Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 32
Filter
1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332881

ABSTRACT

Summary SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies play a critical role for protection and treatment of COVID-19. Viral antibody evasion therefore threatens essential prophylactic and therapeutic measures. The high number of mutations in the Omicron BA.1 sublineage results in markedly reduced neutralization susceptibility. Consistently, Omicron is associated with lower vaccine effectiveness and a high re-infection rate. Notably, newly emerging Omicron sublineages (BA.1.1, BA.2) have rapidly become dominant. Here, we determine polyclonal serum activity against BA.1, BA.1.1 and BA.2 in 50 convalescent or vaccinated individuals as well as delineate antibody sensitivities on a monoclonal level using 163 antibodies. Our study reveals a significant but comparable reduction of serum activity against Omicron sublineages which markedly increases after booster immunization. However, notable differences in sensitivity to individual antibodies demonstrate distinct escape patterns of BA.1 and BA.2 that also affect antibodies in clinical use. The results have strong implications for vaccination strategies and antibody use in prophylaxis and therapy.

2.
iScience ; 25(3): 103951, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747872

ABSTRACT

Preexisting immunity against SARS-CoV-2 may have critical implications for our understanding of COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. The presence and clinical relevance of a preexisting B cell immunity remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of the B cell immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in unexposed individuals. To this end, we extensively investigated SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity in 150 adults sampled pre-pandemically. Comprehensive screening of donor plasma and purified IgG samples for binding and neutralization in various functional assays revealed no substantial activity against SARS-CoV-2 but broad reactivity to endemic betacoronaviruses. Moreover, we analyzed antibody sequences of 8,174 putatively SARS-CoV-2-reactive B cells at a single cell level and generated and tested 158 monoclonal antibodies. None of these antibodies displayed relevant binding or neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2. Taken together, our results show no evidence of competent preexisting antibody and B cell immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in unexposed adults.

3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(5)2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731731

ABSTRACT

To determine neutralizing activity against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 ancestral strain and 4 variants of concern, we tested serum from 30 persons with breakthrough infection after 2-dose vaccination. Cross-variant neutralizing activity was comparable to that after 3-dose vaccination. Shorter intervals between vaccination and breakthrough infection correlated with lower neutralizing titers.

5.
Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1695511

ABSTRACT

Background Rapid antigen detection tests (RADT) are commonly used as SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic tests both by medical professionals and laypeople. However, the performance of RADT in vaccinated individuals has not been fully investigated. Objectives RT-qPCR and rapid antigen detection testing were performed to evaluate the performance of the Standard Q COVID-19 Ag Test in detecting SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections in vaccinated individuals. Study design Two swab specimens, one for RT-qPCR and one for RADT, were collected from vaccinated individuals in an outpatient clinic. For comparison of RADT performance in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, a dataset already published by this group was used as reference. Results A total of 696 samples were tested with both RT-qPCR and RADT that included 692 (99.4%) samples from vaccinated individuals. Of these, 76 (11.0%) samples were detected SARS-CoV-2 positive by RT-qPCR and 45 (6.5%) samples by the Standard Q COVID-19 Ag test. Stratified by Ct values, sensitivity of the RADT was 100.0%, 94.4% and 81.1% for Ct ≤ 20 (n=18), Ct ≤ 25 (n=36) and Ct ≤ 30 (n=53), respectively. Samples with Ct values ≥ 30 (n=23) were not detected. Overall RADT specificity was 99.7% and symptom status did not affect RADT performance. Notably, RADT detected 4 out of 4 samples of probable Omicron variant infection based on single nucleotide polymorphism analysis. Conclusion Our results show that RADT testing remains a valuable tool in detecting breakthrough infections with high viral RNA loads.

6.
J Clin Virol ; 148: 105119, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid antigen detection tests (RADT) are commonly used as SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic tests both by medical professionals and laypeople. However, the performance of RADT in vaccinated individuals has not been fully investigated. OBJECTIVES: RT-qPCR and rapid antigen detection testing were performed to evaluate the performance of the Standard Q COVID-19 Ag Test in detecting SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections in vaccinated individuals. STUDY DESIGN: Two swab specimens, one for RT-qPCR and one for RADT, were collected from vaccinated individuals in an outpatient clinic. For comparison of RADT performance in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, a dataset already published by this group was used as reference. RESULTS: During the delta wave, a total of 696 samples were tested with both RT-qPCR and RADT that included 692 (99.4%) samples from vaccinated individuals. Of these, 76 (11.0%) samples were detected SARS-CoV-2 positive by RT-qPCR and 45 (6.5%) samples by the Standard Q COVID-19 Ag test. Stratified by Ct values, sensitivity of the RADT was 100.0%, 94.4% and 81.1% for Ct ≤ 20 (n=18), Ct ≤ 25 (n=36) and Ct ≤ 30 (n=53), respectively. Samples with Ct values ≥ 30 (n=23) were not detected. Overall RADT specificity was 99.7% and symptom status did not affect RADT performance. Notably, RADT detected 4 out of 4 samples of probable Omicron variant infection based on single nucleotide polymorphism analysis. CONCLUSION: Our results show that RADT testing remains a valuable tool in detecting breakthrough infections with high viral RNA loads.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , COVID-19 , Vaccination , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322700

ABSTRACT

Innate immunity triggers responsible for viral control or hyperinflammation in COVID- 19 are largely unknown. Here we show that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein primes inflammasome activation and interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β) secretion in macrophages derived from COVID-19 patients but not in macrophages from healthy SARS-CoV-2 naïve controls. Chemical NLRP3 inhibition blocks spike protein-induced IL-1β secretion ex vivo . These findings can accelerate research on COVID-19 vaccine design and drug treatment.

8.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327374

ABSTRACT

Elderly individuals are at high risk for severe COVID-19. Due to modest vaccine responses compared to younger individuals and the time elapsed since prioritized vaccinations, the emerging immune-evasive Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 is a particular concern for the elderly. Here we longitudinally determined SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing serum activity against different variants in a cohort of 37 individuals with a median age of 82 years. Participants were followed for 10 months after an initial two-dose BNT162b2 vaccination and up to 4.5 months after a BNT162b2 booster. Detectable Omicron-neutralizing activity was nearly absent after two vaccinations but elicited in 89% of individuals by the booster immunization. Neutralizing titers against the Wu01, Delta, and Omicron variants showed similar post-boost declines and 81% of individuals maintained detectable activity against Omicron. Our study demonstrates the mRNA booster effectiveness in inducing anti-Omicron activity and provides critical information on vaccine response durability in the highly vulnerable elderly population.

10.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(1): 69-82.e10, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638702

ABSTRACT

A fraction of COVID-19 convalescent individuals mount a potent antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 with cross-reactivity to SARS-CoV-1. To uncover their humoral response in detail, we performed single B cell analysis from 10 SARS-CoV-2 elite neutralizers. We isolated and analyzed 126 monoclonal antibodies, many of which were sarbecovirus cross-reactive, with some displaying merbecovirus- and embecovirus-reactivity. Several isolated broadly neutralizing antibodies were effective against B.1.1.7, B.1.351, B.1.429, B.1.617, and B.1.617.2 variants and 19 prominent potential escape sites. Furthermore, assembly of 716,806 SARS-CoV-2 sequences predicted emerging escape variants, which were also effectively neutralized. One of these broadly neutralizing potent antibodies, R40-1G8, is a IGHV3-53 RBD-class-1 antibody. Remarkably, cryo-EM analysis revealed that R40-1G8 has a flexible binding mode, targeting both "up" and "down" conformations of the RBD. Given the threat of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, we demonstrate that elite neutralizers are a valuable source for isolating ultrapotent antibody candidates to prevent and treat SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
11.
Nat Med ; 28(3): 477-480, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632860

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 is causing a rapid increase in infections across the globe. This new variant of concern carries an unusually high number of mutations in key epitopes of neutralizing antibodies on the viral spike glycoprotein, suggesting potential immune evasion. Here we assessed serum neutralizing capacity in longitudinal cohorts of vaccinated and convalescent individuals, as well as monoclonal antibody activity against Omicron using pseudovirus neutralization assays. We report a near-complete lack of neutralizing activity against Omicron in polyclonal sera from individuals vaccinated with two doses of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine and from convalescent individuals, as well as resistance to different monoclonal antibodies in clinical use. However, mRNA booster immunizations in vaccinated and convalescent individuals resulted in a significant increase of serum neutralizing activity against Omicron. This study demonstrates that booster immunizations can critically improve the humoral immune response against the Omicron variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 798276, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606542

ABSTRACT

Effects of initiation of programmed-death-protein 1 (PD1) blockade during active SARS-CoV-2 infection on antiviral immunity, COVID-19 course, and underlying malignancy are unclear. We report on the management of a male in his early 40s presenting with highly symptomatic metastatic lung cancer and active COVID-19 pneumonia. After treatment initiation with pembrolizumab, carboplatin, and pemetrexed, the respiratory situation initially worsened and high-dose corticosteroids were initiated due to suspected pneumonitis. After improvement and SARS-CoV-2 clearance, anti-cancer treatment was resumed without pembrolizumab. Immunological analyses with comparison to otherwise healthy SARS-CoV-2-infected ambulatory patients revealed a strong humoral immune response with higher levels of SARS-CoV-2-reactive IgG and neutralizing serum activity. Additionally, sustained increase of Tfh as well as activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was observed. Sequential CT scans showed regression of tumor lesions and marked improvement of the pulmonary situation, with no signs of pneumonitis after pembrolizumab re-challenge as maintenance. At the latest follow-up, the patient is ambulatory and in ongoing partial remission on pembrolizumab. In conclusion, anti-PD1 initiation during active COVID-19 pneumonia was feasible and cellular and humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 appeared enhanced in our hospitalized patient. However, distinguishing COVID-19-associated changes from anti-PD1-associated immune-related pneumonitis posed a considerable clinical, radiographic, and immunologic challenge.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/immunology , Male , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Pneumonia/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
13.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(11): 1255-1265, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heterologous vaccine regimens have been widely discussed as a way to mitigate intermittent supply shortages and to improve immunogenicity and safety of COVID-19 vaccines. We aimed to assess the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of heterologous immunisations with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK) and BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNtech, Mainz, Germany) compared with homologous BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCov-19 immunisation. METHODS: This is an interim analysis of a prospective observational cohort study enrolling health-care workers in Berlin (Germany) who received either homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 or heterologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 vaccination with a 10-12-week vaccine interval or homologous BNT162b2 vaccination with a 3-week vaccine interval. We assessed reactogenicity after the first and second vaccination by use of electronic questionnaires on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Immunogenicity was measured by the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies (full spike-IgG, S1-IgG, and RBD-IgG), by an RBD-ACE2 binding inhibition assay (surrogate SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralisation test), a pseudovirus neutralisation assay against two variants of concerns (alpha [B.1.1.7] and beta [B.1.351]), and anti-S1-IgG avidity. T-cell reactivity was measured by IFN-γ release assay. FINDINGS: Between Dec 27, 2020, and June 14, 2021, 380 participants were enrolled in the study, with 174 receiving homologous BNT162b2 vaccination, 38 receiving homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination, and 104 receiving ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 vaccination. Systemic symptoms were reported by 103 (65%, 95% CI 57·1-71·8) of 159 recipients of homologous BNT162b2, 14 (39%, 24·8-55·1) of 36 recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19, and 51 (49%, 39·6-58·5) of 104 recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 after the booster immunisation. Median anti-RBD IgG levels 3 weeks after boost immunisation were 5·4 signal to cutoff ratio (S/co; IQR 4·8-5·9) in recipients of homologous BNT162b2, 4·9 S/co (4·3-5·6) in recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19, and 5·6 S/co (5·1-6·1) in recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19- BNT162b2. Geometric mean of 50% inhibitory dose against alpha and beta variants were highest in recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 (956·6, 95% CI 835·6-1095, against alpha and 417·1, 349·3-498·2, against beta) compared with those in recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (212·5, 131·2-344·4, against alpha and 48·5, 28·4-82·8, against beta; both p<0·0001) or homologous BNT162b2 (369·2, 310·7-438·6, against alpha and 72·4, 60·5-86·5, against beta; both p<0·0001). SARS-CoV-2 S1 T-cell reactivity 3 weeks after boost immunisation was highest in recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 (median IFN-γ concentration 4762 mIU/mL, IQR 2723-8403) compared with that in recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (1061 mIU/mL, 599-2274, p<0·0001) and homologous BNT162b2 (2026 mIU/mL, 1459-4621, p=0·0008) vaccination. INTERPRETATION: The heterologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 immunisation with 10-12-week interval, recommended in Germany, is well tolerated and improves immunogenicity compared with homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination with 10-12-week interval and BNT162b2 vaccination with 3-week interval. Heterologous prime-boost immunisation strategies for COVID-19 might be generally applicable. FUNDING: Forschungsnetzwerk der Universitätsmedizin zu COVID-19, the German Ministry of Education and Research, Zalando SE.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Germany , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Neutralization Tests , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296695

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 is causing a rapid increase in infections in various countries. This new variant of concern carries an unusually high number of mutations in key epitopes of neutralizing antibodies on the spike glycoprotein, suggesting potential immune evasion. Here we assessed serum neutralizing capacity in longitudinal cohorts of vaccinated and convalescent individuals, as well as monoclonal antibody activity against Omicron using pseudovirus neutralization assays. We report a near-complete lack of neutralizing activity against Omicron in polyclonal sera after two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine, in convalescent individuals, as well as resistance to different monoclonal antibodies in clinical use. However, mRNA booster immunizations in vaccinated and convalescent individuals resulted in a significant increase of serum neutralizing activity against Omicron. Our study demonstrates that booster immunizations will be critical to substantially improve the humoral immune response against the Omicron variant.

15.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295190

ABSTRACT

The identification and isolation of highly infectious SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals is an important public health strategy. Rapid antigen detection tests (RADT) are promising candidates for large-scale screenings due to timely results and feasibility for on-site testing. Nonetheless, the diagnostic performance of RADT in detecting infectious individuals is yet to be fully determined. Two combined oro- and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from individuals at a routine SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic center. Side-by-side evaluations of RT-qPCR and RADT as well as live virus cultures of positive samples were performed to determine the sensitivity of the Standard Q COVID-19 Ag Test (SD Biosensor/Roche) in detecting SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals with cultivable virus. A total of 2,028 samples were tested and 118 virus cultures inoculated. SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected in 210 samples by RT-qPCR, representing a positive rate of 10.36%. The Standard Q COVID-19 Ag Test yielded a positive result in 92 (4.54%) samples resulting in an overall sensitivity and specificity of 42.86% and 99.89%. For adjusted Ct values <20, <25, and <30 the RADT reached sensitivities of 100%, 98.15%, and 88.64%, respectively. All 29 culture positive samples were detected by RADT. While overall sensitivity was low, Standard Q COVID-19 RADT reliably detected patients with high RNA loads. Additionally, negative RADT results fully corresponded with the lack of viral cultivability in Vero E6 cells. These results indicate that RADT can be a valuable tool for the detection of individuals that are likely to transmit SARS-CoV-2. RADT testing could therefore guide public health testing strategies to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.

17.
J Clin Virol ; 145: 105018, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487824

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The global spread of SARS-CoV-2 is a serious public health issue. Large-scale surveillance screenings are crucial but can exceed test capacities. We (A) optimized test conditions and (B) implemented pool testing of respiratory swabs into SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics. STUDY DESIGN: (A) We determined the optimal pooling strategy and pool size. In addition, we measured the impact of vortexing prior to sample processing, compared a pipette-pooling method (by combining transport medium of several specimens) and a swab-pooling method (by combining several swabs into a test tube filled with PBS) as well as determined the sensitivities of three PCR assays. (B) Finally, we applied high-throughput pool testing for diagnostics. RESULTS: (A) In a low prevalence setting, we defined a preferable pool size of ten in a two-stage hierarchical pool testing strategy. Vortexing of swabs (n = 33) increased cellular yield by a factor of 2.34. By comparing Ct-values of 16 pools generated with two different pooling strategies, pipette-pooling was more efficient compared to swab-pooling. Measuring dilution series of 20 SARS-CoV-2 positive samples in three PCR assays simultaneously revealed detection rates of 85% (assay I), 50% (assay II), and 95% (assay III) at a 1:100 dilution. (B) We systematically pooled 55,690 samples in a period of 44 weeks resulting in a reduction of 47,369 PCR reactions. CONCLUSIONS: For implementing pooling strategies into high-throughput diagnostics, we recommend utilizing a pipette-pooling method, performing sensitivity validation of the PCR assays used, and vortexing swabs prior to analyses. Pool testing for SARS-CoV-2 detection is feasible and effective in a low prevalence setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , RNA, Viral , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling
18.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(9): e0089621, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365131

ABSTRACT

The identification and isolation of highly infectious SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals is an important public health strategy. Rapid antigen detection tests (RADT) are promising tools for large-scale screenings due to timely results and feasibility for on-site testing. Nonetheless, the diagnostic performance of RADT in detecting infectious individuals is not yet fully determined. In this study, RT-qPCR and virus culture of RT-qPCR-positive samples were used to evaluate and compare the performance of the Standard Q COVID-19 Ag test in detecting SARS-CoV-2-infected and possibly infectious individuals. To this end, two combined oro- and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected at a routine SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic center. A total of 2,028 samples were tested, and 118 virus cultures were inoculated. SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected in 210 samples by RT-qPCR, representing a positive rate of 10.36%. The Standard Q COVID-19 Ag test yielded a positive result in 92 (4.54%) samples resulting in an overall sensitivity and specificity of 42.86 and 99.89%, respectively. For adjusted CT values of <20 (n = 14), <25 (n = 57), and <30 (n = 88), the RADT reached sensitivities of 100, 98.25, and 88.64%, respectively. All 29 culture-positive samples were detected by the RADT. Although the overall sensitivity was low, the Standard Q COVID-19 Ag test reliably detected patients with high RNA loads. In addition, negative RADT results fully corresponded with the lack of viral cultivability in Vero E6 cells. These results indicate that RADT can be a valuable tool for the detection of individuals with high RNA loads that are likely to transmit SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355051

ABSTRACT

In May 2021, the Alpha variant (B.1.1.7) of SARS-CoV-2 was found in 91% of the SARS-CoV-2 cases in Germany. Not much is known about the symptoms, courses of disease, and infectiousness in pediatric patients with the Alpha variant. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this retrospective analysis was to gain information on the infection with the Alpha variant in children and adolescents. METHODS: Between 12 January 2021 and 3 June 2021, all nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) of children who received a swab for SARS-CoV-2 were included. Data were collected on standardized questionnaires. The analysis of data was anonymized and retrospective. RESULTS: We investigated 3544 NAATs; 95 children were tested positive (2.7%) for SARS-CoV-2. For the sub-analysis, 65 children were analyzed. In 59 children, the Alpha variant was found (90.8%), and 54.2% (n = 32/59) were symptomatic. The most common symptoms were fever, cough, and rhinitis. The median Ct value was 24.0 (min 17.0; max 32.7). CONCLUSIONS: We can underline early findings that children are still less effected by SARS-CoV-2 infection with the spread of the Alpha variant. We found no evidence that children infected with the Alpha variant showed more severe symptoms or suffered from a more severe clinical course than those infected with the wild type.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough , Fever , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Mutation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
20.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335231

ABSTRACT

Despite the recent availability of vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), there is an urgent need for specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs. Monoclonal neutralizing antibodies are an important drug class in the global fight against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic due to their ability to convey immediate protection and their potential to be used as both prophylactic and therapeutic drugs. Clinically used neutralizing antibodies against respiratory viruses are currently injected intravenously, which can lead to suboptimal pulmonary bioavailability and thus to a lower effectiveness. Here we describe DZIF-10c, a fully human monoclonal neutralizing antibody that binds the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. DZIF-10c displays an exceptionally high neutralizing potency against SARS-CoV-2, retains full activity against the variant of concern (VOC) B.1.1.7 and still neutralizes the VOC B.1.351, although with reduced potency. Importantly, not only systemic but also intranasal application of DZIF-10c abolished the presence of infectious particles in the lungs of SARS-CoV-2 infected mice and mitigated lung pathology when administered prophylactically. Along with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile, these results highlight DZIF-10c as a novel human SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody with high in vitro and in vivo antiviral potency. The successful intranasal application of DZIF-10c paves the way for clinical trials investigating topical delivery of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL