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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 918182, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938654

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To review the association between children's behavioral changes during the restriction due to the pandemic of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the development and progression of myopia. Design: A literature review. Method: We looked for relevant studies related to 1) children's behavioral changes from COVID-19 restriction and 2) children's myopia progression during COVID-19 restriction by using the following keywords. They were "Behavior," "Activity," "COVID-19," "Lockdown," "Restriction," and "Children" for the former; "Myopia," "COVID-19," "Lockdown," "Restriction" for the latter. Titles, abstracts and full texts from the retrieved studies were screened and all relevant data were summarized, analyzed, and discussed. Results: Children were less active and more sedentary during COVID-19 restriction. According to five studies from China and six studies, each from Hong Kong, Spain, Israel, South Korea, Turkey and Taiwan included in our review, all countries without myopia preventive intervention supported the association between the lockdown and myopia progression by means of negative SER change ranging from 0.05-0.6 D, more negative SER change (compared post- to pre-lockdown) ranging from 0.71-0.98 D and more negative rate of SER changes (compared post- to pre-lockdown) ranging from 0.05-0.1 D/month. The reported factor that accelerated myopia is an increase in total near work, while increased outdoor activity is a protective factor against myopia progression. Conclusion: The pandemic of COVID-19 provided an unwanted opportunity to assess the effect of the behavioral changes and myopia in the real world. There is sufficient evidence to support the association between an increase in near work from home confinement or a reduction of outdoor activities and worsening of myopia during the COVID-19 lockdown. The findings from this review of data from the real world may help better understanding of myopia development and progression, which may lead to adjustment of behaviors to prevent myopia and its progression in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myopia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Myopia/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Social Factors
3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(11)2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534172

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: to evaluate whether a set of questions after a routine cataract surgery can predict unexpected findings and avoid an unnecessary follow-up visit. Materials and Methods: single-center, prospective, cohort study included 177 routine cataract surgery cases of two experienced surgeons between November 2019 and December 2020. Inclusion criteria included unremarkable postoperative day one follow-up examination. A set of seven questions regarding complaints with positive or negative answers was presented at the second follow-up visit (PV2)-one week (mean 8.34 ± 1.73 days) after the surgery. The outcome measures were the incidence of unexpected management changes (UMCs) at the PV2 visit (change or addition from a prescribed postoperative drop plan, extra procedures, an urgent referral to an ophthalmologist) and UMCs associations with the answers to a question set. Results: 81.4% of patients had no complaints about postoperative ocular status and answered with negative answers, 18.6% reported one or more complaint (positive answer): dissatisfaction with postoperative visual acuity (6.2%, 11 cases), eye pain (4.0%, 7 cases), increase in floaters after the surgery (4.0%, 7 cases), red eye (4.0%, 7 cases) and others. The prevalence of UMCs at PV2 was 1.7% (3 cases), of which 0.6% (1 case) was the prolonged antibiotic prescription due to conjunctivitis, 0.6% (1 case) was the addition of IOP lowering medication and 0.6% (1 case) was additional medication due to uveitis management. None of the complaints (positive answers) at PV2 were associated with the incidence of UMCs (p > 0.05). Conclusions: there were no associations of UMCs determined with positive answers to the questions. The prediction of UMCs incidence based on the positive answers was not obtained. Thus, we cannot exclude the necessity of a postoperative week one follow-up visit.


Subject(s)
Cataract Extraction , Cataract , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
4.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 33(1): 28-34, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494046

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endophthamitis following intraocular surgery is rare using current antiseptic techniques, such as single application of 5% povidone-iodine to the ocular surface and adjuvant topical or intracameral antibiotics. Challenges remain, however, including increased multidrug-resistant bacterial endophthalmitis, increased fungal endophthalmitis, and the low but nonzero endophthalmitis rate attributable to the typical bacteria that colonize the ocular surface. RECENT FINDINGS: Povidone-iodine has a wide spectrum of activity, including activity against novel pathogens, such as SARS-CoV-2. Povidone-iodine alternatives, such as hypochlorous acid can have significantly less efficacy in vitro against endophthalmitis isolates. Repetitive application of dilute povidone-iodine has an excellent safety profile and strong evidence base for efficacy. SUMMARY: Povidone-iodine is widely available, inexpensive, and commonly used by ophthalmologists. The repetitive application of dilute povidone-iodine is a well studied, well tolerated, and efficacious way to transiently sterilize the ocular surface during intraocular surgery. Additional benefits include activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and lack of inducible resistance.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , COVID-19 , Endophthalmitis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Humans , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Povidone-Iodine , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(1): 133-138, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300682

ABSTRACT

Wanda Blenska (1911-2014), a Polish physician, established a leprosy treatment center in the village of Buluba in Uganda in 1951, which lasted until 1993. Through her efforts, the village for lepers in Buluba, established in 1934, which had previously been a place of isolation conducted by the Little Sisters of St. Francis in Uganda, became such an important leprosy treatment and research center that eventually the facility was able to cooperate with similar centers in India and South Africa. It then became affiliated with research institutes in London and Amsterdam; the Borstel Research Institute near Hamburg, Germany; and the World Health Organization. Blenska developed a working relationship with the government of Uganda and contributed to changes in the government provision of health care for lepers by creating a network of leprosy treatment stations throughout the country. Through her efforts, public health education and leprosy prophylaxis became available for thousands of people, effectively changing the national attitude toward this disease. In 1994, one of the buildings of the St. Francis hospital complex in Buluba was named in her honor (The Wanda Blenska Training Centre).


Subject(s)
Leprosy , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Government , Humans , India , Leprosy/drug therapy , Leprosy/epidemiology , Leprosy/prevention & control , Uganda/epidemiology
6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(6): 2400-2411, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895570

ABSTRACT

We studied sources of variation between countries in per-capita mortality from COVID-19 (caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus). Potential predictors of per-capita coronavirus-related mortality in 200 countries by May 9, 2020 were examined, including age, gender, obesity prevalence, temperature, urbanization, smoking, duration of the outbreak, lockdowns, viral testing, contact-tracing policies, and public mask-wearing norms and policies. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed. In univariate analysis, the prevalence of smoking, per-capita gross domestic product, urbanization, and colder average country temperature were positively associated with coronavirus-related mortality. In a multivariable analysis of 196 countries, the duration of the outbreak in the country, and the proportion of the population aged 60 years or older were positively associated with per-capita mortality, whereas duration of mask-wearing by the public was negatively associated with mortality (all P < 0.001). Obesity and less stringent international travel restrictions were independently associated with mortality in a model which controlled for testing policy. Viral testing policies and levels were not associated with mortality. Internal lockdown was associated with a nonsignificant 2.4% reduction in mortality each week (P = 0.83). The association of contact-tracing policy with mortality was not statistically significant (P = 0.06). In countries with cultural norms or government policies supporting public mask-wearing, per-capita coronavirus mortality increased on average by just 16.2% each week, as compared with 61.9% each week in remaining countries. Societal norms and government policies supporting the wearing of masks by the public, as well as international travel controls, are independently associated with lower per-capita mortality from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Masks/supply & distribution , Pandemics , Quarantine/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Cold Temperature , Comorbidity , Contact Tracing/legislation & jurisprudence , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Linear Models , Multivariate Analysis , Obesity , Physical Distancing , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Smoking/physiopathology , Survival Analysis , Urbanization
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