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1.
Folia Med Cracov ; 61(4): 5-44, 2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700594

ABSTRACT

The complex course of the COVID-19 and the distant complications of the SARS-CoV-2 infection still remain an unfaded challenge for modern medicine. The care of patients with the symptomatic course of COVID-19 exceeds the competence of a single specialty, often requiring a multispecialist approach. The CRACoV-HHS (CRAcow in CoVid pandemic - Home, Hospital and Staff) project has been developed by a team of scientists and clinicians with the aim of optimizing medical care at hospital and ambulatory settings and treatment of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The CRACoV project integrates 26 basic and clinical research from multiple medical disciplines, involving different populations infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus and exposed to infection. Between January 2021 and April 2022 we plan to recruit subjects among patients diagnosed and treated in the University Hospital in Cracow, the largest public hospital in Poland, i.e. 1) patients admitted to the hospital due to COVID-19 [main module: 'Hospital']; 2) patients with signs of infection who have been confirmed as having SARS-CoV-2 infection and have been referred to home isolation due to their mild course (module: 'Home isolation'); 3) patients with symptoms of infection and high exposure to SARS- CoV-2 who have a negative RT-PCR test result. In addition, survey in various professional groups of hospital employees, both medical and non-medical, and final-fifth year medical students (module: 'Staff') is planned. The project carries both scientific and practical dimension and is expected to develop a multidisciplinary model of care of COVID-19 patients as well as recommendations for the management of particular groups of patients including: asymptomatic patient or with mild symptoms of COVID-19; symptomatic patients requiring hospitalization due to more severe clinical course of disease and organ complications; patient requiring surgery; patient with diabetes; patient requiring psychological support; patient with undesirable consequences of pharmacological treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitals, Special , Humans , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21514, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500512

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with systemic inflammation. A wide range of adipokines activities suggests they influence pathogenesis and infection course. The aim was to assess concentrations of chemerin, omentin, and vaspin among COVID-19 patients with an emphasis on adipokines relationship with COVID-19 severity, concomitant metabolic abnormalities and liver dysfunction. Serum chemerin, omentin and vaspin concentrations were measured in serum collected from 70 COVID-19 patients at the moment of admission to hospital, before any treatment was applied and 20 healthy controls. Serum chemerin and omentin concentrations were significantly decreased in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy volunteers (271.0 vs. 373.0 ng/ml; p < 0.001 and 482.1 vs. 814.3 ng/ml; p = 0.01, respectively). There were no correlations of analyzed adipokines with COVID-19 severity based on the presence of pneumonia, dyspnea, or necessity of Intensive Care Unit hospitalization (ICU). Liver test abnormalities did not influence adipokines levels. Elevated GGT activity was associated with ICU admission, presence of pneumonia and elevated concentrations of CRP, ferritin and interleukin 6. Chemerin and omentin depletion in COVID-19 patients suggests that this adipokines deficiency play influential role in disease pathogenesis. However, there was no relationship between lower adipokines level and frequency of COVID-19 symptoms as well as disease severity. The only predictive factor which could predispose to a more severe COVID-19 course, including the presence of pneumonia and ICU hospitalization, was GGT activity.


Subject(s)
Adipokines/blood , Chemokines/blood , Cytokines/blood , Lectins/blood , Serpins/blood , Aged , Body Mass Index , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , GPI-Linked Proteins/blood , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/metabolism
3.
Hypertension ; 79(2): 325-334, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476907

ABSTRACT

In a cross-sectional analysis of a case-control study in 2015, we revealed the association between increased arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity) and aircraft noise exposure. In June 2020, we evaluated the long-term effects, and the impact of a sudden decline in noise exposure during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown, on blood pressure and pulse wave velocity, comparing 74 participants exposed to long-term day-evening-night aircraft noise level >60 dB and 75 unexposed individuals. During the 5-year follow-up, the prevalence of hypertension increased in the exposed (42% versus 59%, P=0.048) but not in the unexposed group. The decline in noise exposure since April 2020 was accompanied with a significant decrease of noise annoyance, 24-hour systolic (121.2 versus 117.9 mm Hg; P=0.034) and diastolic (75.1 versus 72.0 mm Hg; P=0.003) blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity (10.2 versus 8.8 m/s; P=0.001) in the exposed group. Less profound decreases of these parameters were noticed in the unexposed group. Significant between group differences were observed for declines in office and night-time diastolic blood pressure and pulse wave velocity. Importantly, the difference in the reduction of pulse wave velocity between exposed and unexposed participants remained significant after adjustment for covariates (-1.49 versus -0.35 m/s; P=0.017). The observed difference in insomnia prevalence between exposed and unexposed individuals at baseline was no more significant at follow-up. Thus, long-term aircraft noise exposure may increase the prevalence of hypertension and accelerate arterial stiffening. However, even short-term noise reduction, as experienced during the COVID-19 lockdown, may reverse those unfavorable effects.


Subject(s)
Aircraft , Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19 , Environmental Exposure , Noise, Transportation/adverse effects , Noise/adverse effects , Quarantine , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Aged , Arteriosclerosis/epidemiology , Arteriosclerosis/etiology , Female , Harm Reduction , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , Pulse Wave Analysis , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Urban Health
4.
Biomolecules ; 11(10)2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444095

ABSTRACT

Analysis of liver biopsy specimens showed that SARS-CoV-2 might have led to liver damage. This study aimed to evaluate the role of selected hepatokines and myokines in the development and progression of COVID-19. Seventy patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and 20 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Irisin, pentraxin 3, fetuin-A, and FGF-21 serum concentrations and biochemical parameters were assessed using an immunoenzymatic method with commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Serum fetuin-A concentrations were significantly decreased in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy volunteers. The serum concentration of FGF-21 was significantly increased in obese COVID-19 patients compared to overweight ones. Moreover, the FGF-21 level was higher in COVID-19 patients diagnosed with metabolic syndrome than in patients without metabolic syndrome. PTX3 concentration was higher in COVID-19 patients with higher HOMA-IR values than those with lower HOMA-IR values. COVID-19 patients with HOMA-IR ≤ 3 and >3 had significantly lower fetuin-A levels than the control group. Irisin concentration was significantly decreased in the HOMA-IR ≤ 3 COVID-19 subgroup when comparing with the control group. Lower levels of fetuin-A observed in COVID-19 patients despite higher HOMA-IR, CRP, and ferritin levels, pneumonia, patients requiring ICU care suggests that fetuin-A deficiency predisposes to more severe COVID-19 course. Upregulated pentraxin 3 may be used as a potential predictor of COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein/deficiency
5.
Kardiol Pol ; 79(7-8): 773-780, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399787

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) recently became one of the leading causes of death worldwide, similar to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Coexisting CVD may influence the prognosis of patients with COVID-19. AIMS: We analyzed the impact of CVD and the use of cardiovascular drugs on the in-hospital course and mortality of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively studied data for consecutive patients admitted to our hospital, with COVID-19 between March 6th and October 15th, 2020. RESULTS: 1729 patients (median interquartile range age 63 [50-75] years; women 48.8%) were included. Overall, in-hospital mortality was 12.9%. The most prevalent CVD was arterial hypertension (56.1%), followed by hyperlipidemia (27.4%), diabetes mellitus (DM) (25.7%), coronary artery disease (16.8%), heart failure (HF) (10.3%), atrial fibrillation (13.5%), and stroke (8%). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs/ARBs) were used in 25.0% of patients, ß-blockers in 40.7%, statins in 15.6%, and antiplatelet therapy in 19.9%. Age over 65 years (odds ratio [OR], 6.4; 95% CI, 4.3-9.6), male sex (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-2.0), pre-existing DM (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1), and HF (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5-3.5) were independent predictors of in-hospital death, whereas treatment with ACEIs/ARBs (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.6), ß-blockers (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9), statins (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.8), or antiplatelet therapy (OR, 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9) was associated with lower risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Among cardiovascular risk factors and diseases, HF and DM appeared to increase in-hospital COVID-19 mortality, whereas the use of cardiovascular drugs was associated with lower mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Agents , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334994

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with hyperinflammation leading to organ injury, including respiratory failure. Galectin-3 was implicated in innate immunological response to infections and in chronic fibrosis. The aim of our preliminary study was the assessment of the diagnostic utility of serum galectin-3 in patients with COVID-19. The prospective observational study included adult patients admitted with active COVID-19 and treated in tertiary hospital between June and July 2020. The diagnosis was confirmed by the quantitative detection of nucleic acid of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in nasopharyngeal swabs. Galectin-3 was measured by enzyme immunoassay in serum samples obtained during the first five days of hospital stay. We included 70 patients aged 25 to 73 years; 90% had at least one comorbidity. During the hospital stay, 32.9% were diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia and 12.9% required treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU). Serum galectin-3 was significantly increased in patients who developed pneumonia, particularly those who required ICU admission. Positive correlations were found between galectin-3 and inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, ferritin, pentraxin-3), a marker of endothelial injury (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1), and a range of tissue injury markers. Serum galectin-3 enabled the diagnosis of pneumonia with moderate diagnostic accuracy and the need for ICU treatment with high diagnostic accuracy. Our findings strengthen the hypothesis that galectin-3 may be involved in severe COVID-19. Further studies are planned to confirm the preliminary results and to verify possible associations of galectin-3 with long-term consequences of COVID-19, including pulmonary fibrosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Galectin 3/blood , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Serum Amyloid P-Component/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1/blood
8.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 131(5): 439-446, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267006

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Long-term care facility (LTCF) residents are typically excluded from clinical trials due to multimorbidity, dementia, and frailty, so there are no clear evidence-based rules for treating arterial hypertension in this population. Moreover, the role of hypertension as mortality risk factor in LTCFs has not yet been clearly established. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to investigate whether treated hypertension is associated with lower mortality among older LTCF residents with multimorbidity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was performed in a group of 168 residents aged ≥ 65 years in three LTCFs. Initial assessment included blood pressure (BP) measurements and selected geriatric scales: MNA-SF, AMTS and ADL. Hypertension, comorbidities, pharmacotherapy, antihypertensive drugs and mortality during one-year follow-up were extracted from the medical records. The data was compared in groups: Survivors and Deceased. RESULTS: Survivors and Deceased revealed similar age, DBP, number of diseases, medications, and antihypertensive drugs. However, Deceased had significantly lower SBP (P <0.05) and presented significantly worse functional, nutritional and cognitive status than Survivors (P <0.001). Hypertension (P <0.001) and antihypertensive therapy (P <0.05) were significantly more frequent among Survivors. Significantly more of the hypertensive-treated than other multimorbid residents survived the follow-up (P <0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that treated hypertension had a protective effect on mortality [OR = 0.11 (95% CI, 0.03-0.39); P <0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: One-year survival of LTCF residents with treated hypertension was significantly higher than the others. Appropriate antihypertensive therapy may be a protective factor against death in frail nursing home residents, even in short period of time.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Long-Term Care , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Multimorbidity , Risk Factors
9.
Neurol Neurochir Pol ; 55(3): 314-321, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244327

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the spectrum of neurological symptoms in patients with COVID-19 during the first 14 days of hospitalisation and its association with in-hospital mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 200 patients with RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to University Hospital in Krakow, Poland. In 164 patients, a detailed questionnaire concerning neurological symptoms and signs was performed prospectively within 14 days of hospitalisation. In the remaining 36 patients, such questionnaires were completed retrospectively based on daily observations in the Department of Neurology. RESULTS: During hospitalisation, 169 patients (84.5%) experienced neurological symptoms; the most common were: fatigue (62.5%), decreased mood (45.5%), myalgia (43.5%), and muscle weakness (42.5%). Patients who died during hospitalisation compared to the remainder were older (79 [70.5-88.5] vs. 63.5 [51-77] years, p = 0.001), and more often had decreased level of consciousness (50.0% vs. 9.3%, p < 0.001), delirium (33.3% vs. 4.4%, p < 0.001), arterial hypotension (50.0% vs. 19.6%, p = 0.005) or stroke during (18.8% vs. 3.3%, p = 0.026) or before hospitalisation (50.0% vs. 7.1, p < 0.001), whereas those who survived more often suffered from headache (42.1% vs. 0%, p = 0.012) or decreased mood (51.7% vs. 0%, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Most hospitalised patients with COVID-19 experience neurological symptoms. Decreased level of consciousness, delirium, arterial hypotension, and stroke during or before hospitalisation increase the risk of in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Poland , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Eur Geriatr Med ; 12(4): 725-739, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241722

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 complications, derangements of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), vascular endothelial dysfunction leading to inflammation and coagulopathy, and arrhythmias play an important role. Therefore, it is worth considering the use of currently available drugs to protect COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: We review the current experience of conventional cardiovascular drugs [angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, anticoagulants, acetosalicylic acid, antiarrhythmic drugs, statins] as well as some other drug classes (antidiabetic drugs, vitamin D and NSAIDs) frequently used by older patients with cardiovascular diseases. Data were sought from clinical databases for COVID-19 and appropriate key words. Conclusions and recommendations are based on a consensus among all authors. RESULTS: Several cardiovascular drugs have a potential to protect patients with COVID-19, although evidence is largely based on retrospective, observational studies. Despite propensity score adjustments used in many analyses observational studies are not equivalent to randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Ongoing RCTs include treatment with antithrombotics, pulmonary vasodilators, RAAS-related drugs, and colchicine. RCTs in the acute phase of COVID-19 may not, however, recognise the benefits of long term anti-atherogenic therapies, such as statins. CONCLUSIONS: Most current cardiovascular drugs can be safely continued during COVID-19. Some drug classes may even be protective. Age-specific data are scarce, though, and conditions which are common in older patients (frailty, comorbidities, polypharmacy) must be individually considered for each drug group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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