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1.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S464-S465, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564479

ABSTRACT

Background Although CRE are a global threat, data in low- and middle-income countries are scarce. Colonization data are vital for informing antibiotic resistance strategies. We characterized the colonization prevalence of CRE in various settings in Botswana. Methods This study was conducted in 3 districts in Botswana (1 hospital and 2 clinics per district). Adult inpatients and clinic patients were randomly selected for enrollment. Community subjects were enrolled by inviting each enrolled clinic subject to refer up to 3 adults. Each adult clinic or community subject was also asked to refer their children. All subjects had rectal swabs obtained and inoculated on selective chromogenic media for preliminary identification of CRE. Final identification and susceptibility testing were performed using MALDI-TOF MS and VITEK-2, respectively. CRE underwent genotyping for carbapenemase genes. Results Subjects were enrolled from 1/15/20-9/4/20 with a pause from 4/2/20-5/21/20 due to a countrywide COVID lockdown. Of 5,088 subjects approached, 2,469 (49%) participated. Enrollment by subject type was: hospital – 469 (19%);clinic – 959 (39%);community adult – 477 (19%);and community child – 564 (23%). Of 2,469 subjects, the median (interquartile range) age was 32 years (19-44) and 1,783 (72%) were female. 42 (1.7%) subjects were colonized with at least one CRE;10 subjects were colonized with multiple strains. E. coli (n=17), K. pneumoniae (n=20), and E. cloacae complex (n=11) were most common. CRE colonization prevalence was 6.8% for hospital subjects, 0.7% for clinic subjects, 0.2% for adult community subjects, and 0.5% for child community subjects (p< 0.001)). CRE prevalence varied across regions (Figure 1) and was significantly higher pre- vs post-lockdown (Figure 2). VIM and NDM were the most common carbapenemase genes (Figure 3). Figure 1. CRE Colonization - Study Sites Figure 2. CRE Colonization - Temporal Trends FIgure 3. CRE Genotypic Analyses Conclusion CRE colonization was significantly higher in hospital vs community settings in Botswana. CRE prevalence varied by region and decreased significantly following a countrywide lockdown. With CRE prevalence still modest, elucidating risk factors for CRE colonization holds promise in developing strategies to curb further emergence of CRE. Additional investigation of the CRE isolates without identified resistance genes is warranted. Disclosures Robert Gross, MD, MSCE, Pfizer (Other Financial or Material Support, Serve on DSMB for drug unrelated to HIV) Ebbing Lautenbach, MD, MPH, MSCE, Merck (Other Financial or Material Support, Member of Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB))

2.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 110: 106585, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446486

ABSTRACT

Background Widely available population testing is critical to public health efforts to control the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. However, COVID-19 testing has been low in underserved communities disproportionately affected by COVID-19. One approach to increase testing rates is through the secondary distribution of self-collection kits, where an individual distributes test kits to contacts in their social network and encourages them to self-collect test specimens. We outline a randomized clinical trial, COVID-19 Self-testing Through Rapid Network Distribution (C-STRAND), and a cohort study of individuals with COVID-19, to determine the impact of a secondary distribution strategy on COVID-19 testing among medically underserved populations. Methods The clinical trial will seek to enroll 1048 adult index participants from federally health qualified centers in Philadelphia, PA seeking COVID-19 testing. Eligible participants will be randomized 1:1 to receive multiple self-collection test kits or multiple referrals for standard clinic-based tests to distribute to contacts within their social network. The primary outcome will be testing among at least two network contacts at 8 weeks. Index participants and network contacts who test positive for COVID-19 from C-STRAND will be eligible to join the COVID-19 Close Contact Self-testing Study (CloseST), assessing the secondary distribution of self-collection test kits among individuals with COVID-19. The primary outcome of this cohort will be the number of close contacts who test positive at 8 weeks. Conclusion Novel strategies to promote COVID-19 testing are necessary, particularly among underserved populations most affected by COVID-19. We will determine the efficacy of a self-testing secondary distribution strategy. The results may inform efforts to increase testing rates during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Humans , Medically Underserved Area , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Testing , Vulnerable Populations
4.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 17(12): e1879-e1886, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270943

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Multiple studies have demonstrated the negative impact of cancer care delays during the COVID-19 pandemic, and transmission mitigation techniques are imperative for continued cancer care delivery. We aimed to gauge the effectiveness of these measures at the University of Pennsylvania. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study of SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositivity and seroconversion in patients presenting to infusion centers for cancer-directed therapy between May 21, 2020, and October 8, 2020. Participants completed questionnaires and had up to five serial blood collections. RESULTS: Of 124 enrolled patients, only two (1.6%) had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies on initial blood draw, and no initially seronegative patients developed newly detectable antibodies on subsequent blood draw(s), corresponding to a seroconversion rate of 0% (95% CI, 0.0 TO 4.1%) over 14.8 person-years of follow up, with a median of 13 health care visits per patient. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that patients with cancer receiving in-person care at a facility with aggressive mitigation efforts have an extremely low likelihood of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion
8.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(2): 407-410, 2021 01 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-719268

ABSTRACT

The use of antiretroviral therapy for people with HIV (PWH) has improved life expectancy. However, PWH now lose more life-years to tobacco use than to HIV infection. Unfortunately, PWH smoke at higher rates and have more difficulty maintaining abstinence than the general population, compounding their risk for chronic disease. In this Commentary, we describe a United States National Cancer Institute-led initiative to address the relative lack of research focused on developing, testing, and implementing smoking cessation interventions for PWH. This initiative supports seven clinical trials designed to systematically test and/or develop and test adaptations of evidence-based smoking cessation interventions for PWH (eg, combination of behavioral and pharmacological). We summarize each project, including setting/recruitment sites, inclusion/exclusion criteria, interventions being tested, and outcomes. This initiative provides critical opportunities for collaboration and data harmonization across projects. The knowledge gained will inform strategies to assist PWH to promote and maintain abstinence, and ensure that these efforts are adaptable and scalable, thereby addressing one of the major threats to the health of PWH. Reducing smoking behavior may be particularly important during the COVID-19 pandemic given that smokers who become infected with SARS-CoV-2 may be at risk for more severe disease. IMPLICATIONS: This Commentary describes a National Cancer Institute-led initiative to advance the science and practice of treating tobacco use among PWH, which is now responsible for more life years lost than HIV. We describe the scope of the problem, the objectives of the initiative, and a summary of the seven funded studies. Harmonization of data across projects will provide information related to treatment mediators and moderators that was not previously possible. Stakeholders interested in tobacco cessation, including researchers, clinicians and public health officials, should be aware of this initiative and the evidence-base it will generate to advance tobacco treatment among this high-risk population.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/complications , Morbidity , Smoking/mortality , Tobacco Use/mortality , COVID-19 , Humans , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Pandemics , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Products , Tobacco Use Cessation , United States
9.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 10(3): 903-910, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116462

ABSTRACT

Most medical centers are postponing elective procedures and deferring non-urgent clinic visits to conserve hospital resources and prevent spread of COVID-19. The pandemic crisis presents some unique challenges for patients currently being treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS). Movement disorder (Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, dystonia), neuropsychiatric disorder (obsessive compulsive disorder, Tourette syndrome, depression), and epilepsy patients can develop varying degrees of symptom worsening from interruption of therapy due to neurostimulator battery reaching end of life, device malfunction or infection. Urgent intervention to maintain or restore stimulation may be required for patients with Parkinson's disease who can develop a rare but potentially life-threatening complication known as DBS-withdrawal syndrome. Similarly, patients with generalized dystonia can develop status dystonicus, patients with obsessive compulsive disorder can become suicidal, and epilepsy patients can experience potentially life-threatening worsening of seizures as a result of therapy cessation. DBS system infection can require urgent, and rarely emergent surgery. Elective interventions including new implantations and initial programming should be postponed. For patients with existing DBS systems, the battery status and electrical integrity interrogation can now be performed using patient programmers, and employed through telemedicine visits or by phone consultations. The decision for replacement of the implantable pulse generator to prevent interruption of DBS therapy should be made on a case-by-case basis taking into consideration battery status and a patient's tolerance to potential therapy disruption. Scheduling of the procedures, however, depends heavily on the hospital system regulations and on triage procedures with respect to safety and resource utilization during the health crisis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Deep Brain Stimulation/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Deep Brain Stimulation/methods , Disease Management , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Humans , Implantable Neurostimulators/standards , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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