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Br J Haematol ; 195(3): 371-377, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314037


COVID-19 is associated with high mortality in patients with haematological malignancies (HM) and rate of seroconversion is unknown. The ITA-HEMA-COV project (NCT04352556) investigated patterns of seroconversion for SARS-CoV-2 IgG in patients with HMs. A total of 237 patients, SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive with at least one SARS-CoV-2 IgG test performed during their care, entered the analysis. Among these, 62 (26·2%) had myeloid, 121 (51·1%) lymphoid and 54 (22·8%) plasma cell neoplasms. Overall, 69% of patients (164 of 237) had detectable IgG SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies. Serologically negative patients (31%, 73 of 237) were evenly distributed across patients with myeloid, lymphoid and plasma cell neoplasms. In the multivariable logistic regression, chemoimmunotherapy [odds ratio (OR), 3·42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1·04-11·21; P = 0·04] was associated with a lower rate of seroconversion. This effect did not decline after 180 days from treatment withdrawal (OR, 0·35; 95% CI: 0·11-1·13; P = 0·08). This study demonstrates a low rate of seroconversion in HM patients and indicates that treatment-mediated immune dysfunction is the main driver. As a consequence, we expect a low rate of seroconversion after vaccination and thus we suggest testing the efficacy of seroconversion in HM patients.

Antibody Formation , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Seroconversion , Young Adult
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(9): 956-963, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116914


Importance: Since February 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly all over the world, with an epidemiological cluster in Lombardy, Italy. The viral communicability may be mediated by various body fluids, but insufficient information is available on the presence of the virus in human tears. Objectives: To investigate the rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in tears collected from patients with COVID-19 by means of real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay and to assess the association of virus presence with concomitant clinical conditions. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional study conducted between April 9 and May 5, 2020. The setting was intensive care units at Azienda Socio-Sanitaria Territoriale (ASST) Sette-Laghi Hospital, University of Insubria, in Varese, Lombardy, Italy. A conjunctival swab was performed in 91 patients hospitalized for COVID-19, which was clinically diagnosed by rRT-PCR assay on nasopharyngeal swabs and by radiological imaging. Conjunctival swabs from 17 additional healthy volunteer participants with no symptoms of COVID-19 were examined to evaluate the availability and applicability of the conjunctival swab test. Exposure: SARS-CoV-2 detection by means of rRT-PCR assay performed on the collected samples obtained by conjunctival swabs. Main Outcomes and Measures: Conjunctival swab and nasopharyngeal swab results are reported, as well as demographic and clinical data. Results: A total of 108 participants (mean [SD] age, 58.7 [14.2] years; 55 female and 53 male) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 using rRT-PCR assay, including 91 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and 17 were healthy volunteers. SARS-CoV-2 was found on the ocular surface in 52 of 91 patients with COVID-19 (57.1%; 95% CI, 46.3%-67.5%), with a wide variability in the mean viral load from both eyes. Among a subset of 41 patients, concordance of 63.0% (95% CI, 41.0%-81.0%) was found between positive conjunctival and nasopharyngeal swab test results when performed within 2 days of each other. In 17 of these patients, nasopharyngeal swab results were negative for SARS-CoV-2. In 10 of these 17 patients, conjunctival swab results were positive for the virus. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found on the ocular surface in a large part of this cohort of patients with COVID-19, although the infectivity of this material could not be determined. Because patients may have positive test results with a conjunctival swab and negative results with a nasopharyngeal swab, use of the slightly invasive conjunctival swab may be considered as a supplementary diagnostic test.

COVID-19/virology , Conjunctiva/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tears/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Specimen Handling
Am J Transplant ; 21(7): 2509-2521, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957817


Since February 21 2020, when the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità-ISS) reported the first autochthonous case of infection, a dedicated surveillance system for SARS-CoV-2-positive (COVID+) cases has been created in Italy. These data were cross-referenced with those inside the Information Transplant System in order to assess the cumulative incidence (CI) and the outcome of SARS-COV-2 infection in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) who are assumed to be most at risk. We compared our results with those of COVID+ nontransplanted patients (Non-SOTRs) with follow-up through September 30, 2020. The CI of SARS-CoV-2 infection in SOTRs was 1.02%, higher than in COVID+ Non-SOTRs (0.4%, p < .05) with a greater risk in the Lombardy region (2.89%). The CI by type of organ transplant was higher for heart (CI 1.57%, incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.36) and lower for liver (CI 0.63%, IRR 0.54). The 60-day CI of mortality was 30.6%, twice as much that of COVID+ Non-SOTRs (15.4%) with a 60-day gender and age adjusted odds ratio (adjusted-OR) of 3.83 for COVID+ SOTRs (95% confidence interval [3.03-4.85]). The lowest 60-day adjusted-OR was observed in liver SOTRs (OR 0.46, 95% confidence interval [0.25-0.86]). More detailed studies on disease management and evolution will be necessary in these patients at greater risk of COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients