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1.
Ann Intensive Care ; 12(1): 23, 2022 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841046

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Survivors of viral ARDS are at risk of long-term physical, functional and neuropsychological complications resulting from the lung injury itself, but also from potential multiorgan dysfunction, and the long stay in the intensive care unit (ICU). Recovery profiles after severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in intensive care unit survivors have yet to be clearly defined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The goal of this single-center, prospective, observational study was to systematically evaluate pulmonary and extrapulmonary function at 12 months after a stay in the ICU, in a prospectively identified cohort of patients who survived SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Eligible patients were assessed at 3, 6 and 12 months after onset of SARS-CoV-2. Patients underwent physical examination, pulmonary function testing, chest computed tomography (CT) scan, a standardized six-minute walk test with continuous oximetry, overnight home respiratory polygraphy and have completed quality of life questionnaire. The primary endpoint was alteration of the alveolar-capillary barrier compared to reference values as measured by DLCO, at 12 months after onset of SARS-CoV-2 symptoms. RESULTS: In total, 85 patients (median age 68.4 years, (interquartile range [IQR] = 60.1-72.9 years), 78.8% male) participated in the trial. The median length of hospital stay was 44 days (IQR: 20-60) including 17 days in ICU (IQR: 11-26). Pulmonary function tests were completed at 3 months (n = 85), 6 months (n = 80), and 12 months (n = 73) after onset of symptoms. Most patients showed an improvement in DLCO at each timepoint (3, 6, and 12 months). All patients who normalized their DLCO did not subsequently deteriorate, except one. Chest CT scans were abnormal in 77 patients (96.3%) at 3 months and although the proportion was the same at 12 months, but patterns have changed. CONCLUSION: We report the results of a comprehensive evaluation of 85 patients admitted to the ICU for SARS-CoV-2, at one-year follow-up after symptom onset. We show that most patients had an improvement in DLCO at each timepoint. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial registration number: NCT04519320.

2.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(10): e0240, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is now substantial evidence to support venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation efficacy and safety for patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, recent guidelines recommend against the initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in patients with mechanical ventilation for coronavirus disease 2019 severe acute respiratory distress syndrome for greater than 7-10 days. CASE SUMMARY: We report the case of a patient with coronavirus disease 2019 severe acute respiratory distress syndrome with successful late venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiation after 20 days of mechanical ventilation. Respiratory compliance, arterial blood gases, and radiological lesions improved progressively under venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and ultraprotective ventilation. The patient was discharged from ICU. CONCLUSIONS: As coronavirus disease 2019 is a new and incompletely understood entity, we believe that late extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may be considered in selected patients as a bridge to recovery. Further prospective studies are, however, needed.

3.
Eur Respir J ; 56(4)2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751254

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may predispose to venous thromboembolism. We determined factors independently associated with computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA)-confirmed pulmonary embolism (PE) in hospitalised severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Among all (n=349) patients hospitalised for COVID-19 in a university hospital in a French region with a high rate of COVID-19, we analysed patients who underwent CTPA for clinical signs of severe disease (oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry ≤93% or breathing rate ≥30 breaths·min-1) or rapid clinical worsening. Multivariable analysis was performed using Firth penalised maximum likelihood estimates. RESULTS: 162 (46.4%) patients underwent CTPA (mean±sd age 65.6±13.0 years; 67.3% male (95% CI 59.5-75.5%). PE was diagnosed in 44 (27.2%) patients. Most PEs were segmental and the rate of PE-related right ventricular dysfunction was 15.9%. By multivariable analysis, the only two significant predictors of CTPA-confirmed PE were D-dimer level and the lack of any anticoagulant therapy (OR 4.0 (95% CI 2.4-6.7) per additional quartile and OR 4.5 (95% CI 1.1-7.4), respectively). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified a D-dimer cut-off value of 2590 ng·mL-1 to best predict occurrence of PE (area under the curve 0.88, p<0.001, sensitivity 83.3%, specificity 83.8%). D-dimer level >2590 ng·mL-1 was associated with a 17-fold increase in the adjusted risk of PE. CONCLUSION: Elevated D-dimers (>2590 ng·mL-1) and absence of anticoagulant therapy predict PE in hospitalised COVID-19 patients with clinical signs of severity. These data strengthen the evidence base in favour of systematic anticoagulation, and suggest wider use of D-dimer guided CTPA to screen for PE in acutely ill hospitalised patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Oximetry , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 10(9): 1852-1862, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increased prevalence of acute pulmonary embolism in COVID-19 has been reported in few recent studies. Some works have highlighted pathological changes on lung microvasculature with local pulmonary intravascular coagulopathy that may explain pulmonary artery thrombosis found on pulmonary computed tomography (CT) angiography. The objective of our study was to describe lung perfusion disorders assessed by pulmonary dual-energy CT (DECT) angiography in severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This single center retrospective study included 85 consecutive patients with a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 who underwent a pulmonary DECT angiography between March 16th 2020 and April 22th 2020. Pulmonary DECT angiography was performed when the patient had severe clinical symptoms or suffered from active neoplasia or immunosuppression. Two chest radiologists performed pulmonary angiography analysis in search of pulmonary artery thrombosis and a blinded semi quantitative analysis of iodine color maps focusing on the presence of parenchymal ischemia. The lung parenchyma was divided into volumes based on HU values. DECT analysis included lung segmentation, total lungs volume and distribution of lung perfusion assessment. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients (34%) were diagnosed with pulmonary artery thrombosis, mainly segmental (83%). Semi-quantitative analysis revealed parenchymal ischemia in 68% patients of the overall population, with no significant difference regarding absence or presence of pulmonary artery thrombosis (23 vs. 35, P=0.144). Inter-reader agreement of parenchymal ischemia between reader 1 and 2 was substantial [0.74; interquartile range (IQR): 0.59-0.89]. Volume of ischemia was significantly higher in patients with pulmonary artery thrombosis [29 (IQR, 8-100) vs. 8 (IQR, 0-45) cm3, P=0.041]. Lung parenchyma was divided between normal parenchyma (59%, of which 34% was hypoperfused), ground glass opacities (10%, of which 20% was hypoperfused) and consolidation (31%, of which 10% was hypoperfused). CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary perfusion evaluated by iodine concentration maps shows extreme heterogeneity in COVID-19 patients and lower iodine levels in normal parenchyma. Pulmonary ischemic areas were more frequent and larger in patients with pulmonary artery thrombosis. Pulmonary DECT angiography revealed a significant number of pulmonary ischemic areas even in the absence of visible pulmonary arterial thrombosis. This may reflect microthrombosis associated with COVID-19 pneumonia.

5.
Infection ; 48(6): 945-948, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612672

ABSTRACT

PCR-based viral RNA to confirm the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection has a sensitivity of around 70%. We report three cases of patients with negative initial PCR and CT scan lesions that led us to suspect COVID-19, but which one(s) are really COVID-19?


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome
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