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1.
Pediatrics ; 150(6)2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36349537

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Temporal associations between Kawasaki disease (KD) and childhood vaccines have been reported. Limited data on KD following 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13) and rotavirus vaccines are available. METHODS: We conducted a self-controlled risk interval study using Vaccine Safety Datalink electronic health record data to investigate the risk of KD following PCV13 and rotavirus vaccines in children <2 years of age who were born from 2006 to 2017. All hospitalized KD cases identified by International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes that fell within predefined risk (days 1-28 postvaccination) and control (days 29-56 for doses 1 and 2, and days 43-70 for doses 3 and 4) intervals were confirmed by manual chart review. RESULTS: During the study period, 655 cases of KD were identified by International Classification of Diseases codes. Of these, 97 chart-confirmed cases were within risk or control intervals. In analyses, the age-adjusted relative risk for KD following any dose of PCV13 was 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.47-1.21). Similarly, the age-adjusted relative risk for KD following any dose of rotavirus vaccine was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.40-1.09). Overall, there was no evidence of an elevated risk of KD following PCV13 or rotavirus vaccines by dose. In addition, no statistically significant temporal clustering of KD cases was identified during days 1 to 70 postvaccination. CONCLUSIONS: PCV13 and rotavirus vaccination were not associated with an increased risk of KD in children <2 years of age. Our findings provide additional evidence for the overall safety of PCV13 and rotavirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Rotavirus Vaccines , Humans , Infant , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/etiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines/adverse effects , Rotavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Conjugate/adverse effects
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2234-2242, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36285882

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of the epidemiology of sporadic acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in the United States is limited. During September 2016-September 2017, we surveyed Kaiser Permanente Northwest members in Oregon and Washington, USA, to collect data on the 30-day prevalence of dually defined AGE and diarrhea disease and related health-seeking behavior; from a subset of participants, we obtained a stool specimen. Using the iterative proportional fitting algorithm with raked weights, we generated AGE prevalence and annualized rate estimates. We detected norovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, and sapovirus from submitted stool specimens through real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). We estimated a 30-day prevalence of 10.4% for AGE and 7.6% for diarrhea only; annual rates were 1.27 cases/person/year for AGE and 0.92 cases/person/year for diarrhea only. Of those with AGE, 19% sought medical care. Almost one quarter (22.4%) of stool specimens from those reporting AGE tested positive for ≥1 viral pathogen, compared with 8.2% from those without AGE.


Subject(s)
Caliciviridae Infections , Gastroenteritis , Rotavirus , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Infant , Child , Incidence , Feces , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/therapy , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Caliciviridae Infections/therapy
3.
JAMA ; 328(15): 1523-1533, 2022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36255426

ABSTRACT

Importance: Data on the epidemiology of mild to moderately severe COVID-19 are needed to inform public health guidance. Objective: To evaluate associations between 2 or 3 doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine and attenuation of symptoms and viral RNA load across SARS-CoV-2 viral lineages. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort study of essential and frontline workers in Arizona, Florida, Minnesota, Oregon, Texas, and Utah with COVID-19 infection confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction testing and lineage classified by whole genome sequencing of specimens self-collected weekly and at COVID-19 illness symptom onset. This analysis was conducted among 1199 participants with SARS-CoV-2 from December 14, 2020, to April 19, 2022, with follow-up until May 9, 2022, reported. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 lineage (origin strain, Delta variant, Omicron variant) and COVID-19 vaccination status. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical outcomes included presence of symptoms, specific symptoms (including fever or chills), illness duration, and medical care seeking. Virologic outcomes included viral load by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction testing along with viral viability. Results: Among 1199 participants with COVID-19 infection (714 [59.5%] women; median age, 41 years), 14.0% were infected with the origin strain, 24.0% with the Delta variant, and 62.0% with the Omicron variant. Participants vaccinated with the second vaccine dose 14 to 149 days before Delta infection were significantly less likely to be symptomatic compared with unvaccinated participants (21/27 [77.8%] vs 74/77 [96.1%]; OR, 0.13 [95% CI, 0-0.6]) and, when symptomatic, those vaccinated with the third dose 7 to 149 days before infection were significantly less likely to report fever or chills (5/13 [38.5%] vs 62/73 [84.9%]; OR, 0.07 [95% CI, 0.0-0.3]) and reported significantly fewer days of symptoms (10.2 vs 16.4; difference, -6.1 [95% CI, -11.8 to -0.4] days). Among those with Omicron infection, the risk of symptomatic infection did not differ significantly for the 2-dose vaccination status vs unvaccinated status and was significantly higher for the 3-dose recipients vs those who were unvaccinated (327/370 [88.4%] vs 85/107 [79.4%]; OR, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.1-3.5]). Among symptomatic Omicron infections, those vaccinated with the third dose 7 to 149 days before infection compared with those who were unvaccinated were significantly less likely to report fever or chills (160/311 [51.5%] vs 64/81 [79.0%]; OR, 0.25 [95% CI, 0.1-0.5]) or seek medical care (45/308 [14.6%] vs 20/81 [24.7%]; OR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.2-0.9]). Participants with Delta and Omicron infections who received the second dose 14 to 149 days before infection had a significantly lower mean viral load compared with unvaccinated participants (3 vs 4.1 log10 copies/µL; difference, -1.0 [95% CI, -1.7 to -0.2] for Delta and 2.8 vs 3.5 log10 copies/µL, difference, -1.0 [95% CI, -1.7 to -0.3] for Omicron). Conclusions and Relevance: In a cohort of US essential and frontline workers with SARS-CoV-2 infections, recent vaccination with 2 or 3 mRNA vaccine doses less than 150 days before infection with Delta or Omicron variants, compared with being unvaccinated, was associated with attenuated symptoms, duration of illness, medical care seeking, or viral load for some comparisons, although the precision and statistical significance of specific estimates varied.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccination , Viral Load , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Viral Load/drug effects , Viral Load/genetics , Viral Load/statistics & numerical data , Whole Genome Sequencing , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Asymptomatic Infections/therapy , Time Factors , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data
4.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0103322, 2022 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665629

ABSTRACT

Respiratory specimen collection materials shortages hampers severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing. We compared specimen alternatives and evaluated SARS-CoV-2 RNA stability under simulated shipping conditions. We compared concordance of RT-PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 from flocked midturbinate swabs (MTS) in viral transport media (VTM), foam MTS without VTM, and saliva. Specimens were collected between August 2020 and April 2021 from three prospective cohorts. We compared RT-PCR cycle quantification (Cq) for Spike (S), Nucleocapsid (N), and the Open Reading Frame 1ab (ORF) genes for flocked MTS and saliva specimens tested before and after exposure to a range of storage temperatures (4-30°C) and times (2, 3, and 7 days). Of 1,900 illnesses with ≥2 specimen types tested, 335 (18%) had SARS-CoV-2 detected in ≥1 specimen; 304 (91%) were concordant across specimen types. Among illnesses with SARS-CoV-2 detection, 97% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 94-98%) were positive on flocked MTS, 99% (95% CI: 97-100%) on saliva, and 89% (95% CI: 84-93%) on foam MTS. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in flocked MTS and saliva stored up to 30°C for 7 days. All specimen types provided highly concordant SARS-CoV-2 results. These findings support a range of viable options for specimen types, collection, and transport methods that may facilitate SARS-CoV-2 testing during supply and personnel shortages. IMPORTANCE Findings from this analysis indicate that (1) self-collection of flocked and foam MTS and saliva samples is feasible in both adults and children, (2) foam MTS with VTM and saliva are both viable and reasonable alternatives to traditional flocked MTS in VTM for SARS-CoV-2 detection, and (3) these sample types may be stored and transported at ambient temperatures for up to 7 days without compromising sample quality. These findings support methods of sample collection for SARS-CoV-2 detection that may facilitate widespread community testing in the setting of supply and personnel shortages during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva , Specimen Handling/methods
5.
Vaccine ; 40(9): 1246-1252, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35125221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Between May 2005 and March 2007, three vaccines were recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for routine use in adolescents in the United States: quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY), tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap), and human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV). Understanding historical adolescent vaccination patterns may inform future vaccination coverage efforts for these and emerging adolescent vaccines, including COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: This was a descriptive, retrospective cohort study. All vaccines administered to adolescents aged 11 through 18 years in the Vaccine Safety Datalink population between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2016 were examined. Vaccination coverage was assessed by study year for ≥1 dose Tdap or Td, ≥1 dose Tdap, ≥1 dose MenACWY, ≥1 dose HPV, and ≥3 dose HPV. The proportion of vaccine visits with concurrent vaccination (≥2 vaccines administered at the same visit) was calculated by sex and study year. The most common vaccine combinations administered in the study population were described by sex for two time periods: 2007-2010 and 2011-2016. RESULTS: The number of 11-18-year-olds in the study population averaged 522,565 males and 503,112 females per study year. Between January 2007 and December 2016 there were 4,884,553 vaccine visits in this population (45% among males). The overall proportion of concurrent vaccine visits among males was 43% (33-61% by study year). Among females, 39% of all vaccine visits included concurrent vaccination (32-48% by study year). Vaccine coverage for Tdap, MenACWY, and 1- and 3-dose HPV increased across the study period. A wide variety of vaccine combinations were administered among both sexes and in both time periods. CONCLUSIONS: The high vaccine uptake and multitude of vaccine combinations administered concurrently in the adolescent population of the Vaccine Safety Datalink provide historical patterns with which to compare future adolescent vaccination campaigns.


Subject(s)
Vaccination , Vaccines , Adolescent , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines/administration & dosage , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Male , Meningococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Meningococcal Vaccines/adverse effects , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Papillomavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccination/trends , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccines/adverse effects
6.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 16(3): 585-593, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to evaluate the impact of changes in estimates of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness on the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infection among frontline workers at high risk for SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We analyzed data from a prospective frontline worker cohort to estimate the incidence of COVID-19 by month as well as the association of COVID-19 vaccination, occupation, demographics, physical distancing, and mask use with infection risk. Participants completed baseline and quarterly surveys, and each week self-collected mid-turbinate nasal swabs and reported symptoms. RESULTS: Among 1018 unvaccinated and 3531 fully vaccinated workers, the monthly incidence of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in January 2021 was 13.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.4-17.4), declining to 0.5 (95% CI -0.4-1.4) per 1000 person-weeks in June. By September 2021, when the Delta variant predominated, incidence had once again risen to 13.6 (95% CI 7.8-19.4) per 1000 person-weeks. In contrast, there was no reportable incidence among fully vaccinated participants at the end of January 2021, and incidence remained low until September 2021 when it rose modestly to 4.1 (95% CI 1.9-3.8) per 1000. Below average facemask use was associated with a higher risk of infection for unvaccinated participants during exposure to persons who may have COVID-19 and vaccinated participants during hours in the community. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination was significantly associated with a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection despite Delta variant predominance. Our data demonstrate the added protective benefit of facemask use among both unvaccinated and vaccinated frontline workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Responders , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Incidence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
7.
Vaccine ; 40(5): 752-756, 2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) uses vaccination data from electronic health records (EHR) at eight integrated health systems to monitor vaccine safety. Accurate capture of data from vaccines administered outside of the health system is critical for vaccine safety research, especially for COVID-19 vaccines, where many are administered in non-traditional settings. However, timely access and inclusion of data from Immunization Information Systems (IIS) into VSD safety assessments is not well understood. METHODS: We surveyed the eight data-contributing VSD sites to assess: 1) status of sending data to IIS; 2) status of receiving data from IIS; and 3) integration of IIS data into the site EHR. Sites reported separately for COVID-19 vaccination to capture any differences in capacity to receive and integrate data on COVID-19 vaccines versus other vaccines. RESULTS: All VSD sites send data to and receive data from their state IIS. All eight sites (100%) routinely integrate IIS data for COVID-19 vaccines into VSD research studies. Six sites (75%) also routinely integrate all other vaccination data; two sites integrate data from IIS following a reconciliation process, which can result in delays to integration into VSD datasets. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccines are being administered in a variety of non-traditional settings, where IIS are commonly used as centralized reporting systems. All eight VSD sites receive and integrate COVID-19 vaccine data from IIS, which positions the VSD well for conducting quality assessments of vaccine safety. Efforts to improve the timely receipt of all vaccination data will improve capacity to conduct vaccine safety assessments within the VSD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization , Information Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines/adverse effects
8.
Pediatrics ; 148(6)2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851413

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Safety studies assessing the association between the entire recommended childhood immunization schedule and autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), are lacking. To examine the association between the recommended immunization schedule and T1DM, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of children born between 2004 and 2014 in 8 US health care organizations that participate in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. METHODS: Three measures of the immunization schedule were assessed: average days undervaccinated (ADU), cumulative antigen exposure, and cumulative aluminum exposure. T1DM incidence was identified by International Classification of Disease codes. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze associations between the 3 exposure measures and T1DM incidence. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Models were adjusted for sex, race and ethnicity, birth year, mother's age, birth weight, gestational age, number of well-child visits, and study site. RESULTS: In a cohort of 584 171 children, the mean ADU was 38 days, the mean cumulative antigen exposure was 263 antigens (SD = 54), and the mean cumulative aluminum exposure was 4.11 mg (SD = 0.73). There were 1132 incident cases of T1DM. ADU (aHR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.99-1.02) and cumulative antigen exposure (aHR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-1.00) were not associated with T1DM. Cumulative aluminum exposure >3.00 mg was inversely associated with T1DM (aHR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: The recommended schedule is not positively associated with the incidence of T1DM in children. These results support the safety of the recommended childhood immunization schedule.


Subject(s)
Aluminum/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Immunization Schedule , Vaccines/immunology , Adolescent , Aluminum/adverse effects , Antigens/immunology , Birth Weight , Chickenpox Vaccine/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Confidence Intervals , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/ethnology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/etiology , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Incidence , Male , Maternal Age , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination Hesitancy , Vaccines/chemistry
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(46): 1608-1612, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793417

ABSTRACT

Population-based rates of infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) and related health care utilization help determine estimates of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness and averted illnesses, especially since the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant began circulating in June 2021. Among members aged ≥12 years of a large integrated health care delivery system in Oregon and Washington, incidence of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations were calculated by COVID-19 vaccination status, vaccine product, age, race, and ethnicity. Infection after full vaccination was defined as a positive SARS-CoV-2 molecular test result ≥14 days after completion of an authorized COVID-19 vaccination series.* During the July-September 2021 surveillance period, SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred among 4,146 of 137,616 unvaccinated persons (30.1 per 1,000 persons) and 3,009 of 344,848 fully vaccinated persons (8.7 per 1,000). Incidence was higher among unvaccinated persons than among vaccinated persons across all demographic strata. Unvaccinated persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection were more than twice as likely to receive ED care (18.5%) or to be hospitalized (9.0%) than were vaccinated persons with COVID-19 (8.1% and 3.9%, respectively). The crude mortality rate was also higher among unvaccinated patients (0.43 per 1,000) than in fully vaccinated patients (0.06 per 1,000). These data support CDC recommendations for COVID-19 vaccination, including additional and booster doses, to protect individual persons and communities against COVID-19, including illness and hospitalization caused by the Delta variant (1).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Oregon/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Washington/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(12): e31574, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Workers critical to emergency response and continuity of essential services during the COVID-19 pandemic are at a disproportionally high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Prospective cohort studies are needed for enhancing the understanding of the incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections, identifying risk factors, assessing clinical outcomes, and determining the effectiveness of vaccination. OBJECTIVE: The Research on the Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Essential Response Personnel (RECOVER) prospective cohort study was designed to estimate the incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections, examine the risk factors for infection and clinical spectrum of illness, and assess the effectiveness of vaccination among essential workers. METHODS: The RECOVER multisite network was initiated in August 2020 and aims to enroll 3000 health care personnel (HCP), first responders, and other essential and frontline workers (EFWs) at 6 US locations. Data on participant demographics, medical history, and vaccination history are collected at baseline and throughout the study. Active surveillance for the symptoms of COVID-19-like illness (CLI), access of medical care, and symptom duration is performed by text messages, emails, and direct participant or medical record reports. Participants self-collect a mid-turbinate nasal swab weekly, regardless of symptoms, and 2 additional respiratory specimens at the onset of CLI. Blood is collected upon enrollment, every 3 months, approximately 28 days after a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and 14 to 28 days after a dose of any COVID-19 vaccine. From February 2021, household members of RT-PCR-confirmed participants are self-collecting mid-turbinate nasal swabs daily for 10 days. RESULTS: The study observation period began in August 2020 and is expected to continue through spring 2022. There are 2623 actively enrolled RECOVER participants, including 280 participants who have been found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. Enrollment is ongoing at 3 of the 6 study sites. CONCLUSIONS: Data collected through the cohort are expected to provide important public health information for essential workers at high risk for occupational exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and allow early evaluation of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/31574.

11.
N Engl J Med ; 385(4): 320-329, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192428

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information is limited regarding the effectiveness of the two-dose messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) in preventing infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and in attenuating coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) when administered in real-world conditions. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study involving 3975 health care personnel, first responders, and other essential and frontline workers. From December 14, 2020, to April 10, 2021, the participants completed weekly SARS-CoV-2 testing by providing mid-turbinate nasal swabs for qualitative and quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. The formula for calculating vaccine effectiveness was 100% × (1 - hazard ratio for SARS-CoV-2 infection in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated participants), with adjustments for the propensity to be vaccinated, study site, occupation, and local viral circulation. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 204 participants (5%), of whom 5 were fully vaccinated (≥14 days after dose 2), 11 partially vaccinated (≥14 days after dose 1 and <14 days after dose 2), and 156 unvaccinated; the 32 participants with indeterminate vaccination status (<14 days after dose 1) were excluded. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness was 91% (95% confidence interval [CI], 76 to 97) with full vaccination and 81% (95% CI, 64 to 90) with partial vaccination. Among participants with SARS-CoV-2 infection, the mean viral RNA load was 40% lower (95% CI, 16 to 57) in partially or fully vaccinated participants than in unvaccinated participants. In addition, the risk of febrile symptoms was 58% lower (relative risk, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.98) and the duration of illness was shorter, with 2.3 fewer days spent sick in bed (95% CI, 0.8 to 3.7). CONCLUSIONS: Authorized mRNA vaccines were highly effective among working-age adults in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection when administered in real-world conditions, and the vaccines attenuated the viral RNA load, risk of febrile symptoms, and duration of illness among those who had breakthrough infection despite vaccination. (Funded by the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Viral Load , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Adolescent , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Carrier State/diagnosis , Carrier State/prevention & control , Emergency Responders , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
12.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(1): 64-72, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148627

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Monitoring the trends in undervaccination, including that because of parental vaccine refusal or delay, can inform public health responses directed at improving vaccine confidence and vaccination coverage. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. The cohort included all children born in 2004-2017 with ≥3 well-child visits between ages 2 and 23 months. Using electronic health record-based vaccination data, the average days undervaccinated was calculated for each child. Undervaccination patterns were assessed through age 23 months. Temporal trends were inspected for inflection points and were analyzed using linear regression. Nested within the cohort study, a survey was conducted to compare parent reports of vaccine refusal or delay with observed vaccination patterns. Data were analyzed in 2020. RESULTS: The study cohort consisted of 808,170 children. The percentage of children with average days undervaccinated=0 (fully vaccinated, no delays) rose from a nadir of 47.1% for the birth year 2008 to 68.4% for the birth year 2017 (ptrend<0.001). The percentage with no vaccines rose from 0.35% for the birth year 2004 to 1.28% for the birth year 2017 (ptrend<0.001). Consistent vaccine limiting was observed in 2.04% for the birth year 2017. Omission of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine peaked at 4.76% in the birth year 2007 and declined thereafter (ptrend<0.001). On the parent survey (response rate 60.2%), a high proportion of parents of the most undervaccinated children reported refusing or delaying vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: In a 14-year cohort study, vaccination timeliness has improved. However, the small but increasing number of children who received no vaccines by age 23 months warrants additional attention.


Subject(s)
Measles , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Humans , Infant , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(13): 495-500, 2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793460

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNA (mRNA) BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccines have been shown to be effective in preventing symptomatic COVID-19 in randomized placebo-controlled Phase III trials (1,2); however, the benefits of these vaccines for preventing asymptomatic and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) infection, particularly when administered in real-world conditions, is less well understood. Using prospective cohorts of health care personnel, first responders, and other essential and frontline workers* in eight U.S. locations during December 14, 2020-March 13, 2021, CDC routinely tested for SARS-CoV-2 infections every week regardless of symptom status and at the onset of symptoms consistent with COVID-19-associated illness. Among 3,950 participants with no previous laboratory documentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 2,479 (62.8%) received both recommended mRNA doses and 477 (12.1%) received only one dose of mRNA vaccine.† Among unvaccinated participants, 1.38 SARS-CoV-2 infections were confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) per 1,000 person-days.§ In contrast, among fully immunized (≥14 days after second dose) persons, 0.04 infections per 1,000 person-days were reported, and among partially immunized (≥14 days after first dose and before second dose) persons, 0.19 infections per 1,000 person-days were reported. Estimated mRNA vaccine effectiveness for prevention of infection, adjusted for study site, was 90% for full immunization and 80% for partial immunization. These findings indicate that authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines are effective for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection, regardless of symptom status, among working-age adults in real-world conditions. COVID-19 vaccination is recommended for all eligible persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Responders , Health Personnel , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Occupations/classification , Adolescent , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Emergency Responders/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(11): 2000-2005, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322882

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is a common cause of severe pediatric acute gastroenteritis. Two vaccines are licensed in the United States and have demonstrated high effectiveness against moderate to severe disease. However, fewer data are available on rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE) against milder disease. METHODS: We leveraged active surveillance data from Kaiser Permanente Northwest to calculate rotavirus VE against medically attended rotavirus illness among age-eligible children. We utilized a test-negative case-control design and applied 4 distinct case definitions based on reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test results. VE was calculated as 100 × (1 - odds ratio), and models were adjusted for age group. RESULTS: The VE analysis population comprised 842 children, 799 (95%) of whom had mild disease requiring at most a clinic visit and 698 (83%) of whom were fully vaccinated against rotavirus. Age-adjusted VE was 70% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37-86%) against disease defined solely by qRT-PCR results, 72% (95% CI, 31-89%) against disease as defined by qRT-PCR with a quantification cycle (C q ) value <27, 73% (95% CI, 32-90%) against disease that was qRT-PCR positive but EIA negative, and 62% (95% CI, -20-88%) against disease defined solely by EIA. Results were similar when restricting to disease resulting in at most an ambulatory clinic or emergency department visit. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in protecting US children from mild to moderate and severe disease. Our findings are also useful to show the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination against qRT-PCR-defined illness.


Subject(s)
Gastroenteritis , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus Vaccines , Rotavirus , Ambulatory Care , Case-Control Studies , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Vaccination , Vaccines, Attenuated
15.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(3): 247-253, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some findings from observational studies have suggested that recent receipt of live vaccines may be associated with decreased non-vaccine-targeted infection risk and mortality. Our objective was to estimate risk of non-vaccine-targeted infections based on most recent vaccine type (live vaccines only, inactivated vaccines only or both concurrently) received in US children 11-23 months of age. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study within the Vaccine Safety Datalink. We examined electronic health record and immunization data from children born in 2003-2013 who received 3 diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccines before their first birthday. We modeled vaccine type as a time-varying exposure and estimated risk of non-vaccine-targeted infections identified in emergency department and inpatient settings, adjusting for multiple confounders. RESULTS: Among 428,608 children, 48.9% were female, 4.9% had ≥1 immunization visit with live vaccines only and 10.3% had a non-vaccine-targeted infection. In males, lower risk of non-vaccine-targeted infections was observed following last receipt of live vaccines only or live and inactivated vaccines concurrently as compared with last receipt of inactivated vaccines only [live vaccines-only adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-0.94; live and inactivated vaccines concurrently aHR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.88-0.94]. Among females, last receipt of live and inactivated vaccines concurrently was significantly associated with non-vaccine-targeted infection risk (aHR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.91-0.97 vs. last receipt of inactivated vaccines only). CONCLUSIONS: We observed modest associations between live vaccine receipt and non-vaccine-targeted infections. In this observational study, multiple factors, including healthcare-seeking behavior, may have influenced results.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/etiology , Vaccines, Attenuated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Age Factors , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Incidence , Infant , Male , Proportional Hazards Models , Public Health Surveillance , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
16.
Vaccine ; 37(44): 6648-6655, 2019 10 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548013

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) during pregnancy, although uncommon, is associated with gestational complications and pre-term labor. Hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) is recommended for anyone at increased risk for contracting hepatitis A, including women at risk who are also pregnant. Limited data are available on the safety of maternal HepA vaccination. OBJECTIVES: Assess the frequency of maternal HepA receipt and evaluate the potential association between maternal vaccination and pre-specified maternal and infant safety outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of pregnancies in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) resulting in live births from 2004 through 2015 was included. Pregnancies with HepA exposure were compared to those with other vaccine exposures, and to those with no vaccine exposures. Risk factors for contracting hepatitis A were identified up to one-year prior to or during the pregnancy using ICD-9 codes. Maternal and fetal adverse events were evaluated according to maternal HepA exposure status. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) were used to describe the association. RESULTS: Among 666,233 pregnancies in the study period, HepA was administered at a rate of 1.7 per 1000 (n = 1140), most commonly within the first six weeks of pregnancy. Less than 3% of those exposed to HepA during pregnancy had an ICD-confirmed risk factor. There were no significant associations between HepA exposure during pregnancy and gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, cesarean delivery, pre-term delivery, and low birthweight. There was a statistically significant association between HepA exposure during pregnancy and small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants (aOR 1.32, [95% CI 1.09, 1.60], p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: The rate of maternal HepA vaccination was low and rarely due to documented risk factors for vaccination. HepA vaccination during pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk for a range of adverse events examined among pregnancies resulting in live births, but an identified association between maternal HepA and SGA infant outcomes, while likely due to unmeasured confounding, warrants further exploration.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis A Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis A Vaccines/adverse effects , Hepatitis A Virus, Human/immunology , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Hepatitis A Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Public Health Surveillance , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination , Young Adult
17.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 24(6): 558-566, 2018.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: After the 2009 pandemic influenza seasons, the financial sustainability of school-located vaccination (SLV) clinics drew much attention. This study estimated and compared the labor costs of SLV clinics and reimbursements for influenza vaccinations for students attending 5 schools in 2 Oregon counties during 2010-2011. DESIGN/SETTING: Using a biweekly, Web-based survey, staff and volunteers prospectively tracked the time they spent on SLV clinic planning, implementation, and billing. They also tracked claims submitted and reimbursements by payment source. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: We report labor hours and associated costs for implementing school-based vaccination clinics; number of claims submitted and the reimbursement rate; and total and net costs. RESULTS: In county A, 260 doses were administered at a total cost of $5009 and received $3620 in payment. For county B, 165 doses were administered at a cost of $5598 and received $3807 in payments. With billing, the net cost per dose decreased from $19.74 to $8.57 and $38.08 to $16.17, for county A and county B, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Reimbursements reduced cost per dose by 48% across SLV clinics across both Oregon counties. Local health departments can bill local health insurers to offset costs for implementing school-based vaccination clinics. Efforts to set up billing processes require dedicated billing staff who can effectively manage claims submission processes with multiple health insurers.


Subject(s)
Health Expenditures/standards , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Vaccination/economics , Volunteers/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Female , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Male , Oregon , Pilot Projects , School Health Services/standards , School Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Schools/organization & administration , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
18.
Vaccine ; 36(41): 6111-6116, 2018 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194002

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection acquired during pregnancy can pose a risk to the infant at birth that can lead to significant and lifelong morbidity. Hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) is recommended for anyone at increased risk for contracting HBV infection, including pregnant women. Limited data are available on the safety of HepB administration during pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency of maternal HepB receipt among pregnant women and evaluate the potential association between maternal vaccination and pre-specified maternal and infant safety outcomes. METHODS: We examined a retrospective cohort of pregnancies in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) resulting in live birth outcomes from 2004 through 2015. Eligible pregnancies in women aged 12-55 years who were continuously enrolled from 6 months pre-pregnancy to 6 weeks postpartum in VSD integrated health systems were included. We compared pregnancies with HepB exposure to those with other vaccine exposures, and to those with no vaccine exposures. High-risk conditions for contracting HBV infection were identified up to one-year prior to or during the pregnancy using ICD-9 codes. Maternal and fetal adverse events were also evaluated according to maternal HepB exposure status. RESULTS: Among over 650,000 pregnancies in the study period, HepB was administered at a rate of 2.1 per 1000 pregnancies (n = 1399), commonly within the first 5 weeks of pregnancy. Less than 3% of the HepB-exposed group had a high-risk ICD-9 code indicating need for HepB; this was similar to the rate among HepB unvaccinated groups. There were no significant associations between HepB exposure during pregnancy and gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, cesarean delivery, pre-term delivery, low birthweight or small for gestational age infants. CONCLUSIONS: Most women who received maternal HepB did not have high-risk indications for vaccination. No increased risk for the adverse events that were examined were observed among women who received maternal HepB or their offspring.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis B Vaccines/pharmacokinetics , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods , Young Adult
19.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0201805, 2018.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075030

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study presents a novel methodology for estimating all-age, population-based incidence rates of norovirus and other pathogens that contribute to acute gastroenteritis in the United States using an integrated healthcare delivery system as a surveillance platform. METHODS: All cases of medically attended acute gastroenteritis within the delivery system were identified from April 1, 2014 through September 30, 2016. A sample of these eligible patients were selected to participate in two phone-based surveys and to self-collect a stool sample for laboratory testing. To ascertain household transmission patterns, information on household members with acute gastroenteritis was gathered from participants, and symptomatic household members were contacted to participate in a survey and provide stool sample as well. RESULTS: 54% of individuals who met enrollment criteria agreed to participate, and 76% of those individuals returned a stool sample. Among household members, 85% of eligible individuals agreed to participate, and 68% of those returned a stool sample. Participant demographics were similar to those of the eligible population, although minority racial/ethnic groups were somewhat underrepresented in the final sample. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the feasibility of conducting acute infectious disease research within an integrated health care delivery system. The surveillance, sampling, recruitment, and data collection methods described here are broadly applicable to conduct baseline and epidemiological assessments, as well as for other research requiring representative samples of stool specimens.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Epidemiological Monitoring , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/methods , Feasibility Studies , Feces/microbiology , Feces/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gastroenteritis/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Young Adult
20.
Acad Pediatr ; 18(7): 754-762, 2018.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604461

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Some parents are concerned the childhood immunization schedule could increase risk for allergic disorders, including asthma. To inform future safety studies of this speculated association, a parent survey was conducted to examine the risk of misclassification of vaccination status in electronic health record data, and to assess the potential for confounding if asthma risk factors varied by vaccination status. METHODS: A survey was conducted among parents of children 19 to 35 months old at 6 medical organizations within the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Parents of children in 4 vaccination groups were surveyed: 1) no vaccines by 12 months of age and a diagnosis of parental vaccine refusal; 2) consistent vaccine limiting (≤2 vaccines per visit); 3) not consistently vaccine limiting but otherwise undervaccinated with a vaccine refusal diagnosis; and 4) fully vaccinated with no delays and no vaccine refusal. Parents were surveyed about their child's vaccination status and whether asthma risk factors existed. RESULTS: Among a survey sample of 2043 parents, 1209 responded (59.2%). For receiving no vaccines, the observed agreement between parent report and electronic health record data was 94.0% (κ = 0.79); for receiving all vaccines with no delays, the observed agreement was 87.3% (κ = 0.73). Although most asthma risk factors (allergic rhinitis, eczema, food allergies, family asthma history) reported by parents did not differ significantly between children in the vaccination groups studied, several factors (aeroallergen sensitivity, breastfeeding) differed significantly between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement and control of disease risk factors should be carefully considered in observational studies of the safety of the immunization schedule.


Subject(s)
Asthma/epidemiology , Immunization Schedule , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Bias , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Child, Preschool , Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic , Eczema/epidemiology , Electronic Health Records , Female , Food Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
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