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2.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S97-S98, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564076

ABSTRACT

Background With the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, pediatric primary care delivery changed rapidly. Prior studies have demonstrated a reduction in ambulatory encounters and antibiotic prescriptions with the pandemic onset;however, the durability of these reductions in pediatric primary care in the United States has not been assessed. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated public health measures (e.g. social distancing, masking, school closures, and increased availability of telemedicine) on antibiotic prescribing and encounter volume in 27 pediatric primary care practices, and the duration of these changes. Patients under age 19 with an encounter from January 1, 2018 through December 31, 2020 were included. The primary outcome was monthly antibiotic prescriptions per 1000 patients, in the overall population and a subset of encounters with infectious diagnoses, including respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Interrupted time series (ITS) analysis was performed. Results There were 60,562 total antibiotic prescriptions from April to December in 2019 and 14,605 antibiotic prescriptions during the same months in 2020, a 76% reduction. The reduction in RTI encounter prescriptions accounted for 91.5% of the overall reduction in prescriptions from 2019 to 2020. Using ITS analysis, there was an immediate decrease from 31.6 to 7.4 prescriptions/1000 patients (predicted means) in April 2020 (-24.2 prescriptions/1000 patients;95% CI: -31.9, -16.4) (Figures 1 and 2). This was followed by a stable rate of antibiotic prescriptions that remained flat through December 2020. For RTI encounters, a similar pattern was seen, with a decrease by 21.8 prescriptions/1000 patients;95% CI: -29.5, -14.2) (Figures 1 and 2). Encounter volume also decreased immediately, and while overall encounter volume began returning to a pre-pandemic baseline volume toward the end of the study period, RTI encounter volume remained persistently lower through December 2020 (Figure 3). Figure 1. Antibiotic prescriptions per 1000 patients prescribed by month from January 2018 to December 2020, overall and for disease-specific subgroups RTI = respiratory tract infection;UTI = urinary tract infection;SSTI = skin and soft tissue infection. Months are numbered sequentially, starting with January (number 1). Dashed line indicates first full month of the pandemic, April 2020. Interrupted time series analysis for antibiotic prescriptions per 1000 patients by month from January 2018 to December 2020 for (A) all antibiotics as well as antibiotics prescribed at encounters with (B) respiratory tract infections (RTIs), (C) urinary tract infections (UTIs), and (D) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) Intervention starts in April 2020 (dashed line). Months are numbered sequentially, starting with January (number 1). Dashed line indicates first full month of the pandemic, April 2020. Antibiotic prescriptions per 1000 billed encounters by month from January 2018 to December 2020 for (A) all encounters, as well as antibiotics prescribed at encounters with (B) respiratory tract infections (RTIs), (C) urinary tract infections (UTIs), and (D) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) Months are numbered sequentially, starting with January (number 1). Conclusion Dramatic reductions in antibiotic prescribing in pediatric primary care during the COVID-19 pandemic were sustained through 2020, primarily driven by reductions in RTI encounters. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381427

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has had a disproportionate impact on Black, Hispanic, and other individuals of color, although data on the effect of a person's language on SARS-CoV-2 infection are limited. Considering the barriers suffered by immigrants and non-English-speaking families, we tested whether children with a preferred language other than English was associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Children from families with a preferred language other than English had a higher predicted probability of SARS-CoV-2 test positivity (adjusted odds ratio, 3.76; 95% CI, 2.07-6.67) during the first wave of the pandemic. This discrepancy continued into the second wave (adjusted odds ratio, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.10-2.41), although the difference compared with families who prefer to speak English decreased over time. These findings suggest that children from non-English-speaking families are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and efforts to reverse systemic inequities causing this increased risk are needed.

4.
Methods Inf Med ; 60(1-02): 32-48, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The electronic health record (EHR) has become increasingly ubiquitous. At the same time, health professionals have been turning to this resource for access to data that is needed for the delivery of health care and for clinical research. There is little doubt that the EHR has made both of these functions easier than earlier days when we relied on paper-based clinical records. Coupled with modern database and data warehouse systems, high-speed networks, and the ability to share clinical data with others are large number of challenges that arguably limit the optimal use of the EHR OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to provide an exhaustive reference for those who use the EHR in clinical and research contexts, but also for health information systems professionals as they design, implement, and maintain EHR systems. METHODS: This study includes a panel of 24 biomedical informatics researchers, information technology professionals, and clinicians, all of whom have extensive experience in design, implementation, and maintenance of EHR systems, or in using the EHR as clinicians or researchers. All members of the panel are affiliated with Penn Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and have experience with a variety of different EHR platforms and systems and how they have evolved over time. RESULTS: Each of the authors has shared their knowledge and experience in using the EHR in a suite of 20 short essays, each representing a specific challenge and classified according to a functional hierarchy of interlocking facets such as usability and usefulness, data quality, standards, governance, data integration, clinical care, and clinical research. CONCLUSION: We provide here a set of perspectives on the challenges posed by the EHR to clinical and research users.


Subject(s)
Electronic Health Records , Health Information Systems , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans
5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(10): 3378-3387.e11, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-773574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused dramatic changes in daily routines and health care utilization and delivery patterns in the United States. Understanding the influence of these changes and associated public health interventions on asthma care is important to determine effects on patient outcomes and identify measures that will ensure optimal future health care delivery. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify changes in pediatric asthma-related health care utilization, respiratory viral testing, and air pollution during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: For the time period January 17 to May 17, 2015 to 2020, asthma-related encounters and weekly summaries of respiratory viral testing data were extracted from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia electronic health records, and pollution data for 4 criteria air pollutants were extracted from AirNow. Changes in encounter characteristics, viral testing patterns, and air pollution before and after Mar 17, 2020, the date public health interventions to limit viral transmission were enacted in Philadelphia, were assessed and compared with data from 2015 to 2019 as a historical reference. RESULTS: After March 17, 2020, in-person asthma encounters decreased by 87% (outpatient) and 84% (emergency + inpatient). Video telemedicine, which was not previously available, became the most highly used asthma encounter modality (61% of all visits), and telephone encounters increased by 19%. Concurrently, asthma-related systemic steroid prescriptions and frequency of rhinovirus test positivity decreased, although air pollution levels did not substantially change, compared with historical trends. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic in Philadelphia was accompanied by changes in pediatric asthma health care delivery patterns, including reduced admissions and systemic steroid prescriptions. Reduced rhinovirus infections may have contributed to these patterns.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Child Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/diagnosis , Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Asthma/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Coronaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Nitrogen Dioxide , Ozone , Pandemics/prevention & control , Paramyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Particulate Matter , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Telephone , Videoconferencing
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