory and oxidative stress processes are thought to prevail in propagating neurological 'long-COVID' sequelae. In this narrative review, we sought to present a comprehensive overview of our current understanding of clinical features, risk factors, and pathophysiological processes of neurological 'long-COVID' sequelae. Moreover, we propose diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms that may aid in the prompt recognition and management of underlying causes of neurological symptoms that persist beyond the resolution of acute COVID-19. Furthermore, as causal treatments for 'long-COVID' are currently unavailable, we propose therapeutic approaches for symptom-oriented management of neurological 'long-COVID' symptoms. In addition, we emphasize that collaborative research initiatives are urgently needed to expedite the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies for neurological 'long-COVID' sequelae.

6.
Int J MS Care ; 23(6): 261-268, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626428

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of the major objectives of the Multiple Sclerosis Data Alliance (MSDA) is to enable better discovery of multiple sclerosis (MS) real-world data (RWD). METHODS: We implemented the MSDA Catalogue, which is available worldwide. The current version of the MSDA Catalogue collects descriptive information on governance, purpose, inclusion criteria, procedures for data quality control, and how and which data are collected, including the use of e-health technologies and data on collection of COVID-19 variables. The current cataloguing procedure is performed in several manual steps, securing an effective catalogue. RESULTS: Herein we summarize the status of the MSDA Catalogue as of January 6, 2021. To date, 38 data sources across five continents are included in the MSDA Catalogue. These data sources differ in purpose, maturity, and variables collected, but this landscaping effort shows that there is substantial alignment on some domains. The MSDA Catalogue shows that personal data and basic disease data are the most collected categories of variables, whereas data on fatigue measurements and cognition scales are the least collected in MS registries/cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The Web-based MSDA Catalogue provides strategic overview and allows authorized end users to browse metadata profiles of data cohorts and data sources. There are many existing and arising RWD sources in MS. Detailed cataloguing of MS RWD is a first and useful step toward reducing the time needed to discover MS RWD sets and promoting collaboration.

7.
Frontiers in neurology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1563913

ABSTRACT

Background: In the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the constant needs of people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and their caregivers were urgently highlighted. Aim: The present study aims to capture the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in several aspects of the quality of life of PwMS, in perception and behavior to COVID-19 and multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as concerning healthcare, working conditions, and the willingness toward COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: This study is an initiative of the Hellenic Academy of Neuroimmunology (HEL.A.NI.) and it has been included in the MS Data Alliance (MSDA) Catalog, which can be accessed after creating an account on https://msda.emif-catalogue.eu/login. Two online questionnaires were administered: (i) impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the quality of life, behavior, and healthcare of PwMS (Questionnaire A) and (ii) vaccination against COVID-19 (Questionnaire B). People with MS were invited to participate by the Hellenic Federation of Persons with Multiple Sclerosis (HFoPwMS). Results: Three-hundred-ninety PwMS responded to Questionnaire A, whereas 176 PwMS provided answers for Questionnaire B. Older age, longer disease duration, and higher MS-related disability were associated with the increased perceived sensitivity toward severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, as well as the increased perceived severity of COVID-19 upon potential infection. A significant proportion of PwMS experienced restricted access to MS-related health professionals, disease-modifying therapy (DMT) prescription, and/or to MS-related laboratory examination due to the pandemic. Subgroups of PwMS reported exacerbated symptoms (i.e., chronic MS-related symptoms, fatigue and/or worsening of pre-existing fatigue, and sexual dysfunction and or/worsening of pre-existing sexual dysfunction). Overall, the majority of the participants reported either a strong willingness to get vaccinated against COVID-19 or a likeliness to undergo vaccination. Being aware of the HEL.A.NI. recommendations regarding COVID-19 vaccination for PwMS were reported to increase the willingness of the participants to receive the vaccine. Conclusions: Our results highlight the necessity of scientific and patient organizations in taking joint action to increase awareness on health-related issues during the pandemic and to provide accurate and up-to-date guidance for PwMS. Online information and communications technology (ICT) tools for polling public belief and behavior may prove valuable as means of retaining active routes of communication between stakeholders.

8.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord ; 14: 17562864211029540, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An alarming cerebro/cardiovascular collateral damage, reflected by a decline in admissions for acute stroke (AS) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS), was observed during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, thereby leading to a re-design of public campaigns. However, there are limited data regarding the AS and ACS hospitalization rates during the second wave of the pandemic, which was followed by re-imposition of lockdowns. METHODS: We calculated the rate of AS and ACS hospitalizations from three representative tertiary care hospitals in Greece during a 2-month period (November-December 2020) of the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic compared with the corresponding control period in 2019 from three representative tertiary care hospitals in Greece. This was a follow-up study with identical design to our previous report evaluating AS and ACS hospitalizations during the first wave of the pandemic (March-April 2020). RESULTS: Compared with 2019, there was a 34% relative reduction of AS hospitalizations [incidence rate ratio (IRR): 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-0.92, p = 0.013] and 33% relative reduction of ACS hospitalizations (IRR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.54-0.83, p < 0.001) during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The relative reduction was smaller and did not reach the level of statistical significance for the respective syndromes (haemorrhagic stroke: IRR 0.87, 95% CI: 0.41-1.82, p = 0.71; ST-elevation myocardial infarction: IRR 0.81, 95% CI: 0.57-1.14, p = 0.22). CONCLUSION: AS and ACS hospitalizations were persistently reduced during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic compared with 2019 in Greece. This decline was similar to the observations during the first wave despite the large differences in the epidemiological COVID-19 burden. Lockdowns, a common characteristic in both waves, appear to have a detrimental indirect impact on cerebro/cardiovascular diseases in the general population.

10.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord ; 13: 1756286420932036, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610846

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China and rapidly spread worldwide, with a vast majority of confirmed cases presenting with respiratory symptoms. Potential neurological manifestations and their pathophysiological mechanisms have not been thoroughly established. In this narrative review, we sought to present the neurological manifestations associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Case reports, case series, editorials, reviews, case-control and cohort studies were evaluated, and relevant information was abstracted. Various reports of neurological manifestations of previous coronavirus epidemics provide a roadmap regarding potential neurological complications of COVID-19, due to many shared characteristics between these viruses and SARS-CoV-2. Studies from the current pandemic are accumulating and report COVID-19 patients presenting with dizziness, headache, myalgias, hypogeusia and hyposmia, but also with more serious manifestations including polyneuropathy, myositis, cerebrovascular diseases, encephalitis and encephalopathy. However, discrimination between causal relationship and incidental comorbidity is often difficult. Severe COVID-19 shares common risk factors with cerebrovascular diseases, and it is currently unclear whether the infection per se represents an independent stroke risk factor. Regardless of any direct or indirect neurological manifestations, the COVID-19 pandemic has a huge impact on the management of neurological patients, whether infected or not. In particular, the majority of stroke services worldwide have been negatively influenced in terms of care delivery and fear to access healthcare services. The effect on healthcare quality in the field of other neurological diseases is additionally evaluated.

11.
Brain Sci ; 10(6)2020 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593070

ABSTRACT

In the frame of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, recent reports on SARS-CoV-2 potential neuroinvasion placed neurologists on increased alertness in order to assess early neurological manifestations and their potentially prognostic value for the COVID-19 disease. Moreover, the management of chronic neurological diseases, such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS), underwent guided modifications, such as an Extended Interval Dose (EID) of Disease-Modifying Treatment (DMT) administration, in order to minimize patients' exposure to the health system, thus reducing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we summarize existing evidence of key immune pathways that the SARS-CoV-2 modifies during COVID-19 and the relevant implication for MS and other autoimmune diseases with associated demyelination (such as Systemic lupus erythematosus and Antiphospholipid syndrome), including the context of potential neuroinvasion by SARS-Cov-2 and the alterations that DMT induces to the immune system. Moreover we hereby aim to provide an overview of the possible consequences that COVID-19 may carry for the Central Nervous System (CNS) in People with MS (PwMS) and other demyelinating diseases, which are likely to pose challenges for treating Neurologists with respect to the long-term disease management of these diseases.

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