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1.
Biol Methods Protoc ; 7(1): bpac021, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107364

ABSTRACT

Serum samples of 20 hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients from Brazil who were infected by the earlier severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineages B.1.1.28 and B.1.1.33, and by the variant of concern (VOC) Gamma (P.1) were tested by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) with wild isolates of a panel of SARS-CoV-2 lineages, including B.1, Zeta, N.10, and the VOCs Gamma, Alpha, and Delta that emerged in different timeframes of the pandemic. The main objective of this study was to evaluate if the serum of patients infected by earlier lineages was capable to neutralize later emerged VOCs. We also evaluated if the 4-fold difference in PRNT90 titers is a reliable seropositivity criterion to distinguish infections caused by different SARS-CoV-2 lineages. Sera collected between May 2020 and August 2021 from the day of admittance to the hospital to 21 days after diagnostic of patients infected by the two earlier lineages B.1.1.28 and B.1.1.33 presented neutralizing capacity for all challenged VOCs, including Gamma and Delta. Among all variants tested, Delta and N.10 presented the lowest geometric mean of neutralizing antibody titers, and B.1.1.7, presented the highest titers. Four patients infected with Gamma, that emerged in December 2020, presented neutralizing antibodies for B.1, B.1.1.33, and B.1.1.28, its ancestor lineage. All of them had neutralizing antibodies under the level of detection for the VOC Delta. Patients infected by B.1.1.28 presented very similar geometric mean of neutralizing antibody titers for both B.1.1.33 and B.1.1.28. Findings presented here indicate that most patients infected in early stages of COVID-19 pandemic presented neutralizing antibodies capable to neutralize wild types of all later emerged VOCs in Brazil, and that the 4-fold difference in PRNT90 titers is not reliable to distinguish humoral response among different SARS-CoV-2 lineages.

2.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(8): e33309, 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Internet and mobile phones, widely available in Brazil, could be used to disseminate information about HIV prevention and to recruit gay, bisexual, and other cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM) to HIV prevention services. Data evaluating the characteristics of MSM recruited through different web-based strategies and estimating their cost and yield in the country are not available. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe a web-based recruitment cascade, compare the characteristics of MSM recruited to a large HIV prevention service in Rio de Janeiro according to web-based venues, and estimate the cost per participant for each strategy. METHODS: We promoted advertisements on geosocial networking (GSN) apps (Hornet and Grindr) and social media (Facebook and Instagram) from March 2018 to October 2019. The advertisements invited viewers to contact a peer educator to schedule a visit at the HIV prevention service. Performance of web-based recruitment cascade was based on how many MSM (1) were reached by the advertisement, (2) contacted the peer educator, and (3) attended the service. We used chi-square tests to compare MSM recruited through GSN apps and social media. The estimated advertisement cost to recruit a participant was calculated by dividing total advertisement costs by number of participants who attended the service or initiated preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). RESULTS: Advertisement reached 1,477,344 individuals; 1270 MSM contacted the peer educator (86 contacts per 100,000 views)-564 (44.4%), 401 (31.6%) and 305 (24.0%)-through social media, Grindr, and Hornet. Among the 1270 individuals who contacted the peer educator, 36.3% (n=461) attended the service with similar proportion for each web-based strategy (social media: 203/564, 36.0%; Grindr: 152/401, 37.9%; and Hornet: 107/305, 35.1%). MSM recruited through GSN apps were older (mean age 30 years vs 26 years; P<.001), more frequently self-reported as White (111/247, 44.9% vs 62/191, 32.5%; P=.03), and had higher schooling level (postsecondary: 157/254, 61.8% vs 94/194, 48.5%; P=.007) than MSM recruited through social media. GSN apps recruited MSM with higher HIV risk as measured by PrEP eligibility (207/239, 86.6% vs 133/185, 71.9%; P<.001) compared with social media, but there was no difference in PrEP uptake between the two strategies (P=.22). The estimated advertisement costs per participant attending the HIV prevention service were US $28.36 for GSN apps and US $12.17 for social media. The estimated advertisement costs per participant engaging on PrEP were US $58.77 for GSN apps and US $27.75 for social media. CONCLUSIONS: Social media and GSN app advertisements were useful to disseminate information on HIV prevention strategies and to recruit MSM to a large HIV prevention service in Brazil. Compared to GSN apps, social media advertisements were less expensive and reached more vulnerable and younger MSM. Digital marketing campaigns should use different and complementary web-based venues to reach a plurality of MSM.

3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 9082455, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020549

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic or mild/moderate symptoms to severe symptoms and death. The mechanisms underlying its clinical evolution are still unclear. Upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, host factors, such as the inflammasome system, are activated by the presence of the virus inside host cells. The search for COVID-19 risk factors is of relevance for clinical management. In this study, we investigated the impact of inflammasome single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals with distinct severity profiles at clinical presentation. Patients were divided into two groups according to disease severity at clinical presentation based on the WHO Clinical Progression Scale. Group 1 included patients with mild/moderate disease (WHO < 6; n = 76), and group 2 included patients with severe/critical COVID-19 (WHO ≥ 6; n = 357). Inpatients with moderate to severe/critical profiles were recruited and followed-up at Hospital Center for COVID-19 Pandemic - National Institute of Infectology (INI)/FIOCRUZ, RJ, Brazil, from June 2020 to March 2021. Patients with mild disease were recruited at Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC)/FIOCRUZ, RJ, Brazil, in August 2020. Genotyping of 11 inflammasome SNPs was determined by real-time PCR. Protection and risk estimation were performed using unconditional logistic regression models. Significant differences in NLRP3 rs1539019 and CARD8 rs2043211 were observed between the two groups. Protection against disease severity was associated with the A/A genotype (ORadj = 0.36; P = 0.032), allele A (ORadj = 0.93; P = 0.010), or carrier-A (ORadj = 0.45; P = 0.027) in the NLRP3 rs1539019 polymorphism; A/T genotype (ORadj = 0.5; P = 0.045), allele T (ORadj = 0.93; P = 0.018), or carrier-T (ORadj = 0.48; P = 0.029) in the CARD8 rs2043211 polymorphism; and the A-C-G-C-C (ORadj = 0.11; P = 0.018), A-C-G-C-G (ORadj = 0.23; P = 0.003), C-C-G-C-C (ORadj = 0.37; P = 0.021), and C-T-G-A-C (ORadj = 0.04; P = 0.0473) in NLRP3 genetic haplotype variants. No significant associations were observed for the other polymorphisms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating an association between CARD8 and NLRP3 inflammasome genetic variants and protection against COVID-19 severity, contributing to the discussion of the impact of inflammasomes on COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammasomes , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Humans , Inflammasomes/genetics , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Pandemics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Biology methods & protocols ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2012265

ABSTRACT

Serum samples of 20 hospitalized COVID-19 patients from Brazil who were infected by the earlier SARS-CoV-2 lineages B.1.1.28 and B.1.1.33, and by the variant of concern (VOC) Gamma (P.1) were tested by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) with wild isolates of a panel of SARS-CoV-2 lineages, including B.1, Zeta, N.10, and the VOCs Gamma, Alpha, and Delta that emerged in different timeframes of the pandemic. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate if serum of patients infected by earlier lineages was capable to neutralize later emerged VOCs. We also evaluated if the four-fold difference in PRNT90 titers is a reliable seropositivity criterion to distinguish infections caused by different SARS-CoV-2 lineages. Sera collected between May 2020 and August 2021 from the day of admittance to the hospital to 21 days after diagnostic of patients infected by the two earlier lineages B.1.1.28 and B.1.1.33 presented neutralizing capacity for all challenged VOCs, including Gamma and Delta. Among all variants tested, Delta and N.10 presented the lowest geometric mean of neutralizing antibody titers, and B.1.1.7, presented the highest titers. Four patients infected with Gamma, that emerged in December 2020, presented neutralizing antibodies for B.1, B.1.1.33 and B.1.1.28, its ancestor lineage. All of them had neutralizing antibodies under the level of detection for the VOC Delta. Patients infected by B.1.1.28 presented very similar geometric mean of neutralizing antibody titers for both B.1.1.33 and B.1.1.28. Findings presented here indicate that most patients infected in early stages of COVID-19 pandemic presented neutralizing antibodies capable to neutralize wild types of all later emerged VOCs in Brazil, and that the four-fold difference in PRNT90 titers is not reliable to distinguish humoral response among different SARS-CoV-2 lineages.

5.
Clin Trials ; : 17407745221118371, 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The HIV Prevention Trials Network 083 trial was a group-sequential non-inferiority trial designed to compare HIV incidence under a novel experimental regimen for HIV prevention, long-acting injectable cabotegravir, with an active-control regimen of daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (brand name Truvada). In March of 2020, just as the trial had completed enrollment, the COVID-19 pandemic threatened to prevent trial participants from attending study visits and obtaining study medication, motivating the study team to update the interim monitoring plan. The Data and Safety Monitoring Board subsequently stopped the trial at the first interim review due to strong early evidence of efficacy. METHODS: Here we describe some unique aspects of the trial's design, monitoring, analysis, and interpretation. We illustrate the importance of computing point estimates, confidence intervals, and p values based on the sampling distribution induced by sequential monitoring. RESULTS: Accurate analysis, decision-making and interpretation of trial results rely on pre-specification of a stopping boundary, including the scale on which the stopping rule will be implemented, the specific test statistics to be calculated, and how the boundary will be adjusted if the available information fraction at interim review is different from planned. After appropriate adjustment for the sampling distribution and overrun, the HIV Prevention Trials Network 083 trial provided strong evidence that the experimental regimen was superior to the active control. CONCLUSIONS: For the HIV Prevention Trials Network 083 trial, the difference between corrected inferential statistics and naive results was quite small-as will often be the case-nevertheless, it is appropriate to report and publish the most accurate and unbiased statistical results.

6.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 15: 100338, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966921

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 serosurveys allow for the monitoring of the level of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and support data-driven decisions. We estimated the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in a large favela complex in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: A population-based panel study was conducted in Complexo de Manguinhos (16 favelas) with a probabilistic sampling of participants aged ≥1 year who were randomly selected from a census of individuals registered in primary health care clinics that serve the area. Participants answered a structured interview and provided blood samples for serology. Multilevel regression models (with random intercepts to account for participants' favela of residence) were used to assess factors associated with having anti-S IgG antibodies. Secondary analyses estimated seroprevalence using an additional anti-N IgG assay. Findings: 4,033 participants were included (from Sep/2020 to Feb/2021, 22 epidemic weeks), the median age was 39·8 years (IQR:21·8-57·7), 61% were female, 41% were mixed-race (Pardo) and 23% Black. Overall prevalence was 49·0% (95%CI:46·8%-51·2%) which varied across favelas (from 68·3% to 31·4%). Lower prevalence estimates were found when using the anti-N IgG assay. Odds of having anti-S IgG antibodies were highest for young adults, and those reporting larger household size, poor adherence to social distancing and use of public transportation. Interpretation: We found a significantly higher prevalence of anti-S IgG antibodies than initially anticipated. Disparities in estimates obtained using different serological assays highlight the need for cautious interpretation of serosurveys estimates given the heterogeneity of exposure in communities, loss of immunological biomarkers, serological antigen target, and variant-specific test affinity. Funding: Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, Royal Society, Serrapilheira Institute, and FAPESP.

7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 907652, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963639

ABSTRACT

Reports of side effects of vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are increasing worldwide. Capillary leak syndrome and vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia are very rare but life-threatening adverse events that should be identified early and treated. However, isolated thrombocytopenia can indicate pseudothrombocytopenia. In certain people, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) induces an in vitro platelet aggregation, resulting in misleading underestimation of platelet counts. It is essential to recognize pseudothrombocytopenia to prevent diagnostic errors, overtreatment, anxiety, and unnecessary invasive procedures. We present a case who developed generalized edema and persistent pseudothrombocytopenia after the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AstraZeneca).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Edema , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Vaccination/adverse effects
8.
Lancet ; 400(10348): 257-259, 2022 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960114
10.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1887626

ABSTRACT

Reports of side effects of vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are increasing worldwide. Capillary leak syndrome and vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia are very rare but life-threatening adverse events that should be identified early and treated. However, isolated thrombocytopenia can indicate pseudothrombocytopenia. In certain people, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) induces an in vitro platelet aggregation, resulting in misleading underestimation of platelet counts. It is essential to recognize pseudothrombocytopenia to prevent diagnostic errors, overtreatment, anxiety, and unnecessary invasive procedures. We present a case who developed generalized edema and persistent pseudothrombocytopenia after the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AstraZeneca).

11.
J Infect Dis ; 226(6): 979-982, 2022 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886441

ABSTRACT

This secondary analysis of the phase 3 ENSEMBLE trial (NCT04505722) assessed the impact of preexisting humoral immunity to adenovirus 26 (Ad26) on the immunogenicity of Ad26.COV2.S-elicited severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibody levels in 380 participants in Brazil, South Africa, and the United States. Among those vaccinated in Brazil and South Africa, 31% and 66%, respectively, had prevaccination serum-neutralizing activity against Ad26, with little preexisting immunity detected in the United States. Vaccine recipients in each country had similar postvaccination spike (S) protein-binding antibody levels, indicating that baseline immunity to Ad26 has no clear impact on vaccine-induced immune responses.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , COVID-19 , Ad26COVS1 , Adenoviridae , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2
12.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332856

ABSTRACT

Anti-spike IgG binding antibody, anti-receptor binding domain IgG antibody, and pseudovirus neutralizing antibody measurements four weeks post-vaccination were assessed as correlates of risk of moderate to severe-critical COVID-19 outcomes through 83 days post-vaccination and as correlates of protection following a single dose of Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccine in the placebo-controlled phase of ENSEMBLE, an international, randomized efficacy trial. Each marker had evidence as a correlate of risk and of protection, with strongest evidence for 50% inhibitory dilution (ID50) neutralizing antibody titer. The outcome hazard ratio was 0.49 (95% confidence interval 0.29, 0.81;p=0.006) per 10-fold increase in ID50;vaccine efficacy was 60% (43, 72%) at nonquantifiable ID50 (< 2.7 IU50/ml) and rose to 89% (78, 96%) at ID50 = 96.3 IU50/ml. Comparison of the vaccine efficacy by ID50 titer curves for ENSEMBLE-US, the COVE trial of the mRNA-1273 vaccine, and the COV002-UK trial of the AZD1222 vaccine supported consistency of the ID50 titer correlate of protection across trials and vaccine types.

13.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 11: 100244, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783617

ABSTRACT

Background: We evaluated in-hospital mortality and outcomes incidence after hospital discharge due to COVID-19 in a Brazilian multicenter cohort. Methods: This prospective multicenter study (RECOVER-SUS, NCT04807699) included COVID-19 patients hospitalized in public tertiary hospitals in Brazil from June 2020 to March 2021. Clinical assessment and blood samples were performed at hospital admission, with post-hospital discharge remote visits. Hospitalized participants were followed-up until March 31, 2021. The outcomes were in-hospital mortality and incidence of rehospitalization or death after hospital discharge. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional-hazard models were performed. Findings: 1589 participants [54.5% male, age=62 (IQR 50-70) years; BMI=28.4 (IQR,24.9-32.9) Kg/m² and 51.9% with diabetes] were included. A total of 429 individuals [27.0% (95%CI,24.8-29.2)] died during hospitalization (median time 14 (IQR,9-24) days). Older age [vs<40 years; age=60-69 years-aHR=1.89 (95%CI,1.08-3.32); age=70-79 years-aHR=2.52 (95%CI,1.42-4.45); age≥80-aHR=2.90 (95%CI 1.54-5.47)]; noninvasive or mechanical ventilation at admission [vs facial-mask or none; aHR=1.69 (95%CI 1.30-2.19)]; SAPS-III score≥57 [vs<57; aHR=1.47 (95%CI 1.13-1.92)] and SOFA score≥10 [vs <10; aHR=1.51 (95%CI 1.08-2.10)] were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. A total of 65 individuals [6.7% (95%CI 5.3-8.4)] had a rehospitalization or death [rate=323 (95%CI 250-417) per 1000 person-years] in a median time of 52 (range 1-280) days post-hospital discharge. Age ≥ 60 years [vs <60, aHR=2.13 (95%CI 1.15-3.94)] and SAPS-III ≥57 at admission [vs <57, aHR=2.37 (95%CI 1.22-4.59)] were independently associated with rehospitalization or death after hospital discharge. Interpretation: High in-hospital mortality rates due to COVID-19 were observed and elderly people remained at high risk of rehospitalization and death after hospital discharge. Funding: Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and Programa INOVA-FIOCRUZ.

14.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-332160

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 serosurveys allow monitoring the level of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and support data-driven decisions, which are particularly useful in low-income settings with limited testing capacity and unequal COVID-19 burden. We estimated the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in a large favela complexes in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: A population-based panel study was conducted in Complexo de Manguinhos (16 favelas ) with a probabilistic sampling of participants aged ≥1 year. Participants answered a structured interview and provided blood samples for serology (anti-S IgG antibodies). Multilevel regression models (with random intercepts to account for participants spatial clustering) were used to assess factors associated with reactive serology. Secondary analyses estimated the seroprevalence using an additional anti-N IgG assay. Findings: 4,033 participants were included (from Sep/2020 toFeb/2021, 22 epidemic weeks), the median age was 39·8 years (IQR:21·8-57·7), 61% were female, 41% were mixed-race ( Pardo ) and 23% Black. Overall prevalence was 49·0% (95%CI:46·8%-51·2%) which varied across favelas (from 68·3% to 31·4%). Seroprevalence increased after epidemic week 15, concurrently with the upsurge of the Gamma (P1) variant in Rio de Janeiro. Lower prevalence estimates were found when using anti-N IgG assay across all age groups. Interpretation: We found a significantly higher prevalence of anti-S IgG antibodies than initially anticipated. Albeit high levels of seroprevalence levels, we documented the unfolding of a new transmission wave. Our results highlight the need for cautious interpretation of serosurveys estimates given the heterogeneity of exposure in communities, loss of immunological biomarkers, serological antigen target, and variant-specific test affinity.

15.
Virus Evol ; 7(2): veab091, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713740

ABSTRACT

One of the most remarkable severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOC) features is the significant number of mutations they acquired. However, the specific factors that drove the emergence of such variants since the second half of 2020 are not fully resolved. In this study, we describe a new SARS-CoV-2 P.1 sub-lineage circulating in Brazil, denoted here as Gamma-like-II, that as well as the previously described lineage Gamma-like-I shares several lineage-defining mutations with the VOC Gamma. Reconstructions of ancestor sequences support that most lineage-defining mutations of the Spike (S) protein, including those at the receptor-binding domain (RBD), accumulated at the first P.1 ancestor. In contrast, mutations outside the S protein were mostly fixed at subsequent steps. Our evolutionary analyses estimate that P.1-ancestral strains carrying RBD mutations of concern probably circulated cryptically in the Amazonas for several months before the emergence of the VOC Gamma. Unlike the VOC Gamma, the other P.1 sub-lineages displayed a much more restricted dissemination and accounted for a low fraction (<2 per cent) of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Brazil in 2021. The stepwise diversification of lineage P.1 through multiple inter-host transmissions is consistent with the hypothesis that partial immunity acquired from natural SARS-CoV-2 infections in heavily affected regions might have been a major driving force behind the natural selection of some VOCs. The lag time between the emergence of the P.1 ancestor and the expansion of the VOC Gamma and the divergent epidemic trajectories of P.1 sub-lineages support a complex interplay between the emergence of mutations of concern and viral spread in Brazil.

16.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327103

ABSTRACT

In the present study, serum samples of 20 hospitalized COVID-19 patients from Brazil who were infected by the earlier SARS-CoV-2 lineages B.1.1.28 and B.1.1.33, and by the variant of concern (VOC) Gamma (P.1) were tested by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT 90 ) with wild isolates of a panel of SARS-CoV-2 lineages, including B.1, Zeta, N.10, and the VOCs Gamma, Alpha, and Delta that emerged in different timeframes of the pandemic. The main objectives of the present study were to evaluate if serum of COVID-19 patients infected by earlier lineages of SARS-CoV-2 were capable to neutralize recently emerged VOCs, and if PRNT 90 is a reliable serologic method to distinguish infections caused by different SARS-CoV-2 lineages. Overall, sera collected from the day of admittance to the hospital to 21 days after diagnostic of patients infected by the two earlier lineages B.1.1.28 and B.1.1.33 presented neutralizing capacity for all challenged VOCs, including Gamma and Delta, that were the most prevalent VOCs in Brazil. Among all variants tested, Delta and N.10 presented the lowest mean of neutralizing antibody titers, and B.1.1.7, presented the highest titers. Four patients infected with Gamma, that emerged in December 2020, presented neutralizing antibodies for B.1, B.1.1.33 and B.1.1.28, its ancestor lineage. All of them had neutralizing antibodies under the level of detection for the VOC Delta. Interestingly, patients infected by B.1.1.28 presented very similar mean of neutralizing antibody titers for both B.1.1.33 and B.1.1.28. Findings presented here indicate that most patients infected in early stages of COVID-19 pandemic presented neutralizing antibodies up to 21 days after diagnostic capable to neutralize wild types of all recently emerged VOCs in Brazil, and that the PRNT 90 it is not a reliable serologic method to distinguish natural infections caused by different SARS-CoV-2 lineages.

17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314781

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, no direct antiviral treatment is effective as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) was repurposed as a potential PEP agent against COVID-19.Methods: We conducted a pragmatic open-label, parallel, cluster-randomized superiority trial in four sites in Switzerland and Brazil. Clusters were randomized to receive LPV/r PEP (400/100 mg) twice daily for 5 days or no PEP (surveillance). The primary outcome is the occurrence of COVID-19 within 21 days post-enrollment.Findings: Of 318 participants, 157 (49.4%) were women, median age was 39 (interquartile range, 28-50) years. A total of 209 (179 clusters) participants were randomized to LPV/r PEP and 109 (95 clusters) to surveillance. Baseline characteristics were similar, with the exception of baseline SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity, which was 3-fold more frequent in the LPV/r arm (34/209 [16.3%] vs 6/109 [5.5%], respectively). During 21-day follow-up, 48/318 (15.1%) participants developed COVID-19: 35/209 (16.7%) in the LPV/r group and 13/109 (11.9%) in the surveillance group (unadjusted hazard ratio 1.44;95% CI, 0.76 to 2.73). In the primary endpoint analysis adjusted for propensity score to receive LPV/r, the hazard ratio for developing COVID-19 in the LPV/r group vs surveillance was 0.53 (95% CI, 0.23 to 1.23, respectively;P =.14).Interpretation: LPV/r role as PEP for COVID-19 remains unanswered. In this trial, LPV/r over 5 days did not significantly reduce incidence of COVID-19 in exposed individuals. We observed a change in directionality of the effect in favor of LPV/r after adjusting for baseline SARS-CoV-2 PCR results, indicating a potential role of antivirals in COVID-19 prevention.Clinical Trial Registration Details: ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT04364022);Swiss National Clinical Trial Portal: SNCTP 000003732.Funding Information: Fondation privée des HUG and Swiss National Fund (project number: 33IC30_166819).Declaration of Interests: None reported.Ethics Approval Statement: The protocol and amendments were approved by Swissmedic and local ethics committees in Switzerland and Brazil. Participants provided written informed consent before study entry.

18.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311463

ABSTRACT

One of the most remarkable features of the SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern (VOC) is the unusually large number of mutations they carry. However, the specific factors that drove the emergence of such variants since the second half of 2020 are not fully resolved. In this study, we described a new SARS-CoV-2 lineage provisionally designated as P.1-like-II that, as well as the previously described lineage P.1-like-I, shares several lineage-defining mutations with the VOC P.1 circulating in Brazil. Reconstructions of P.1 ancestor sequences demonstrate that the entire constellation of mutations that define the VOC P.1 did not accumulate within a single long-term infected individual, but was acquired by sequential addition during interhost transmissions. Our evolutionary analyses further estimate that P.1-ancestors strains carrying half of the P.1-lineage-defining mutations, including those at the receptor-binding domain of the Spike protein, circulated cryptically in the Amazonas state since August 2020. This evolutionary pattern is consistent with the hypothesis that partial human population immunity acquired from natural SARS-CoV-2 infections during the first half of 2020 might have been the major driving force behind natural selection that allowed VOCs' emergence and worldwide spread. These findings also support a long lag-time between the emergence of variants with key mutations of concern and expansion of the VOC P.1 in Brazil.

19.
N Engl J Med ; 386(9): 847-860, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Ad26.COV2.S vaccine was highly effective against severe-critical coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), hospitalization, and death in the primary phase 3 efficacy analysis. METHODS: We conducted the final analysis in the double-blind phase of our multinational, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, in which adults were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive single-dose Ad26.COV2.S (5×1010 viral particles) or placebo. The primary end points were vaccine efficacy against moderate to severe-critical Covid-19 with onset at least 14 days after administration and at least 28 days after administration in the per-protocol population. Safety and key secondary and exploratory end points were also assessed. RESULTS: Median follow-up in this analysis was 4 months; 8940 participants had at least 6 months of follow-up. In the per-protocol population (39,185 participants), vaccine efficacy against moderate to severe-critical Covid-19 at least 14 days after administration was 56.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.3 to 60.8; 484 cases in the vaccine group vs. 1067 in the placebo group); at least 28 days after administration, vaccine efficacy was 52.9% (95% CI, 47.1 to 58.1; 433 cases in the vaccine group vs. 883 in the placebo group). Efficacy in the United States, primarily against the reference strain (B.1.D614G) and the B.1.1.7 (alpha) variant, was 69.7% (95% CI, 60.7 to 76.9); efficacy was reduced elsewhere against the P.1 (gamma), C.37 (lambda), and B.1.621 (mu) variants. Efficacy was 74.6% (95% CI, 64.7 to 82.1) against severe-critical Covid-19 (with only 4 severe-critical cases caused by the B.1.617.2 [delta] variant), 75.6% (95% CI, 54.3 to 88.0) against Covid-19 leading to medical intervention (including hospitalization), and 82.8% (95% CI, 40.5 to 96.8) against Covid-19-related death, with protection lasting 6 months or longer. Efficacy against any severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was 41.7% (95% CI, 36.3 to 46.7). Ad26.COV2.S was associated with mainly mild-to-moderate adverse events, and no new safety concerns were identified. CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of Ad26.COV2.S provided 52.9% protection against moderate to severe-critical Covid-19. Protection varied according to variant; higher protection was observed against severe Covid-19, medical intervention, and death than against other end points and lasted for 6 months or longer. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development and others; ENSEMBLE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04505722.).


Subject(s)
Ad26COVS1 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccine Efficacy/statistics & numerical data , Ad26COVS1/adverse effects , Ad26COVS1/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Double-Blind Method , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
20.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(2): e25882, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669512

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The International AIDS Society convened a multidisciplinary committee of experts in December 2020 to provide guidance and key considerations for the safe and ethical management of clinical trials involving people living with HIV (PLWH) during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This consultation did not discuss guidance for the design of prevention studies for people at risk of HIV acquisition, nor for the programmatic delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ART). DISCUSSION: There is strong ambition to continue with HIV research from both PLWH and the research community despite the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. How to do this safely and justly remains a critical debate. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to be highly dynamic. It is expected that with the emergence of effective SARS-CoV-2 prevention and treatment strategies, the risk to PLWH in clinical trials will decline over time. However, with the emergence of more contagious and potentially pathogenic SARS-CoV-2 variants, the effectiveness of current prevention and treatment strategies may be compromised. Uncertainty exists about how equally SARS-CoV-2 prevention and treatment strategies will be available globally, particularly for marginalized populations, many of whom are at high risk of reduced access to ART and/or HIV disease progression. All of these factors must be taken into account when deciding on the feasibility and safety of developing and implementing HIV research. CONCLUSIONS: It can be assumed for the foreseeable future that SARS-CoV-2 will persist and continue to pose challenges to conducting clinical research in PLWH. Guidelines regarding how best to implement HIV treatment studies will evolve accordingly. The risks and benefits of performing an HIV clinical trial must be carefully evaluated in the local context on an ongoing basis. With this document, we hope to provide a broad guidance that should remain viable and relevant even as the nature of the pandemic continues to develop.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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