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2.
J Neuroendocrinol ; 34(3): e13105, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35233848

ABSTRACT

Despite efforts from various endoscopy societies, reporting in the field of endoscopy remains extremely heterogeneous. Harmonisation of clinical practice in endoscopy has been highlighted by application of many clinical practice guidelines and standards pertaining to the endoscopic procedures and reporting are underlined. The aim of the proposed "standardised reporting" is to (1) facilitate recognition of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) on initial endoscopy, (2) to enable interdisciplinary decision making for treatment by a multidisciplinary team, (3) to provide a basis for a standardised endoscopic follow-up which allows detection of recurrence or progression reliably, (4) to make endoscopic reports on NEN comparable between different units, and (5) to allow research collaboration between NEN centres in terms of consistency of their endoscopic data. The ultimate goal is to improve disease management, patient outcome and reduce the diagnostic burden on the side of the patient by ensuring the highest possible diagnostic accuracy and validity of endoscopic exams and possibly interventions.


Subject(s)
Neuroendocrine Tumors , Endoscopy , Humans , Neuroendocrine Tumors/diagnosis , Neuroendocrine Tumors/pathology , Neuroendocrine Tumors/therapy
3.
J Neuroendocrinol ; 34(4): e13097, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156246

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (panNET) are heterogeneous neoplasms usually characterised by slow growth and secretion of hormones, which often cause symptoms. The effect of these symptoms on quality of life (QoL) has not previously been examined in detail. EORTC (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer) guidelines were followed in phases 1-3 to produce a potential module of questions usable for trials in panNET, focusing on three common types of panNET. For two less common types, a list of symptoms was constructed. Following an extensive literature search and phase 1a interviews with patients and healthcare workers, a long list of potential issues (169) was obtained. This list was shown to 12 patients from three countries in phase 1b interviews to check that no items were missed. The list was reduced to 57 issues. The list of issues was converted to questions, mainly from existing validated questions within the EORTC item library. The list of questions was then used in a phase 3 international study in eight countries using seven languages. A provisional module of 24 items is presented for use in nonfunctioning panNET, gastrinoma and insulinoma. This module increases knowledge concerning QoL in this condition and may be a useful adjunct in clinical trials. A phase 4 trial is being considered for validation of this questionnaire.


Subject(s)
Neuroendocrine Tumors , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Humans , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
JCI Insight ; 7(2)2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35076021

ABSTRACT

Cancer inflicts damage to surrounding normal tissues, which can culminate in fatal organ failure. Here, we demonstrate that cell death in organs affected by cancer can be detected by tissue-specific methylation patterns of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA). We detected elevated levels of hepatocyte-derived cfDNA in the plasma of patients with liver metastases originating from different primary tumors, compared with cancer patients without liver metastases. In addition, patients with localized pancreatic or colon cancer showed elevated hepatocyte cfDNA, suggesting liver damage inflicted by micrometastatic disease, by primary pancreatic tumor pressing the bile duct, or by a systemic response to the primary tumor. We also identified elevated neuron-, oligodendrocyte-, and astrocyte-derived cfDNA in a subpopulation of patients with brain metastases compared with cancer patients without brain metastasis. Cell type-specific cfDNA methylation markers enabled the identification of collateral tissue damage in cancer, revealing the presence of metastases in specific locations and potentially assisting in early cancer detection.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , DNA Methylation , Liquid Biopsy/methods , Liver Neoplasms , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Brain Neoplasms/genetics , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Brain Neoplasms/secondary , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/analysis , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/blood , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Hepatocytes/pathology , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/secondary , Neoplasm Metastasis/genetics , Neoplasm Metastasis/pathology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/complications , Pancreatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology
5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(24)2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944910

ABSTRACT

Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a well-established treatment in somatostatin receptor-expressing neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). The safety and efficacy of PRRT in >79 years old patients (EP) have not been systematically investigated. All patients with inoperable/metastatic/progressive G1/G2 NET, >79 years (EP), treated with PRRT at the University Hospital of Basel between 2006 and 2018, were enrolled in this retrospective matched cohort study. Each patient was manually matched with ≥1 younger patient (YP = 60-70 years). The primary endpoint was toxicity. Toxicity (subacute, long-term) was graded according to the criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) v5.0. All toxicity grades ≥ 3, or whose delta (Δ) to baseline were ≥2, were considered significant. The odds ratio (OR) for developing toxicity was tested for non-inferiority of EP vs. YP. Clinical response to PRRT and overall survival (OS) were assessed as secondary outcome measures. Forty-eight EP and 68 YP were enrolled. Both cohorts were balanced regarding median time since diagnosis, tumour location, grading, treatment scheme, and baseline biochemical parameters, except for eGFR (EP: 61 ± 16 vs. YP: 78 ± 19; mL/min/1.73 m2). Twenty-two grade ≥ 3 or Δ ≥ 2 subacute hematotoxicities occurred in 10 EP (10.3% of cycles) and 37 in 19 YP (11.6% of cycles; p = NS). Long-term grade ≥ 3 renal toxicity occurred in 7 EP and 2 YP (p = NS). The median OS was 3.4 years (EP) vs. 6.0 years (YP), HR: 1.50 [0.75, 2.98], p = NS. PRRT is a valid therapeutic option in elderly NET patients with similar toxicity and non-inferior survival compared to matched younger patients.

6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(24)2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944946

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung (LNENs, lung carcinoids) are often diagnosed at an advanced stage when they are not surgically curable, and treatment options are limited. One of the approved options for treating inoperable tumors is everolimus-an mTOR inhibitor (mTORi). Activation of mTOR, among many other effects, inhibits autophagy, which is a cell survival mechanism in general, and in tumor cells in particular. Everolimus may paradoxically encourage cancer cell survival. In practice, the drug inhibits tumor development. Chloroquine (CQ) is a known antimalarial compound that inhibits autophagy. Our research is focused on the hypothesis that autophagy plays a key role in the development of tumor resistance to mTORi, and that the addition of autophagy inhibitors to mTORi exerts a synergistic effect on suppressing tumor cell proliferation. We have recently demonstrated that the combination of CQ with different mTORi increases their potency compared with mTORi alone in both in vitro and in vivo models of pancreatic NENs. In this study, we examined the effects of CQ and mTORi on in vitro and in vivo LNEN models. Aims: Testing the effects of CQ together with mTORi on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy in in vitro and in vivo LNEN models. (2) Methods: The NCI-H727 LNEN cells were treated with CQ ± mTORi. Cells' viability and proliferation were measured using XTT and Ki-67 FACS staining. The effects of the treatments on the mTOR pathway and autophagy were examined using Western blotting. Cytotoxicity was measured using a cytotoxicity kit; apoptosis was measured by PI FACS staining and Western blotting. We further established an LNEN subcutaneous murine xenograft model and evaluated the effects of the drugs on tumor growth. (3) Results: CQ alone suppressed LNEN cells' viability and proliferation and increased their cytotoxicity and apoptosis; these effects were augmented when CQ was added to an mTORi. We also showed the possible mechanisms for these results: on the one hand we could see a decrease in P62 levels and the absence of LC3-II (both inversely related to autophagy) following treatment with the mTORi, and on the other hand we could demonstrate an increase in their levels when CQ was added. The effect was less apparent in the murine xenograft model. (4) Conclusions: By inhibiting autophagy and inducing apoptosis, CQ suppresses tumor cell growth in LNENs. CQ potentiates mTORi effects, implying that further studies are needed in order to elucidate its possible role in tumor inhibition in patients with LNENs.

7.
J Neuroendocrinol ; 34(3): e13060, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825753

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) Expert Consensus document aims to provide practical guidance and standardization for echocardiography in the screening and follow-up of carcinoid heart disease (CHD) in patients with a neuroendocrine tumour (NET) and carcinoid syndrome. METHODS: NET experts within the ENETS Carcinoid Heart Disease Task Force reviewed both general reporting guidelines and specialized scoring systems for transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in CHD. Based on this review, a dedicated template report was designed by the multidisciplinary working group of cardiologists, oncologists, endocrinologists, gastroenterologists, surgeons and radiologists. RESULTS: We propose a Synoptic Reporting of Echocardiography in Carcinoid Heart Disease which represents an agreed peer reviewed proforma to capture information at the time of referral and enable a detailed outcome of CHD assessment. This includes a systematic and detailed list of structures to evaluate data to capture at the time of reporting of TTE. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to these reporting guidelines aims to promote homogeneous and detailed evaluation of CHD to secure accurate assessment and allow comparison of studies performed intra- and inter-individually. These guidelines could also facilitate CHD assessment as part of prospective clinical trials to enable standardization of the findings seen in response to therapy.


Subject(s)
Carcinoid Heart Disease , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Carcinoid Heart Disease/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoid Heart Disease/therapy , Echocardiography , Humans , Neuroendocrine Tumors/diagnostic imaging , Neuroendocrine Tumors/therapy , Prospective Studies
9.
EJNMMI Phys ; 8(1): 63, 2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436698

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following each cycle of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), absorbed doses by tumors and normal organs are typically calculated from three quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) studies acquired at t1 = 24 h, t2 = 96 h, t3 = 168 h after the first cycle of treatment and from a single study at t1 after the subsequent cycles. In the present study, we have assessed the feasibility of a single SPECT/CT study after each PRRT cycle using a trained multiple linear regression (MLR) model for absorbed dose calculation and have evaluated its impact on patient management. Quantitative [177Lu]-DOTA-TATE SPECT/CT data after PRRT of seventy-two consecutive metastatic neuroendocrine tumors patients were retrospectively evaluated. A set of 40 consecutive studies was used to train the MLR model. The two independent variables of the model included the time of imaging after administration of the treatment and the radiopharmaceutical activity concentration in a given  organ/tumor. The dependent variable was the dose absorbed by the organ/tumor obtained with the standard protocol. For bone marrow dosimetry, the independent variables included the time of imaging, and the blood and remainder of the body activity concentration. The model was evaluated in 32 consecutive patients. Absorbed doses were assessed for kidneys, bone marrow, liver, spleen and tumor sites. RESULTS: There was no difference in management decisions, whether PRRT can be safely continued or not because unsafe absorbed dose to risk organs between the standard and the MLR model-based protocol using a single SPECT/CT study performed at t3 = 168 h after the first cycle and at t1 = 24 h after the subsequent cycles. Cumulative absorbed doses were obtained with mean relative differences of - 0.5% ± 5.4%, 1.6% ± 15.1%, - 6.2% ± 7.3%, - 5.5% ± 5.8% and 2.9% ± 12.7% for kidneys, bone marrow, liver, spleen and tumors, respectively (Pearson's r correlation coefficient 0.99, 0.91, 0.99, 0.99 and 0.97, respectively). CONCLUSION: Dosimetry calculations using a MLR model with a single SPECT/CT study are in good agreement with the standard protocol, while avoiding the use of dosimetry software and enabling improved patient comfort and reduced scanner and staff time.

10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(12): e4903-e4916, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379772

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare malignancy with minimal treatment options. Many, but not all, MTCs express somatostatin receptors. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to explore the role of 68Ga-DOTA-somatostatin analogue (SSA) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in patients with metastatic MTC and to determine their eligibility for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with metastatic MTC who had 68Ga-DOTA-SSA PET/CT at 5 centers. We collected characteristics on contrast-enhanced CT, 68Ga-DOTA-SSA and 18F-FDG PET/CT. The efficacy of PRRT was explored in a subgroup of patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate time to treatment failure (TTF) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Seventy-one patients were included (10 local recurrence, 61 distant disease). Of the patients with distant disease, 16 (26%) had ≥50% of disease sites with tracer avidity greater than background liver, including 10 (10/61, 16%) with >90%. In 19 patients with contemporaneous contrast-enhanced CT, no disease regions were independently identified on 68Ga-DOTA-SSA PET/CT. Thirty-five patients had an 18F-FDG PET/CT, with 18F-FDG positive/68Ga-DOTA-SSA negative metastases identified in 15 (43%). Twenty-one patients had PRRT with a median TTF of 14 months (95% CI 8-25) and a median OS of 63 months (95% CI 21-not reached). Of the entire cohort, the median OS was 323 months (95% CI 152-not reached). Predictors of poorer OS included a short calcitonin doubling-time (≤24 months), strong 18F-FDG avidity, and age ≥60 years. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of high tumor avidity on 68Ga-DOTA-SSA PET/CT is low in the setting of metastatic MTC; nevertheless, PRRT may still be a viable treatment option in select patients.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/radiotherapy , Organometallic Compounds/therapeutic use , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Receptors, Peptide/therapeutic use , Receptors, Somatostatin/therapeutic use , Somatostatin/chemistry , Thyroid Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/secondary , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Neoplasms/secondary , Young Adult
11.
Eur J Cancer ; 154: 246-252, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Specific data regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are lacking. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of patients with NENs who tested severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a worldwide study collecting cases of patients with NENs along with a positive nasopharyngeal swab reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2 between June 1, 2020, and March 31, 2021. Centres treating patients with NENs were directly contacted by the principal investigator. Patients with NENs of any primary site, grade and stage were included, excluding small-cell lung carcinoma and mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma. RESULTS: Among 81 centres directly contacted, 88.8% responded and 48.6% of them declined due to lack of cases or interest. On March 31st, 2021, eight recruiting centres enrolled 89 patients. The median age was 64 years at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis. Most patients had metastatic, non-functioning, low-/intermediate-grade gastroenteropancreatic NENs on treatment with somatostatin analogues and radioligand therapy. Most of them had comorbidities. Only 8% of patients had high-grade NENs and 12% were receiving chemotherapy. Most patients had symptoms or signs of COVID-19, mainly fever and cough. Only 3 patients underwent sub-intensive treatment, whereas most of them received medical therapies, mostly antibiotics. In two third of cases, no changes occurred for the anti-NEN therapy. More than 80% of patients completely recovered without sequelae, whereas 7.8% patients died due to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Patients included in this study reflect the typical NEN population regardless of SARS-CoV-2. In most cases, they overcome COVID-19 without need of intensive care, short-term sequelae and discontinuation of systemic oncological therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/therapy , Global Health , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/immunology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Preliminary Data , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
12.
Harefuah ; 160(7): 419-424, 2021 07.
Article in Hebrew | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263567

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive power of the absorbed dose to kidneys after the first course of treatment with [177Lu]-DOTA-TATE on the cumulative kidney absorbed dose after 3 or 4 cycles of treatment. BACKGROUND: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with [177Lu]-DOTA-TATE is an effective treatment for somatostatin receptor positive neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Post-treatment scans (PTS) are required after each cycle of treatment for personalized radiation dosimetry in order to calculate the dose to organs and tumors and to ensure a cumulative absorbed dose to kidneys under a safety threshold of 25 Gy. METHODS: A total of 187 patients who completed treatment and underwent PTS for dosimetry calculation were included in this retrospective study. The correlation between the cumulative absorbed dose to the kidneys after completion of treatment and the absorbed dose after the first cycle(s) was studied. Multilinear regression analysis was performed to predict the cumulative absorbed dose by the kidneys in the subsequent cycles. An algorithm for the follow-up of the kidney absorbed dose is proposed. RESULTS: When the absorbed dose to kidneys after the first cycle of treatment is below 5.6 Gy, four cycles of treatment can be safely administered with a cumulative dose less than 25 Gy (p < 0.1). For the remaining patients, the cumulative dose absorbed after 3 or 4 cycles of treatment can be predicted after the second cycle of treatment. This protocol enabled early decisions on the number of treatment cycles and reduced the number of post-treatment SPECT/CT studies for dosimetry in 34% of patients, as well as hospitalization time for 56% of the treatment cycles. CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of the kidney absorbed dose after PRRT can be simplified with the algorithm presented in this study. This approach enabled early decisions on the number of therapy cycles in 75% of patients. DISCUSSION: The validity of these results is limited to the protocol of dosimetry calculation used in our institution. Implementation in other centers may require standardization of the acquisition parameters and the dosimetry protocol.


Subject(s)
Neuroendocrine Tumors , Radiation Exposure , Humans , Neuroendocrine Tumors/radiotherapy , Radioisotopes , Radiometry , Retrospective Studies
13.
Endocrine ; 74(2): 421-429, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120313

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Type III gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms (g-NENs) have historically been regarded as aggressive tumours, hence current guidelines advocate radical surgery with lymph node dissection. Data on the roles of endoscopic or less extensive surgical resections are more limited. The aim of our study is to evaluate the clinicopathological features and long-term outcomes of patients undergoing endoscopic or limited surgical resection for localised grade 1 or 2 type III g-NENs when compared to radical surgery. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed with a localised grade 1 or 2 type III g-NENs across six tertiary NEN centers between 2006 and 2019. RESULTS: Forty-five patients were diagnosed with a potentially resectable grade 1 or 2 type III g-NEN of whom 36 underwent either endoscopic or surgical resection. No statistically significant differences were found between the three resection groups in terms of patient age, tumour location, grade or size. Only tumour size was found to be significantly associated with poor clinical outcome (p = 0.012) and ROC curve analysis identified tumour size >10 mm as a negative predictor (AUC:0.8030, p = 0.0021). Tumours >10 mm were also more likely to be associated with lymph node metastases on imaging and histology (p = 0.039 and p = 0.026 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Localised grade 1 or 2 type III g-NENs had a good prognosis in this series. Tumour size >10 mm was the most significant prognostic factor affecting patient outcome. Endoscopic resection or limited surgical resection is feasible and safe in small type III g-NENs which demonstrate favourable grade 1/2, well differentiated histology.


Subject(s)
Neuroendocrine Tumors , Stomach Neoplasms , Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neuroendocrine Tumors/surgery , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery
14.
J Nucl Med ; 63(2): 218-225, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049983

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of 177Lu-DOTATATE in patients with somatostatin receptor (SSR)-positive lung neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Methods: This is a retrospective review of the outcome of patients with typical carcinoid (TC) and atypical carcinoid (AC), treated with 177Lu-DOTATATE at 2 ENETS Centers of Excellence. Morphologic imaging (RECIST 1.1) and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT responses were assessed at 3 mo after completion of 177Lu-DOTATATE. Concordance between 2 response assessment methods was evaluated by κ statistics. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared by Log-rank test. Treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were graded based on Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 5. Results: Of 48 patients (median age, 63 y; 13 women), 43 (90%) had AC and 5 (10%) TC. Almost all patients (47, 98%) were treated due to progression. Most patients (40, 83%) received somatostatin analogs, and 10 patients (20%) had prior everolimus, chemotherapy, or both. All patients had high SSR expression (≥ modified Krenning score 3) on pretreatment 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT. Patients received a median 4 (range, 1-4) cycles of 177Lu-DOTATATE (33% with concurrent radiosensitizing chemotherapy) to a median cumulative activity of 27 GBq (range, 6-43GBq). At a median follow-up of 42 mo, the median PFS and OS were 23 mo (95% CI, 18-28 mo) and 59 mo (95% CI, 50-not reached [NR]), respectively. Of 40 patients with RECIST-measurable disease and 39 patients with available 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT, response categories were partial response, 20% (95% CI, 10%-35%) and 44% (95% CI, 30%-59%); stable disease, 68% (95% CI, 52%-80%) and 44% (95% CI, 30%-59%); and progressive disease, 12% (95% CI, 5%-27%) by both, respectively. There was a moderate concordance between response categories by RECIST and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT, weighted κ of 0.51 (95% CI, 0.21-0.68). Of patients with stable disease by RECIST, those with partial response on 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT had a longer OS than those with no response, NR versus 52 mo (95% CI, 28-64), hazard ratio 0.2 (95% CI, 0.1-0.6), P < 0.001. Most grade 3/4 AEs were reversible and the most common was lymphopenia (14%) with no incidence of myelodysplasia or leukemia. Conclusion: In patients with advanced progressive lung NET and satisfactory SSR expression, 177Lu-DOTATATE is effective and safe with a high disease control rate and encouraging PFS and OS.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Neuroendocrine Tumors/radiotherapy , Octreotide/analogs & derivatives , Organometallic Compounds/therapeutic use , Radiopharmaceuticals/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroendocrine Tumors/diagnostic imaging , Neuroendocrine Tumors/mortality , Octreotide/adverse effects , Octreotide/therapeutic use , Organometallic Compounds/adverse effects , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Retrospective Studies
15.
Curr Treat Options Oncol ; 22(4): 28, 2021 02 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641079

ABSTRACT

OPINION STATEMENT: DIPNECH is caused by an idiopathic proliferation of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells which can lead to bronchiolitis and multifocal lung neuroendocrine tumors. Patients often present with chronic cough and dyspnea. Larger NETs may develop malignant potential. Somatostatin analogs can palliate chronic symptoms, particularly cough. Surgical resection can be considered for relatively large (e.g. >1 cm), progressive tumors.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Neuroendocrine Tumors/diagnosis , Neuroendocrine Tumors/therapy , Biopsy , Clinical Decision-Making , Combined Modality Therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/etiology , Neoplasm Staging , Neuroendocrine Tumors/etiology , Solitary Pulmonary Nodule/diagnosis , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
16.
EJNMMI Phys ; 8(1): 13, 2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Image quality and quantitative accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET) depend on several factors such as uptake time, scanner characteristics and image reconstruction methods. Ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) is considered the gold standard for image reconstruction. Penalized-likelihood estimation (PL) algorithms have been recently developed for PET reconstruction to improve quantitation accuracy while maintaining or even improving image quality. In PL algorithms, a regularization parameter ß controls the penalization of relative differences between neighboring pixels and determines image characteristics. In the present study, we aim to compare the performance of Q.Clear (PL algorithm, GE Healthcare) and OSEM (3 iterations, 8 subsets, 6-mm post-processing filter) for 68Ga-DOTATATE (68Ga-DOTA) PET studies, both visually and quantitatively. Thirty consecutive whole-body 68Ga-DOTA studies were included. The data were acquired in list mode and were reconstructed using 3D OSEM and Q.Clear with various values of ß and various acquisition times per bed position (bp), thus generating images with reduced injected dose (1.5 min/bp: ß = 300-1100; 1.0 min/bp: ß = 600-1400 and 0.5 min/bp: ß = 800-2200). An additional analysis adding ß values up to 1500, 1700 and 3000 for 1.5, 1.0 and 0.5 min/bp, respectively, was performed for a random sample of 8 studies. Evaluation was performed using a phantom and clinical data. Two experienced nuclear medicine physicians blinded to the variables assessed the image quality visually. RESULTS: Clinical images reconstructed with Q.Clear, set at 1.5, 1.0 and 0.5 min/bp using ß = 1100, 1300 and 3000, respectively, resulted in images with noise equivalence to 3D OSEM (1.5 min/bp) with a mean increase in SUVmax of 14%, 13% and 4%, an increase in SNR of 30%, 24% and 10%, and an increase in SBR of 13%, 13% and 2%. Visual assessment yielded similar results for ß values of 1100-1400 and 1300-1600 for 1.5 and 1.0 min/bp, respectively, although for 0.5 min/bp there was no significant improvement compared to OSEM. CONCLUSION: 68Ga-DOTA reconstructions with Q.Clear, 1.5 and 1.0 min/bp, resulted in increased tumor SUVmax and in improved SNR and SBR at a similar level of noise compared to 3D OSEM. Q.Clear with ß = 1300-1600 enables one-third reduction of acquisition time or injected dose, with similar image quality compared to 3D OSEM.

17.
Endocr Pract ; 26(10): 1131-1142, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471715

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome is a rare and complex disease. In 1996, we described a 3 generation VHL 2A kindred with 11 mutation carriers. We aim to share our experience regarding the long-term follow-up of this family and the management of all our other VHL patients focusing on frequently encountered neuroendocrine neoplasms: pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma and pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNEN). METHODS: All VHL patients in follow-up at our tertiary center from 1980 to 2019 were identified. Clinical, laboratory, imaging, and therapeutic characteristics were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: We identified 32 VHL patients in 16 different families, 7/16 were classified as VHL 2 subtype. In the previously described family, the 4 initially asymptomatic carriers developed a neuroendocrine tumor; 7 new children were born, 3 of them being mutation carriers; 2 patients died, 1 due to metastatic PNEN-related liver failure. Pheochromocytoma was frequent (22/32), bilateral (13/22;59%), often diagnosed in early childhood when active screening was timely performed, associated with paraganglioma in 5/22, rarely malignant (1/22), and recurred after surgery in some cases after more than 20 years. PNEN occurred in 8/32 patients (25%), and was metastatic in 3 patients. Surgery and palliative therapy allowed relatively satisfactory outcomes. Severe disabling morbidities due to central-nervous system and ophthalmologic hemangiomas, and other rare tumors as chondrosarcoma in 2 patients and polycythemia in 1 patient were observed. CONCLUSION: A multidisciplinary approach and long-term follow-up is mandatory in VHL patients to manage the multiple debilitating morbidities and delay mortality in these complex patients.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Pancreatic Neoplasms , von Hippel-Lindau Disease , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/epidemiology , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neuroendocrine Tumors/epidemiology , Neuroendocrine Tumors/therapy , Pancreatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein , von Hippel-Lindau Disease/epidemiology , von Hippel-Lindau Disease/genetics
18.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 22(3): 553-561, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443717

ABSTRACT

Carcinoid heart disease (CHD) is a paraneoplastic cardiac manifestation occurring in patients with carcinoid syndrome (CS) and advanced neuroendocrine malignancy. In about 20-40% of patients with CS, chronic exposure to tumor-released circulating vasoactive peptides typically results in right-sided valvular fibrosis leading to valve dysfunction and right heart failure. CHD remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The management of patients with CHD is complex, as both the systemic malignant disease and the heart involvement have to be addressed. Early diagnosis and timely surgical intervention in selected patients are of utmost importance and offer a survival benefit. In patients with advanced carcinoid heart disease, valve replacement surgery is the most effective option to alleviate cardiac symptoms and contribute to survival outcomes. A collaboration of a multidisciplinary team in centers with experience is required to provide optimal patient management. Here, we review the current literature regarding CHD presentation, pathophysiology, diagnostic tools, and available treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
Carcinoid Heart Disease , Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome , Carcinoid Heart Disease/diagnosis , Carcinoid Heart Disease/etiology , Carcinoid Heart Disease/therapy , Humans
19.
Eur J Cancer ; 144: 200-214, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370645

ABSTRACT

Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogeneous family of uncommon tumours with challenging diagnosis, clinical management and unique needs that almost always requires a multidisciplinary approach. In the absence of guidance from the scientific literature, along with the rapidly changing data available on the effect of COVID-19, we report how 12 high-volume NEN centres of expertise in 10 countries at different stages of the evolving COVID-19 global pandemic along with members of international neuroendocrine cancer patient societies have suggested to preserve high standards of care for patients with NENs. We review the multidisciplinary management of neuroendocrine neoplasms during the COVID-19 pandemic, and we suggest potential strategies to reduce risk and aid multidisciplinary treatment decision-making. By sharing our joint experiences, we aim to generate recommendations for proceeding to other institutions facing the same challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoid Tumor/therapy , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/therapy , Medical Oncology/standards , Pancreatic Neoplasms/therapy , Thoracic Neoplasms/therapy , Carcinoid Tumor/diagnosis , Consensus , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Humans , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thoracic Neoplasms/diagnosis
20.
Endocrine ; 72(1): 279-286, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175321

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) differ in their biological behavior and growth potential in a way that can be predicted using histological classification and grading systems. A subset of pancreatic NENs (pNENs) may develop a more aggressive phenotype during the course of the disease, associated with an increase in the Ki-67 proliferation index (PI). The purpose of the study was to present the clinical characteristics of these patients. METHODS: Using re-biopsy of growing lesions, we investigated the increase in Ki-67 PI sufficient to change initial grading (G). RESULTS: Of 264 patients with well differentiated (WD) pNENs who showed progressive disease during follow-up, 15 (6%) exhibited an increase in Ki-67 PI at a median time 36.8 (9.3-255.8) months. All neoplasms had WD-morphology: five had G1 (Ki-67 median value 1%), nine G2 (median value 5%), one G3 (25%) grades. Upon change of Ki-67 PI, 3 patients had G2 (8%) and 12 G3 (57.5%) NENs, while all retained their WD-morphology. At last follow-up, eight patients were alive with a median overall survival (OS) of 52.5 (9.5-264.3) months. Μedian OS was shorter in patients who had a change in Ki-67 PI before 36 months compared to those who had a change of Ki-67 PI at a later stage (27.5 95%CI: 11.88-43.06 vs. 120.87 95%CI: 96.05-145.69; log-rank p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: During the course of their disease, 6% patients with progressive pNENs develop an increase in Ki-67 PI resulting in an increase in grading status while maintaining their morphology. This process is associated with worse OS when it occurs at an early stage.


Subject(s)
Neuroendocrine Tumors , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Ki-67 Antigen , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Staging , Neuroendocrine Tumors/pathology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis
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