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1.
J Clin Virol ; 145: 105024, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After receiving a COVID-19 vaccine, most recipients want to know if they are protected from infection and for how long. Since neutralizing antibodies are a correlate of protection, we developed a lateral flow assay (LFA) that measures levels of neutralizing antibodies from a drop of blood. The LFA is based on the principle that neutralizing antibodies block binding of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). METHODS: The ability of the LFA was assessed to correctly measure neutralization of sera, plasma or whole blood from patients with COVID-19 using SARS-CoV-2 microneutralization assays. We also determined if the LFA distinguished patients with seasonal respiratory viruses from patients with COVID-19. To demonstrate the usefulness of the LFA, we tested previously infected and non-infected COVID-19 vaccine recipients at baseline and after first and second vaccine doses. RESULTS: The LFA compared favorably with SARS-CoV-2 microneutralization assays with an area under the ROC curve of 98%. Sera obtained from patients with seasonal coronaviruses did not show neutralizing activity in the LFA. After a single mRNA vaccine dose, 87% of previously infected individuals demonstrated high levels of neutralizing antibodies. However, if individuals were not previously infected, only 24% demonstrated high levels of neutralizing antibodies after one vaccine dose. A second dose boosted neutralizing antibody levels just 8% higher in previously infected individuals, but over 63% higher in non-infected individuals. CONCLUSIONS: A rapid, semi-quantitative, highly portable and inexpensive neutralizing antibody test might be useful for monitoring rise and fall in vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Point-of-Care Testing , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Synthetic
2.
J Proteome Res ; 20(7): 3404-3413, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253877

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection has become a major public health burden and affects many organs including lungs, kidneys, the liver, and the brain. Although the virus is readily detected and diagnosed using nasopharyngeal swabs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), detection of its presence in body fluids is fraught with difficulties. A number of published studies have failed to detect viral RNA by RT-PCR methods in urine. Although microbial identification in clinical microbiology using mass spectrometry is undertaken after culture, here we undertook a mass spectrometry-based approach that employed an enrichment step to capture and detect SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein directly from urine of COVID-19 patients without any culture. We detected SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein-derived peptides from 13 out of 39 urine samples. Further, a subset of COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 negative urine samples validated by mass spectrometry were used for the quantitative proteomics analysis. Proteins with increased abundance in urine of SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals were enriched in the acute phase response, regulation of complement system, and immune response. Notably, a number of renal proteins such as podocin (NPHS2), an amino acid transporter (SLC36A2), and sodium/glucose cotransporter 5 (SLC5A10), which are intimately involved in normal kidney function, were decreased in the urine of COVID-19 patients. Overall, the detection of viral antigens in urine using mass spectrometry and alterations of the urinary proteome could provide insights into understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Body Fluids , COVID-19 , Antigens, Viral , Humans , Immunity , Mass Spectrometry , Phosphoproteins , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(1): 148-151, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014688

ABSTRACT

Community transmission of severe acute respiratory illness Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Arizona was noted in March 2020. It was our hypothesis that the associated implementation of physical distancing and masking led to a decline in circulation and detection of common respiratory viruses. Nasopharyngeal swabs processed with the Biofire, Film Array respiratory panel at Mayo Clinic Arizona were reviewed from January 1, 2017, to July 31, 2020. A total of 13,324 nasopharyngeal swabs were analyzed. Between April and July 2017- 2019 (Period A) a mean of 262 tests were performed monthly, falling to 128 for the corresponding months of 2020 (Period B). A reduction in the monthly mean number of positive tests (Period A 71.5; Period B 2.8) and mean positivity rate (Period A 25.04%; Period B 2.07%) was observed. Rhinovirus/enterovirus was the most prevalent virus, with a monthly mean of 21.6 cases (30.2% of positives) for Period A and 2 cases (72.7% of positives) for Period B. Positivity for a second virus occurred in a mean of 2.1 positive tests (3.3%) in Period A but was absent in Period B. Implementation of distancing and masking coincides with a marked reduction in respiratory virus detection and likely circulation. Data from the fall/winter of 2020 will help clarify the potential role for distancing and masking as a mitigation strategy, not only for SARS-CoV-2 but also in the seasonal battle against common respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Arizona/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 98(3): 115161, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-776481

ABSTRACT

In a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments laboratory setting, we evaluated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG detection with 4 lateral flow immunoassays [LFIAs; 2 iterations from BTNX Inc. (n = 457) and 1 each from ACON Laboratories (n = 200) and SD BIOSENSOR (n = 155)]. In a cohort of primarily hospitalized, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 cases, sensitivity at ≥14 days from symptom onset was: BTNX kit 1, 95%; BTNX kit 2, 91%; ACON, 95%; and SD, 92%. All assays showed good concordance with the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay at ≥14 days from symptom onset: BTNX kit 1, 99%; BTNX kit 2, 94%; ACON, 99%; and SD, 100%. Specificity, measured using specimens collected prior to SARS-CoV-2 circulation in the United States and "cross-reactivity challenge" specimens, was 98% for BTNX kit 1 and ACON and 100% for BTNX kit 2 and SD. These results suggest that LFIAs may provide adequate results for rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
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