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1.
Transpl Int ; 35: 10302, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938661

ABSTRACT

This article gives a personal, historical, account of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on transplantation services. The content is based on discussions held at two webinars in November 2020, at which kidney transplantation experts from prestigious institutions in Europe and the United States reflected on how the pandemic affected working practices. The group discussed adaptations to clinical care (i.e., ceasing, maintaining and re-starting kidney transplantations, and cytomegalovirus infection management) across the early course of the pandemic. Discussants were re-contacted in October 2021 and asked to comment on how transplantation services had evolved, given the widespread access to COVID-19 testing and the roll-out of vaccination and booster programs. By October 2021, near-normal life and service delivery was resuming, despite substantial ongoing cases of COVID-19 infection. However, transplant recipients remained at heightened risk of COVID-19 infection despite vaccination, given their limited response to mRNA vaccines and booster dosing: further risk-reduction strategies required exploration. This article provides a contemporaneous account of these different phases of the pandemic from the transplant clinician's perspective, and provides constructive suggestions for clinical practice and research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
2.
Transpl Int ; 35: 10332, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933951

ABSTRACT

Infections are leading causes of morbidity/mortality following solid organ transplantation (SOT) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) is among the most frequent pathogens, causing a considerable threat to SOT recipients. A survey was conducted 19 July-31 October 2019 to capture clinical practices about CMV in SOT recipients (e.g., how practices aligned with guidelines, how adequately treatments met patients' needs, and respondents' expectations for future developments). Transplant professionals completed a ∼30-minute online questionnaire: 224 responses were included, representing 160 hospitals and 197 SOT programs (41 countries; 167[83%] European programs). Findings revealed a heterogenous approach to CMV diagnosis and management and, sometimes, significant divergence from international guidelines. Valganciclovir prophylaxis (of variable duration) was administered by 201/224 (90%) respondents in D+/R- SOT and by 40% in R+ cases, with pre-emptive strategies generally reserved for R+ cases: DNA thresholds to initiate treatment ranged across 10-10,000 copies/ml. Ganciclovir-resistant CMV strains were still perceived as major challenges, and tailored treatment was one of the most important unmet needs for CMV management. These findings may help to design studies to evaluate safety and efficacy of new strategies to prevent CMV disease in SOT recipients, and target specific educational activities to harmonize CMV management in this challenging population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Organ Transplantation , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cytomegalovirus , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Cytomegalovirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , Ganciclovir/therapeutic use , Humans , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Transplant Recipients
3.
J Hepatol ; 2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914597

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly changed organ donation and transplantation worldwide. Since the beginning of the pandemic, the uncertainty regarding the potential route of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has created tremendous pressures on transplantation communities, and international organisations have advised against using organs from deceased donors who have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The possibility of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through organ donation has only been reported for lung transplantation; hence, based on current experience, transplantation of non-lung organs from donors with active SARS-CoV-2 infection has been considered possible and safe, at least over short-term follow-up. As the evolving outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 continues, alongside the presence of vaccines and new treatment options, clinicians should consider transplanting organs from deceased donors with active SARS-CoV-2 infection to recipients with limited opportunities for transplantation and those with specific natural or vaccine-induced immunity. This article proffers an expert opinion on the use of organs from deceased donors with resolved or active SARS-CoV-2 infection in the absence of more definitive data and standardised acceptance patterns.

5.
Infect Dis Ther ; 11(4): 1559-1574, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864504

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome are common complications in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19 are associated with cytokine release syndrome. Binding of interleukin-8 (CXCL8/IL-8) to its chemokine receptors, CXCR1/2, may mediate this inflammatory process. The aim of this clinical trial was to determine if CXCR1/2 blockade with reparixin can improve clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. The dose and safety of reparixin have been investigated in clinical trials of patients with metastatic breast cancer. METHODS: This was a phase 2, open-label, multicenter, randomized study in hospitalized adult patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia from May 5, 2020 until November 27, 2020. Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive 1200 mg reparixin orally three times daily or standard of care (SOC) for up to 21 days. The primary endpoint was defined as a composite of clinical events: use of supplemental oxygen, need for mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and/or use of rescue medication. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients were enrolled between reparixin (n = 36) and SOC (n = 19). The rate of clinical events was statistically significantly lower in the reparixin group compared with the SOC group (16.7% [95% CI 6.4-32.8%] vs. 42.1% [95% CI 20.3-66.5%], P = 0.02). The sensitivity analysis based on the Cox regression model provided an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.33 with statistical significance lower than 0.05 (95% CI 0.11-0.99; P = 0.047). Reparixin treatment appeared to be well tolerated. CONCLUSION: In patients with severe COVID-19, reparixin led to an improvement in clinical outcomes when compared with the SOC. A larger phase 3 clinical study is needed to confirm these results. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT identifier, 2020-001645-40; registered May 6, 2020 (retrospectively registered), and clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04794803) on March 8, 2021.

6.
Transpl Infect Dis ; : e13846, 2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846301

ABSTRACT

The debate on the opportunity to use organs from donors testing positive for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in recipients with naïve resolved or active COVID-19 is ongoing. We aim to present the ethical analyses underlying the decision to perform liver transplantation (LT) in selected patients with resolved or active COVID-19 in Italy. We used Jonsen, Siegler, and Winslade's Four-Boxes casuistic method, addressing the four topics considered as constitutive of the essential structure of single clinical cases for their ethical analysis (medical indications, patient preferences, quality of life, and contextual features) to enable decision-making on a case-by-case basis. Based on these topics, we elucidate the meaning and balance among the principles of biomedical ethics. Clinical ethics judgment based on the relation between the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 along with its potentially negative effects and the expected benefits of transplant lead to consider LT as clinically appropriate. Shared decision-making allows the integration of clinical options with the patient's subjective preferences and considerations, enabling a valid informed consent specifically tailored to the patients' individual circumstances. The inclusion of carefully selected SARS-CoV-2 positive donors represents an opportunity to offer lifesaving LT to patients who might otherwise have limited opportunities to receive one. COVID-19 positive donor livers are fairly allocated among equals, and respect for fundamental rights of the individual and the broader community in a context of healthcare rationing is guaranteed.The ethical analysis of the decision to perform LT in selected patients shows that the decision is ethically justifiable.

7.
Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation ; 35, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1782137

ABSTRACT

This article gives a personal, historical, account of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on transplantation services. The content is based on discussions held at two webinars in November 2020, at which kidney transplantation experts from prestigious institutions in Europe and the United States reflected on how the pandemic affected working practices. The group discussed adaptations to clinical care (i.e., ceasing, maintaining and re-starting kidney transplantations, and cytomegalovirus infection management) across the early course of the pandemic. Discussants were re-contacted in October 2021 and asked to comment on how transplantation services had evolved, given the widespread access to COVID-19 testing and the roll-out of vaccination and booster programs. By October 2021, near-normal life and service delivery was resuming, despite substantial ongoing cases of COVID-19 infection. However, transplant recipients remained at heightened risk of COVID-19 infection despite vaccination, given their limited response to mRNA vaccines and booster dosing: further risk-reduction strategies required exploration. This article provides a contemporaneous account of these different phases of the pandemic from the transplant clinician’s perspective, and provides constructive suggestions for clinical practice and research.

9.
Front Public Health ; 8: 569209, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389248

ABSTRACT

Only 4 months after the beginning of SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, the world is facing a global pandemic due to a complex and insidious virus that today constantly poses new challenges. In this study, we highlight a persistent shedding of SARS-CoV-2 RNA into the urine, even in patients with a negative nasopharyngeal swab and in patients considered recovered. What does it mean? Besides the fact that the kidney is a probable site of viral replication, the prolonged viral excretion is a matter of great concern for our drainage system contamination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/urine , SARS-CoV-2 , Urine/virology , Virus Shedding , Waste Water/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Risk Factors
11.
Am J Transplant ; 21(12): 3919-3925, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381082

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic dramatically impacted transplantation landscape. Scientific societies recommend against the use of donors with active SARS-CoV-2 infection. Italian Transplant Authority recommended to test recipients/donors for SARS-CoV-2-RNA immediately before liver transplant (LT) and, starting from November 2020, grafts from deceased donors with active SARS-CoV-2 infection were allowed to be considered for urgent-need transplant candidates with active/resolved COVID-19. We present the results of the first 10 LTs with active COVID-19 donors within an Italian multicenter series. Only two recipients had a positive molecular test at LT and one of them remained positive up to 21 days post-LT. None of the other eight recipients was found to be SARS-CoV-2 positive during follow-up. IgG against SARS-CoV-2 at LT were positive in 80% (8/10) of recipients, and 71% (5/7) showed neutralizing antibodies, expression of protective immunity related to recent COVID-19. In addition, testing for SARS-CoV-2 RNA on donors' liver biopsy at transplantation was negative in 100% (9/9), suggesting a very low risk of transmission with LT. Immunosuppression regimen remained unchanged, according to standard protocol. Despite the small number of cases, these data suggest that transplanting livers from donors with active COVID-19 in informed candidates with SARS-CoV-2 immunity, might contribute to safely increase the donor pool.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Transplantation , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Donors
13.
Br J Haematol ; 195(3): 371-377, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314037

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with high mortality in patients with haematological malignancies (HM) and rate of seroconversion is unknown. The ITA-HEMA-COV project (NCT04352556) investigated patterns of seroconversion for SARS-CoV-2 IgG in patients with HMs. A total of 237 patients, SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive with at least one SARS-CoV-2 IgG test performed during their care, entered the analysis. Among these, 62 (26·2%) had myeloid, 121 (51·1%) lymphoid and 54 (22·8%) plasma cell neoplasms. Overall, 69% of patients (164 of 237) had detectable IgG SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies. Serologically negative patients (31%, 73 of 237) were evenly distributed across patients with myeloid, lymphoid and plasma cell neoplasms. In the multivariable logistic regression, chemoimmunotherapy [odds ratio (OR), 3·42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1·04-11·21; P = 0·04] was associated with a lower rate of seroconversion. This effect did not decline after 180 days from treatment withdrawal (OR, 0·35; 95% CI: 0·11-1·13; P = 0·08). This study demonstrates a low rate of seroconversion in HM patients and indicates that treatment-mediated immune dysfunction is the main driver. As a consequence, we expect a low rate of seroconversion after vaccination and thus we suggest testing the efficacy of seroconversion in HM patients.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Seroconversion , Young Adult
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1249-1251, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145546
15.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 19(9): 1125-1134, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122062

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically challenged the national health systems worldwide in the last months. Dalbavancin is a novel antibiotic with a long plasmatic half-life and simplified weekly administration regimens, thus representing a promising option for the outpatient treatment of Gram-positive infections and the early discharge of hospitalized patients. Dalbavancin is approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs). Many preliminary data seem to support its use in other indications, such as osteomyelitis, prosthetic joint infections, and infective endocarditis. AREAS COVERED: A search in the literature using validated keywords (dalbavancin, Gram-positive infections, Gram-positive cocci, ABSSSI, intravenous treatment, and long-acting antibiotics) was conducted on biomedical bibliographic databases (PubMed and Embase) from 2004 to 30 September 2020. Results were analyzed during two consensus conferences with the aim to review the current evidence on dalbavancin in Gram-positive infections, mainly ABSSSI, osteomyelitis, and infective endocarditis, highlight the main limitations of available studies and suggest possible advantages of the molecule. EXPERT OPINION: The board identifies some specific subgroups of patients with ABSSSIs who could mostly benefit from a treatment with dalbavancin and agrees that the design of homogenous and robust studies would allow a broader use of dalbavancin even in other clinical settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Teicoplanin/analogs & derivatives , Ambulatory Care/methods , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Administration Schedule , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/drug therapy , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/microbiology , Teicoplanin/administration & dosage , Teicoplanin/pharmacology
16.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(9): 956-963, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116914

ABSTRACT

Importance: Since February 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly all over the world, with an epidemiological cluster in Lombardy, Italy. The viral communicability may be mediated by various body fluids, but insufficient information is available on the presence of the virus in human tears. Objectives: To investigate the rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in tears collected from patients with COVID-19 by means of real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay and to assess the association of virus presence with concomitant clinical conditions. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional study conducted between April 9 and May 5, 2020. The setting was intensive care units at Azienda Socio-Sanitaria Territoriale (ASST) Sette-Laghi Hospital, University of Insubria, in Varese, Lombardy, Italy. A conjunctival swab was performed in 91 patients hospitalized for COVID-19, which was clinically diagnosed by rRT-PCR assay on nasopharyngeal swabs and by radiological imaging. Conjunctival swabs from 17 additional healthy volunteer participants with no symptoms of COVID-19 were examined to evaluate the availability and applicability of the conjunctival swab test. Exposure: SARS-CoV-2 detection by means of rRT-PCR assay performed on the collected samples obtained by conjunctival swabs. Main Outcomes and Measures: Conjunctival swab and nasopharyngeal swab results are reported, as well as demographic and clinical data. Results: A total of 108 participants (mean [SD] age, 58.7 [14.2] years; 55 female and 53 male) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 using rRT-PCR assay, including 91 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and 17 were healthy volunteers. SARS-CoV-2 was found on the ocular surface in 52 of 91 patients with COVID-19 (57.1%; 95% CI, 46.3%-67.5%), with a wide variability in the mean viral load from both eyes. Among a subset of 41 patients, concordance of 63.0% (95% CI, 41.0%-81.0%) was found between positive conjunctival and nasopharyngeal swab test results when performed within 2 days of each other. In 17 of these patients, nasopharyngeal swab results were negative for SARS-CoV-2. In 10 of these 17 patients, conjunctival swab results were positive for the virus. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found on the ocular surface in a large part of this cohort of patients with COVID-19, although the infectivity of this material could not be determined. Because patients may have positive test results with a conjunctival swab and negative results with a nasopharyngeal swab, use of the slightly invasive conjunctival swab may be considered as a supplementary diagnostic test.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Conjunctiva/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tears/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Specimen Handling
17.
Am J Transplant ; 21(7): 2600-2604, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096669

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 currently affected more than 108 million people worldwide with a fatality rate of 2.2%. Herein, we report the first case of liver transplantation (LT) performed with a liver procured from a SARS-CoV-2 positive donor. The recipient was a 35-year-old SARS-CoV-2 positive female patient affected by severe end-stage HBV-HDV-related liver disease (model of end-stage liver disease = 32) who had neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (titers 1:320) at time of LT. The LT was successful, and the graft is functioning two months after surgery. The recipient cleared the SARS-CoV-2 infection 1 month after LT. The current case shows that the prompt use of SARS-CoV-2 infected liver donors offers an invaluable life-saving opportunity for SARS-CoV-2 positive wait-listed patients who developed neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Transplantation , Adult , Female , Humans , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Donors , Waiting Lists
18.
J Hepatol ; 74(4): 944-951, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065333

ABSTRACT

According to a recent World Health Organization estimate, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, which originated in China in 2019, has spread globally, infecting nearly 100 million people worldwide by January 2021. Patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD), particularly cirrhosis, hepatobiliary malignancies, candidates for liver transplantation, and immunosuppressed individuals after liver transplantation appear to be at increased risk of infections in general, which in turn translates into increased mortality. This is also the case for SARS-CoV-2 infection, where patients with cirrhosis, in particular, are at high risk of a severe COVID-19 course. Therefore, vaccination against various pathogens including SARS-CoV-2, administered as early as possible in patients with CLD, is an important protective measure. However, due to impaired immune responses in these patients, the immediate and long-term protective response through immunisation may be incomplete. The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to the exceptionally fast development of several vaccine candidates. A small number of these SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates have already undergone phase III, placebo-controlled, clinical trials in healthy individuals with proof of short-term safety, immunogenicity and efficacy. However, although regulatory agencies in the US and Europe have already approved some of these vaccines for clinical use, information on immunogenicity, duration of protection and long-term safety in patients with CLD, cirrhosis, hepatobiliary cancer and liver transplant recipients has yet to be generated. This review summarises the data on vaccine safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in this patient population in general and discusses the implications of this knowledge on the introduction of the new SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Biliary Tract Neoplasms , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Liver Transplantation , Biliary Tract Neoplasms/epidemiology , Biliary Tract Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/immunology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Liver Transplantation/methods , Liver Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Risk Adjustment , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/methods
19.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(3): 389-395, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996800

ABSTRACT

SCOPE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has become pandemic, reaching almost one million death worldwide. At present standard treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not well defined because the evidence, either from randomized or observational studies, with conflicting results, has led to rapid changes in treatment guidelines. Our aim was to narratively summarize the available literature on the management of COVID-19 in order to combine current evidence and interpretation of the data by experts who are treating patients in the frontline setting. METHODS: The panel conducted a detailed review of the literature and eventual press releases from randomized clinical trials for each possible available treatment. Inductive PubMed search waws performed for publications relevant to the topic, including all clinical trials conducted. The result was a flowchart with treatment indications for patients with COVID-19. IMPLICATIONS: After 6 months of a pandemic situation and before a possible second coronavirus wave descends on Europe, it is important to evaluate which drugs proved to be effective while also considering that results from many randomized clinical trials are still awaited. Indeed, among treatments for COVID-19, only glucocorticoids have resulted in an association with a significant decrease in mortality in published randomized controlled trials. New therapeutic strategies are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Societies, Medical/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Standard of Care
20.
Transplantation ; 105(1): 193-200, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection is heterogeneous in clinical presentation and disease evolution. To investigate whether immune response to the virus can be influenced by genetic factors, we compared HLA and AB0 frequencies in organ transplant recipients and waitlisted patients according to presence or absence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on an Italian cohort composed by transplanted and waitlisted patients in a January 2002 to March 2020 time frame. Data from this cohort were merged with the Italian registry of COVID+ subjects, evaluating infection status of transplanted and waitlisted patients. A total of 56 304 cases were studied with the aim of comparing HLA and AB0 frequencies according to the presence (n = 265, COVID+) or absence (n = 56 039, COVID-) of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence rate of COVID-19 was 0.112% in the Italian population and 0.462% in waitlisted/transplanted patients (OR = 4.2; 95% CI, 3.7-4.7; P < 0.0001). HLA-DRB1*08 was more frequent in COVID+ (9.7% and 5.2%: OR = 1.9, 95% CI, 1.2-3.1; P = 0.003; Pc = 0.036). In COVID+ patients, HLA-DRB1*08 was correlated to mortality (6.9% in living versus 17.5% in deceased: OR = 2.9, 95% CI, 1.15-7.21; P = 0.023). Peptide binding prediction analyses showed that these DRB1*08 alleles were unable to bind any of the viral peptides with high affinity. Finally, blood group A was more frequent in COVID+ (45.5%) than COVID- patients (39.0%; OR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.02-1.66; P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Although preliminary, these results suggest that HLA antigens may influence SARS-CoV-2 infection and clinical evolution of COVID-19 and confirm that blood group A individuals are at greater risk of infection, providing clues on the spread of the disease and indications about infection prognosis and vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , COVID-19/etiology , HLA Antigens/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/genetics , Female , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
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